Chemical Engineering for Non-Chemical Engineers

  • ID: 4337706
  • Book
  • 416 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Covers the basic concepts of chemical engineering in an easy to understand way enabling non–chemical engineers to better interface with and understand chemical engineers and the basic concepts of chemical processing, design, and operation 

Chemical engineering is a skill and profession in widespread within chemical manufacturing, oil and gas refining and processing, food processing, pharmaceutical manufacturing, plastics production and use, electronics manufacturing, as well as in new energy recovery and generation technologies.

Though these types of processes are typically designed by chemical engineers, and it is important that those who interface with chemical engineers in the design and operation of these plants understand basic chemical engineering principles, allowing them to better understand the basis for operation and design of their facilities, the constraints of process operations, and the business opportunities which chemical engineering expertise can support and enable.

Chemical Engineering for Non–Chemical Engineers covers:

Important differences between laboratory and industrial scale practice of chemistry, consequences of scale–up mistakes, and approaches needed to safely scale a lab reaction process to a commercial scale, including the fundamentals of reactive chemicals hazards
Basics chemical reaction equations, balancing, economies of scale, and the nature of various types of flow sheets
Basics and characterization of fluid flow and various pumping and transport systems
How separation processes such as distillation, absorption, stripping, chromatography, membranes, and leaching are used to recover and purify chemical products
How evaporation and crystallization are used to concentrate and purify products
The basic fundamentals and safety aspects of solids drying, handling, and storage
Approaches to controlling chemical processes, including the safety aspects of controlling chemical processes and the need for process control to produce products within defined quality limits

Non–chemical engineers interacting with chemical engineers in many industries from operators, marketers selling the products produced by these plants, managers, and those who interface with chemical engineers in the intellectual property area will be able to understand concepts in order to intelligently communicate with chemical engineers.
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Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xvii

1 What Is Chemical Engineering? 1

What Do Chemical Engineers Do? 4

Topics to Be Covered 6

Discussion Questions 13

Review Questions (Answers in the Appendix with Explanations) 13

Additional Resources 14

2 Safety and Health: The Role and Responsibilities in Chemical Engineering Practice 15

Basic Health and Safety Information: The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) 15

