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Empowered Educators in Canada. How High-Performing Systems Shape Teaching Quality. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 4335683
  • Book
  • April 2017
  • Region: Canada
  • 240 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Empowered Educators in Canada is one volume in a series that explores how high-performing educational systems from around the world achieve strong results. The anchor book, Empowered Educators: How High-Performing Systems Shape Teaching Quality Around the World, is written by Linda Darling-Hammond and colleagues, with contributions from the authors of this volume.

Empowered Educators in Canada details the core commonalities that exist across Canada with special emphasis on the localized nature of the systems - a hallmark of Canadian education. Canada boasts a highly educated population, and the provinces/territories truly value education as evidenced by the significant proportion of public funds allocated to schooling.

Operated by the provinces and territories, participation in kindergarten, primary, and secondary education is close to 100% across the nation. In addition to offering traditional academics, secondary education includes opportunities for students to attend technical and vocational programs. To demonstrate exemplary education systems, the authors examine two top-performing jurisdictions, Alberta and Ontario, which have developed strong supports for teacher development.

Canadian teachers are highly qualified, and salary scales in all jurisdictions are typically based on a teacher's level of education and years of experience. While Canada has enjoyed much educational success, the education of First Nations students has historically been one of the country's more controversial and contentious issues.

Overall, Canada is a country that is proud of its education system and places a high value on - and participation in - publicly funded education.

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Foreword vii

Acknowledgments xi

About the Sponsoring Organizations xiii

About the Authors xv

Online Documents and Videos xix

Chapter 1 Education in Canada 1

Overview of Canada 1

Governance of School Systems 5

Organization of the System 6

Primary and Elementary Education (Grades K–8) 6

Secondary Education (Grades 9–12) 7

Separate and Private Schools 7

Educational Funding 7

Student Expenditure 8

Working Conditions 9

Teacher Pay 9

Teaching Time 9

Aboriginal Education 10

Conclusion 11

Chapter 2 Teacher Policies and Practices in Alberta 13

Geography 14

Demographics 14

Inequity for Racial (Visible Minorities) and Aboriginal

Populations 16

Students in Alberta 17

Student Population and Demographics 17

ESL and FNMI Students 19

Social Welfare 19

Student Learning in Alberta 20

Governance, Sociopolitical, and Historical Context

in Alberta 20

Alberta Education (Ministry of Education) 22

The Alberta Teachers’ Association 22

Alberta Ministry of Innovation and Advanced Education 23

Funding for Education 23

Curriculum and Curricular Decision Making 27

Focus on the Whole Child 28

Student Assessment 28

Educational Equity Concerns 30

Teachers in Alberta 31

Teacher Compensation 32

The Work of Alberta’s Teachers 35

Teacher Attrition and Retention 39

Teacher Preparation 41

Funding 42

Teacher Preparation Programs 43

Teacher Certifi cation 50

Teacher Induction 52

Professional Learning/School Improvement 54

School Improvement 61

Change in Institutional Resources 62

Change in Teaching Approaches and Strategies 62

Alteration of Pedagogical Assumptions or Theories

Related to Innovation 63

Teacher Evaluation/Supervision/Teacher Growth 65

Conclusion 66

Appendix 2–A Teaching Quality Standards 70

Appendix 2–B Vignettes of Teacher Preparation Programs 75

Ambrose University 75

Canadian University College 76

Concordia University College of Alberta 77

The King’s University 79

University of Alberta 80

The University of Calgary 83

The University of Lethbridge 85

Chapter 3 Teacher Policies and Practices in Ontario 87

System Improvement and Ontario’s Theory of Action 88

Ontario’s Theory of Action for Educational Improvement 90

Overview: Ontario Education System 91

Length of School Year, Instructional Time, and

Organization of the School Day 93

Governance at the Provincial and Local Level 94

The Ontario Ministry of Education 95

Provincial Curriculum and Assessment 97

District School Boards 98

School Councils 99

Teachers’ Federations 100

The Ontario College of Teachers 101

Principals’ Associations 102

Partnership Working among Provincial and

Local Organizations 102

Improving the Ontario Education System: Provincial

Goals and Results 108

Focus on Priority Goals 109

Looking to the Future: A Renewed Vision for

Achieving Excellence 115

Supporting Teachers and Teaching Quality 118

Initial Teacher Education 121

Recruitment 137

Induction: The New Teacher Induction Program (NTIP) 155

Continuing Professional Learning 160

Evaluation and Performance Management 182

Teachers’ Career Development 185

Leadership Development for Administrators 188

Leadership Recruitment and Succession Planning 190

Preparation and Professional Development of Administrators 192

Conclusion 197

Appendix: Methodology 203

References 205

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Ken Zeichner
Ann Lieberman Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

Pamela Osmond-Johnson
Carol Campbell
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