Encyclopedia of Human Rights in The United States, Third Edition

  • ID: 4337612
  • Book
  • Region: United States
  • 750 pages
  • Grey House Publishing Inc
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This two-volume set offers easy to grasp explanations of the basic concepts and laws in the field, with emphasis on human rights in the historical, political, and legal experience of the United States. This indispensable resource surveys the legal protection of human dignity in the United States, examines the sources of human rights norms, cites key legal cases, explains the role of international governmental and non-governmental organizations, and charts global, regional, and UN human rights measures.
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Foreword
Introduction and User’s Guide
Introductory Essay
Abbreviations

Volume 1

1. Accessibility (Principle) (See Legality)
2. Accession (To Treaty) (See Ratification)
3. Accountability/Accountable
4. Activist (See Human Rights Defender)
5. Admissibility (of complaints, petitions, communications)
6. Advice and Consent of the U.S. Senate
7. Affirmative Action
8. Aggression (see Crimes Against Peace)
9. Aid Conditionality
10. Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA)
11. American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR)
12. American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man (ADHR)
13. Amnesty
14. Anti-Semitism
15. Apartheid
16. Arbitrary Arrest/Detention
17. Arrest
18. Asylum
19. Atrocity
20. Basic Human Rights
21. Bearer
22. Bigot(ed)/Bigotry
23. Bilateral Immunity Agreement (See International Criminal Court)
24. Bill of Rights
25. Binding
26. Breach
27. Bricker Amendment
28. Broad-mindedness
29. Bureau of Human Rights, Democracy and Labor
30. Capital Punishment
31. Charter
32. Children’s Rights
33. Civil Human Rights
34. Civil Liberties
35. Civil Rights
36. Civil Society
37. Civil War
38. Collateral Damage
39. Collective Human Rights
40. Collective Punishment
41. Combatant
42. Command Responsibility
43. Commission on Human Rights
44. Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe
45. Common Article 3 (Geneva Conventions) (See Geneva Conventions of 1949)
46. Communication/Complaint Procedures
47. Complementarity of Judicial Systems
48. Compliance with Human Rights Norms
49. Conditions of Detention (See Detention)
50. Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)
51. Conscientious Objection
52. Convention
53. Convention against Torture, Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
54. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)
55. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD)
56. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (See Genocide/Genocide Convention)
57. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
58. Corporal Punishment
59. Counterterrorism Measures
60. Country Reports
61. Country-Specific Legislation
62. Covenant
63. Crimes against Humanity
64. Crimes against Peace
65. Cruel and Unusual Punishment (see Cruel or Unusual Treatment or Punishment)
66. Cruel or Unusual Treatment or Punishment
67. Cultural Genocide (See Genocide/Genocide Convention)
68. Cultural Human Rights
69. Cultural Relativism
70. Culture of Human Rights
71. Culture of Impunity
72. Culture of Peace
73. Customary International Law
74. Declaration/Declarations
75. Declaration of Independence
76. Defamation of Religion (See Freedom of Expression)
77. Defender (See Human Rights Defender)
78. Degrading Treatment or Punishment
79. Deportation
80. Derogation/Derogable Human Rights
81. Detainee/Detention Facilities (See Detention)
82. Detention
83. Development (Economic/Sustainable)
84. Disability
85. Disappearance
86. Discrimination
87. Diversity
88. Domestic Remedy
89. Double Standard/Dual Standard
90. Due Process of Law
91. Duty
92. Economic Human Rights
93. Effective Domestic Remedy
94. Effectiveness (Principle of)
95. Enemy Combatant (See Combatant)
96. Enhanced/Robust Interrogation Techniques
97. Entry into Force (EIF)
98. Environmental Racism
99. Equality/Equality before the Law
100. Equality of Arms (See Due Process of Law and Procedural Rights)
101. Ethnic Cleansing
102. Ethnic Minority
103. Exceptionalism
104. Excessive Force
105. Executive Agreements (EA)
106. Executive Orders
107. Exhaustion of Domestic Remedies
108. Expropriation
109. Extradition
110. Extrajudicial Killing
111. Extraordinary Rendition (See Rendition)
112. Fact-finding
113. Fair Trial
114. Federal Clause
115. Female Genital Mutilation (See Gender-Based Violence)
116. First Generation Human Rights
117. Forced Disappearance (See Disappearance)
118. Foreign Sovereignty Immunity Act (FSIA)
119. Forum of Shame
120. “Four Freedoms”
121. Free and Fair Elections
122. Freedom
123. Freedom of Expression
124. Fundamental Rights/Freedoms
125. Gender-Based Violence
126. Gender Discrimination
127. General Comments (U.N. HR Committee)
128. General Human Rights Legislation
129. Geneva Conventions of 1949 (GC)
130. Genocide/Genocide Convention
131. Good Governance
132. Grave Breaches
133. Gross Human Rights Violation
134. Habeas Corpus Proceedings
135. Hague Regulations (See Law of Armed Conflict)
136. Hard Core Human Rights
137. Hard Power (See Soft Power)
138. Harkin Amendment
139. Hate Crime
140. Hate Speech
141. Helsinki Final Act of 1975/Helsinki Accords
142. High Commissioner for Human Rights
143. Holocaust
144. Human Dignity
145. Human Right(s)
146. Human Rights Committee (U.N.)
