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Advances in Biofeedstocks and Biofuels, Production Technologies for Biofuels. Volume 2

  • ID: 4331685
  • Book
  • August 2017
  • 256 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

This second volume in the Advances in Biofeedstocks and Biofuels series focuses on the latest and most up-to-date technologies and processes involved in the production of biofuels.

Biofuels production is one of the most extensively studied fields in the energy sector that can provide an alternative energy source and bring the energy industry closer to sustainability. Biomass-based fuel production, or renewable fuels, are becoming increasingly important as a potential solution for man-made climate change, depleted oil reserves, and the dangers involved with hydraulic fracturing (or "fracking"). The price of oil will always be volatile and changeable, and, as long as industry and private citizens around the world need energy, there will be a need for alternative energy sources. The area known as "biofuels and biofeedstocks" is one of the most important and quickly growing pieces of the "energy pie."

Biofuels and biofeedstocks are constantly changing, and new processes are constantly being created, changed, and improved upon. The area is rapidly changing and always innovative. It is important, therefore, that books like the volumes in this series are published and the information widely disseminated to keep the industry informed of the state-of-the-art.

This second volume in the Advances in Biofeedstocks and Biofuels series focuses on the production of biofuel, covering all of the major biofuels, such as biodiesel, biohydrogen, bioethanol, and others. This engaging text touches on all of the most important new processes and technologies, providing the most up-to-date coverage of the science available to industry. It is a must-have for any engineer or scientist working with biofuel technology.

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1 Processing of Bioethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass 1
Rebecca Gunn and Pattanathu K.S.M. Rahman

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Method 3

1.2.1 Pretreatment 3

1.2.2 Saccharification 10

1.2.3 Detoxification 11

1.2.4 Organism Selection 12

1.2.5 Media Composition and Operating Parameters 16

1.2.6 Ethanol Recovery 17

1.3 Discussion 18

References 20

2 A Perspective on Current Technologies Used for Bioethanol Production from Lignocellulosics 25
Archana Mishra and Sanjoy Ghosh

2.1 Introduction 26

2.2 Bioethanol Production from Various Feedstocks 26

2.2.1 Bioethanol Production from Sucrose Based Feedstocks 28

2.2.2 Bioethanol Production from 1st Generation Feedstocks (Starch) 28

2.2.3 Bioethanol Production from 2nd Generation Feedstocks (Lignocellulosic Biomass) 29

2.3 Various Conversion Paths or Technology Routes from Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol 32

2.3.1 Seperate Hydrolysis and Fermentation (SHF) 33 2.3.2 Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) 35

2.3.3 Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation (SSCF) 37

2.3.4 Consolidated Bioprocessing (CBP) or Direct Microbial Conversion (DMC) 37

2.3.5 Thermochemical Conversion Processes or Syngas Platform 40

2.3.5.1 Syngas Catalytic Conversion 41

2.3.5.2 Biological Path or Syngas Fermentation Route 43

2.4 Bioethanol Production Technologies Based on Different Fermentation Modes 46

2.4.1 Batch Fermentation 47

2.4.2 Fed Batch or Semi-Batch Fermentation 48

2.4.3 Continuous Fermentation 49

2.4.4 Fermentation Using Immobilized Cells 50

2.4.5 Fermentation Using Process Stream Recycling 52

2.5 Conclusion and Preferred Technology Route 53 References 56

3 Immobilized Enzyme Technology for Biodiesel Production 67
Sarah M. Meunier, Hamid-Reza Kariminia and Raymond L. Legge

3.1 Introduction 68

3.2 Production of Biodiesel 70

3.3 Immobilized Lipase for Biodiesel Production 71

3.3.1 Enzyme Selection 73

3.3.2 Enzyme Immobilization Methods 79

3.3.3 Reaction Conditions 79

3.4 Reaction Kinetics 89

3.5 Bioreactor Configurations 95

3.6 Conclusions 99

References 100

4 Oleaginous Yeast- A Promising Candidatea for High Quality Biodiesel Production 107
Alok Patel, Parul A Pruthi and Vikas Pruthi