147. Human Rights Council (U.N.)
148. Human Rights Defenders
149. Human Rights Education
150. Human Rights Reports
151. Human Rights Violation
152. Human Security
153. Humanitarian Intervention
154. Humanitarian Law
155. Illegal Alien
156. Immigration
157. Immunity
158. Implementing Legislation
159. Impunity
160. Inalienable Rights
161. Incommunicado Detention
162. Independent and Impartial Judiciary
163. Indigenous Peoples or Populations
164. Indiscriminate Attack/Force
165. Individual Complaint
166. Individual Criminal Responsibility
167. Individual Rights
168. Indivisibility (Principle of)
169. Inherent Human Rights
170. Inhuman Treatment or Punishment
171. Inhumane Treatment
172. Inter-Dependence (Principle of)
173. Inter-Governmental Organization (IGO)
174. Inter-Relatedness (Principle of)
175. Interference
176. Internally Displaced Person (IDP)
177. International Bill of Rights
178. International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
179. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
180. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)
181. International CriminalCourt (ICC)
182. International Criminal Law
183. International Financial Institution (IFI)
184. International Human Rights Law
185. International Law/Law of Nations (See Public International Law)
186. Interpretation
187. Interstate Complaint
188. Intolerance
189. Involuntary Servitude
190. Jackson-Vanik Amendment
191. Land Mines (see Indiscriminate Attack/Force)
192. Law of Armed Conflict
193. Legality (Principle of)
194. Legislation (See Implementing Legislation and General Human Rights Legislation)
195. Liberty
196. Liberty and Security of Person
197. Lieber Code
198. Limitation
199. Link/Linkage
200. Massacre
201. Methods or Means of Combat
202. Military Commission/Tribunal
203. Military/Belligerent Occupation (Law)
204. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
205. Minority/Minority Rights
206. Monitor
207. Most Favored Nation (MFN) Trading Status
208. Multilateral Forum
209. National Consensus
210. National Security
211. National Self-Interest
212. Nationalism
213. Natural Law
214. Non-Binding Resolution
215. Non-Compliance
216. Non-Discrimination
217. Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)
218. Non-Interference with Internal Affairs
219. Non-Refoulement
220. Non-Self-Executing Treaty
221. Non-State Actor
222. Norm/Normative
223. Nuremberg Charter and Rules
224. Nuremberg Principles
225. Object and Purpose of Treaty
226. Obligations (International Legal)
227. On-Site Investigation/Fact Finding
228. Oppression
229. Optional Protocol (See Protocol)
230. Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
231. Organization of American States (OAS)
232. Patriot Act
233. Periodic State Report (See Report/Reporting)
234. Perpetrator
235. Persecution
236. Personal Status Laws
237. Pluralism
238. Police Brutality
239. Police State
240. Political Asylum
241. Political Correctness/Politically Correct
242. Political Human Rights
243. Political Will
244. Positive Obligations (See Obligations (International Legal))
245. Preamble
246. Precautionary/Interim Measures (See Communication/Complaint Procedures)
247. Preparatory Works/Travaux
248. Pretrial Detention
249. Prisoner of Conscience (POC)
250. Prisoner of War (POW)
251. Privacy (right to)
252. Procedural Due Process (See Procedural Rights and Due Process of Law )
253. Procedural Obligations (See Obligations (International Legal))
254. Procedural Rights
255. Profiling
256. Prolonged Arbitrary Detention
257. Proportionality
258. Protocol
259. Public International Law
260. Racial Discrimination
261. Racism/Racist
262. Ratification
263. Refugee
264. Regional Human Rights System or Regime
265. Religious Discrimination
266. Rendition
267. Reparations
268. Reports/Reporting
269. Reservations, Declarations, and Understandings (RDUs/RUDs)
270. Responsibility to Protect (R2P)
271. Reverse Discrimination
272. Rule-of-Law
273. Sanctions
274. Second Generation Human Rights
275. Secret Detention (See Detention and Arbitrary Arrest/Detention)
276. Security Council (U.N.)
277. Segregation
278. Self-Determination
279. Self-Executing Treaty
280. Sign/Signatory
281. Slavery
282. Social Human Rights
283. Social Justice
284. Socialism
285. Soft Law
286. Soft Power
287. Sovereignty
288. Sovereignty Proviso
289. Special Mechanisms/Procedures (U.N.)
290. Special Rapporteur
291. Standard Setting
292. State
293. State Party
294. State Responsibility for Injury to Aliens
295. State Terrorism/State-Sponsored Terrorism (See Terrorism/Terrorist)
296. Subsidiarity (Principle of)
297. Substantive Rights
298. Summary Execution
299. Surveillance
300. Terrorism/Terrorist
301. Third Generation Human Rights
302. Torture
303. Torture Victim Protection Act of 1992 (TVPA)
304. Trafficking (Human)
305. Transparence
306. Treaty (International Instrument)
307. Treaty Monitoring/Supervising Body
308. United Nations (U.N.) Charter
309. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)
310. Universal Jurisdiction
311. Universal Periodic Review
312. Universality
313. Unlawful Combatant (See Combatant)
314. Unnecessary Suffering
315. Unpriviledged Combatant (See Combatant)
316. Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action
317. War Crimes
318. War Crimes Act of 1996
319. War Criminal (See War Crimes)
320. Waterboarding
321. Weapons of Mass Destruction (See Indiscriminate Attack/Force)
322. Women’s Human Rights
323. Worldview
324. Xenophobia

Primary Documents

Introduction to Primary Documents
U.S. Founding & Historical Documents
1. Declaration of Independence
2. U.S. Constitution (Including the Bill of Rights)
3. The Emancipation Proclamation
4. The Four Freedoms Speech
5. Charter of the United Nations
6. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)
7. The Struggle for Human Rights
8. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
9. U.S. Ratification of the ICCPR, with Reservations, Declarations and Understandings (RDUs)
10. First Optional Protocol to the ICCPR
11. Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR
12. General Comment 22(18) of the U.N. Human Rights Committee on Freedom of Thought, Conscience, and Religion
13. U.N. Human Rights Reporting Guidelines
14. U.S. Core Report for All U.N. Periodic Human Rights Reports
15A. Second and Third Report of the U.S. to the U.N. Human Rights Committee
15B. List of Issues To Be Taken Up in Connection With the Consideration of the Second and Third Periodic Reports of the United States of America
15C. Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee on the U.S. Second and Third Reports
15D. U.S. follow up Comments to the Human Rights Committee on its Concluding Observations, Second and Third Reports
16. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)
17. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
18. U.S. Reservations, Declarations, and Understandings, to the Genocide Convention
19. Convention against Torture, Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT)
20. U.S. Reservations, Declarations, and Understandings to the Convention Against Torture (CAT)
21A. U.S. Second Report to the U.N. Committee Against Torture
21B. CAT Concluding Observations and Recommendation on U.S. Report
21C. U.S. follow up Comments to CAT on its Concluding Observations, Second and Third Reports
22. List of Issues Prior to the Submission of the Fifth Periodic Report of the United States of America
23. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD)
24. U.S. Reservations, Declarations, and Understandings, to the Racial Discrimination Convention
25. U.S. Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports to the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
26. CERD Concluding Observations on the U.S. Report on ICERD
27. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
28. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
29. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict
30. U.S. Ratification of CRC OP on Children in Armed Conflict with RUDs
31. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography
32. U.S. Ratification, Reservations to the Second Optional Protocol to the CRC
33. Convention on the Political Rights of Women
34. The Slavery Convention
35. Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery
36. Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
37. Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees
38. Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief
39. Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
40. General Assembly Resolution Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
41. Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious or Linguistic Minorities
42. Declaration on the Human Rights of Individuals Who are not Nationals of the Country in which They Live
43. Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women
44. International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
45. International Convention for the Protection of all Persons from Enforced Disappearance
46. International Convention for the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
47. Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment
48. Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners
49. Safeguards Guaranteeing Protection of the Rights of Those Facing the Death Penalty; Death Penalty, Administration of Justice
50. United Nations Millennium Declaration
51. Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action
52. World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance
53. Civil and Political Rights, Including: Freedom of Expression
54. The United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy
55. Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms While Countering Terrorism
56. United Nations Security Council President’s Statement
57. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly 60/251. Human Rights Council
58. Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms While Countering Terrorism
59. The (ILO) Forced Labor Convention
60. Convention Concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour
61. Charter of the Organization of American States
62. American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man (ADHR)
63. American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR)
64. First Protocol to the ACHR
65. Second Protocol to the ACHR
66. The Convention on the Nationality of Married Women
67. Final Act of Helsinki 1975