4.1 Introduction 108

4.2 Advantages of Using Biodiesel as Vehicular Fuel 110

4.3 Technical Aspects of Biodiesel Production Using Oleaginous Yeast 111

4.4 Selection of Low-Cost Feedstock for Biodiesel Production 114

4.5 Triacylglycerols (TAGs) Accumulation in Oleaginous Yeasts 117

4.6 Conclusion 120

References 121

5 Current Status of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae in India 129
Vijay Kumar Garlapati, Rakesh Singh Gour, Vipasha Sharma, Lakshmi Shri Roy, Jeevan Kumar Samudrala Prashant, Anil Kant and Rintu Banerjee

5.1 Introduction 130

5.2 Algal Species for Oil Production 132

5.3 Engineering Modifications 132

5.3.1 Production of High Density Cultivated Microalgae 134

5.3.1.1 Cultivation Conditions 134

5.3.1.2 To Get High Lipid Content 135

5.4 Production of Biodiesel 137

5.4.1 Culturing of Microalgae 137

5.4.2 Harvesting 138

5.5 Current Status of Biodiesel Production in India and Abroad 142

5.6 SWOT Analysis of Biofuels in India 147

5.7 Challenges 148

5.8 Conclusions 149

References 149

6 Biobutanol: An Alternative Biofuel 155
Neeraj Mishra and Akhilesh Dubey

6.1 Introduction 156

6.1.1 Advantages of Biobutanol 158

6.2 Biobutanol as Alternative Fuel 159

6.3 Biobutanol Production 161

6.3.1 Steps to Biobutanol Production 163

6.3.2 Directed ABE Fermentation to Butanol 164

6.3.3 Substrates Used for Biobutanol Production 166

6.3.4 Microbial Strains for Biobutanol Production 168

6.3.5 Purification of Biobutanol 169

6.3.5.1 Adsorption for Butanol Recovery 169

6.3.5.2 Membrane Processes for Recovery of Butanol 169

6.3.5.3 Pervaporation for Recovery of Butanol 170

6.3.5.4 Gas Stripping for Recovery of Butanol 170

6.4 Advancements in Biobutanol Production 171

Summary 172

References 173

7 The Production of Biomethane from the Anaerobic Digestion of Microalgae 177
Tom Bishop and Pattanathu K.S.M. Rahman

7.1 Introduction 177

7.2 The Process 179

7.2.1 Selection and Cultivation of Microalgae 180

7.2.2 Pre-Treatment 181

7.2.2.1 Thermal Pre-Treatment 184

7.2.2.2 Mechanical Pre-Treatment 185

7.2.2.3 Chemical Pre-Treatment 185

7.2.2.4 Biological Pre-Treatment 185

7.2.3 Lipid Extraction 185

7.2.4 Digestion 186

7.2.4.1 Inhibition of the Digestion Process 188

7.2.4.2 Ammonia 188

7.2.4.3 Volatile Fatty Acids 188

7.2.4.4 Hydrogen Sulphide 188

7.3 Downstream Processing and Use of Gaseous Products 189

7.3.1 Purification 189

7.3.1.1 Bioscrubbing 189

7.3.1.2 Biotrickling 191

7.3.2 Product Use: Current and Potential 192

7.4 Conclusions 194

References 195

8 Electrohydrogenesis: Energy Efficient and Economical Technology for Biohydrogen Production 201
Pratima Gupta and Piyush Parkhey

8.1 Introduction 202

8.1.1 The Present Energy Scenario 202

8.1.2 Biohydrogen: The Current Status 203

8.1.3 Electrohydrogenesis: Need of the Hour 205

8.2 Microbial Electroytic Cell 206

8.2.1 Working Principle 206

8.2.2 Design 208

8.2.3 Setting up the Reactor 209

8.2.4 Fuelling the MEC Reactor: Substrates 212

8.2.5 Powering the MEC Reactor: Exoelectrogens 214

8.3 Components of a Microbial Electroytic Cell 215

8.3.1 Electrodes: Anode and Cathode 216

8.3.2 Gas Collection Units 218

8.4 Mathematical Expressions and Calculations 222

8.4.1 Hydrogen Yield (YH2) 222

8.4.2 Hydrogen Recovery 224

8.4.3 Energy Efficiency 226

8.5 Challenges and Future Prospects 227

References 230

Index 235

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Lalit Kumar Singh Harcourt Butler Technological Institute Kanpur; Indian Institute of Technology Roorke.

Gaurav Chaudhary Mangalayatan University, Aligarh; Indian Institute of Technology in Roorkee, India.
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