Volume 2
Humanitarian Law & International Criminal Law Document
68. Draft Code of Offences Against the Peace and Security of Mankind
69. [Hague] Convention (IV) respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land and its Regulations concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land.
70. Principles of International Law Recognized in the Charter of the Nüremberg Tribunal and in the Judgment of the Tribunal, 1950
71. International Committee of the Red Cross—Basic Rules of the Geneva Conventions and Their Additional Protocols
72. [Geneva] Convention (IV) Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Geneva, 12 August 1949 (The “Civilians’ Convention”)
73. 1977 Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions
74. 1977 Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions
75. Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons (with Land Mine Protocol)
76. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
77. ICC Resolution RC/Res.4, June 2010—the Crime of Aggression
78. Transcript of President Bush’s address
79. President Barack Obama Cairo Speech
80. Secretary of State Hilary Clinton, Georgetown University Speech on the Human Rights Agenda of the Obama Administration
81. USA Human Rights Pledge
82. 2009 Country Reports Overview and Introduction
83. 2009 Human Rights Report: Preface
84. State Department UPR Website
85. Universal Periodic Review (UPR) Frequently Asked Questions
86. Report of the United States of America to High Commissioner for Human Rights on the Universal Periodic Review Process
87. Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, United States of America
88. Uniting And Strengthening America By Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept And Obstruct Terrorism (USA Patriot Act) Act Of 2001
89. International Religious Freedom Act of 1998
90. President Obama Executive Order 13492 on Review and Disposition of Individuals Detained at the Guantánamo Bay Naval Base and Closure of Detention Facilities
91. Memorandum for John Rizzo, acting General Counsel for the Central Intelligence Agency-Interrogation of Al Qaeda Operative (Torture Memo)
92. President Obama Executive Order 13491 on Ensuring Lawful Interrogations
93. Department of State: U.N. Statement on “Human Rights, Sexual Orientation, And Gender Identity”
94. Defense of Marriage Act
95. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
96. Military Commission Act of 2006
97. The War Crimes Act of 1996
98. Detainee Treatment Act of 2005
99. Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act
100. Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, JR. Hate Crimes Prevention Act
101. Global Anti-Semitism Act of 2004
102. Trafficking Victim’s Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005
103. The Alien Tort Claims Act of 1789 (ACTA)
104. Torture Victim Protection Act of 1991
105. Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976
106. U.S. Army Field Manual

Appendices

A. Chronology of Human Rights in Relation to the United States
B. Universal Declaration of Human Rights Alternative Forms
C. Charts of the U.N. System for the Promotion and Observance of Human Rights
D. Charts of the International Protection of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law
E. Treaty Analysis–Interpretation Helps
F. How An International Human Rights Norm Becomes U.S. Law.
G. Spectrum of Law Applicable in the United States
H. Status of Treaties Applicable to the U.S
I. Selected U.S. Legislation, Resolutions, and the Restatement of Law
J. U.S. Case Law and Non U.S. Cases Involving the United States and International Human Rights Law
K. Universal Periodic Review
L. Selected Human Rights Report Related Documents
M. Human Rights and Security/The War on Terrorism
N. Immigration and Aliens
O. Law Enforcement, Arrest, Detention and Death Penalty
P. Opinion Pieces and News on Human Rights in the United States and the International Community
Q. Human Rights Education
R. A List of Your Human Rights under the International Bill of Human Rights

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