Procedures 19

Fire and Flammability 20

Chemical Reactivity 23

Toxicology 23

Emergency Response 24

Transportation Emergencies 24

HAZOP 25

Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) 28

Summary 29

Discussion Questions 31

Review Questions (Answers in the Appendix with Explanations) 32

Additional Resources 34

3 The Concept of Balances 35

Mass Balance Concepts 35

Energy Balances 40

Momentum Balance 41

Summary 42

Discussion Questions 43

Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 43

Additional Resources 44

4 Stoichiometry, Thermodynamics, Kinetics, Equilibrium, and Reaction Engineering 45

Stoichiometry and Thermodynamics 45

Kinetics, Equilibrium, and Reaction Engineering 50

Physical Properties Affecting Energy Aspects of a Reaction System 53

Kinetics and Rates of Reaction 55

Catalysts 59

Summary 61

Discussion Questions 63

Review Questions (Answers in the Appendix with Explanations) 65

Additional Resources 67

5 Flow Sheets, Diagrams, and Materials of Construction 69

Materials of Construction 73

Summary 74

Discussion Questions 75

Review Questions (Answers are in the Appendix with Explanations) 76

Additional Resources 77

6 Economics and Chemical Engineering 79

Summary 85

Discussion Questions 86

Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 86

Additional Resources 87

7 Fluid Flow, Pumps, and Liquid Handling and Gas Handling 89

Fluid Properties 89

Characterizing Fluid Flow 93

Pump Types 96

Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) for Centrifugal Pumps 100

Positive Displacement Pumps 101

Variable Speed Drive Pumps 103

Water “Hammer” 103

Piping and Valves 103

Flow Measurement 104

Gas Laws 105

Gas Flows 107

Gas Compression 107

Discussion Questions 109

Review Questions (Answers in the Appendix with Explanations) 110

Additional Resources 113

8 Heat Transfer and Heat Exchangers 115

Types of Heat Exchangers 117

Heat Transfer Coefficient 121

Utility Fluids 123

Air Coolers 124

Scraped Wall Exchangers 124

Plate and Frame Heat Exchangers 125

Leaks 125

Mechanical Design Concerns 125

Cleaning Heat Exchangers 126

Radiation Heat Transfer 127

High Temperature Transfer Fluids 127

Summary 129

Discussion Questions 130

Review Questions (Answers in the Appendix with Explanations) 131

Additional Resources 133

9 Reactive Chemicals Concepts 135

Summary 137

Discussion Questions 138

Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 139

Additional Resources 140

10 Distillation 141

Raoult’s Law 146

Batch Distillation 148

Flash Distillation 148

Continuous Multistage Distillation 149

Reflux Ratio and Operating Line 150

Pinch Point 154

Feed Plate Location 154

Column Internals and Efficiency 155

Unique Forms of Distillation 156

Multiple Desired Products 161

Column Internals and Efficiencies 163

Tray Contacting Systems 163

Packed Towers in Distillation 165

Summary 167

Discussion Questions 168

Review Questions (Answers in the Appendix with Explanations) 169

Additional Resources 172

11 Other Separation Processes: Absorption, Stripping, Adsorption, Chromatography, Membranes 173

Absorption 173

Stripping/Desorption 178

Adsorption 179

Ion Exchange 185

Reverse Osmosis 187

Gas Separation Membranes 189

Leaching 191

Liquid–Liquid Extraction 192

Summary 197

Discussion Questions 197

Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 198

Additional Resources 201

12 Evaporation and Crystallization 203

Evaporation 203

Operational Issues with Evaporators 205

Vacuum and Multi]effect Evaporators 207

Crystallization 209

Crystal Phase Diagrams 214

Supersaturation 215

Crystal Purity and Particle Size Control 216

Summary 216

Discussion Questions 217

Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 217

Additional Resources 219

13 Liquid–Solids Separation 221

Filtration and Filters 221

Filtration Rates 222

Filtration Equipment 223

Centrifuges 227

Particle Size and Particle Size Distribution 228

Liquid Properties 228

Summary 228

Discussion Questions 231

Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 231

Additional Resources 233

14 Drying 235

Rotary Dryers 236

Spray Dryers 237

Fluid Bed Dryers 238

Belt Dryer 239

Freeze Dyers 240

Summary 240

Discussion Questions 242

Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 242

Additional Resources 243

15 Solids Handling 245

Safety and General Operational Concerns 245

Solids Transport 248

Pneumatic Conveyors 251

Solids Size Reduction Equipment 256

Cyclones 259

Screening 260

Hoppers and Bins 261

Solids Mixing 263

Discussion Questions 264

Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 265

Additional Resources 265

Videos of Solids Handling Equipment 266

16 Tanks, Vessels, and Special Reaction Systems 267

Categories 267

Corrosion 268

Heating and Cooling 275

Power Requirements 275

Tanks and Vessels as Reactors 278

Static Mixers 280

Summary 280

Discussion Questions 281

Chapter 16 Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 281

Additional Resources 282

17 Chemical Engineering in Polymer Manufacture and Processing 285

What are Polymers? 285

Polymer Types 287

Polymer Properties and Characteristics 288

Polymer Processes 290

Polymer Additives 293

End]Use Polymer Processing 293

Plastics Recycling 294

Summary 295

Discussion Questions 295

Review Questions (Answers in the Appendix with Explanations) 296

Additional Resources 297

18 Process Control 299

Elements of a Process Control System 300

Control Loops 302

On–off Control 303

Proportional Control 304

Proportional–Integral Control 305

Derivative Control 306

Ratio Control 307

Cascade Control 307

Measurement Systems 308

Control Valves 308

Valve Capacity 312

Utility Failure 312

Process Control as a Buffer 313

Instruments that “Lie” 314

Summary 314

Discussion Questions 316

Review Questions (Answers in Appendix with Explanations) 316

Additional Resources 318

19 Beer Brewing Revisited 321

Appendix I: Future Challenges for Chemical Engineers and Chemical Engineering 325

Appendix II: Additional Downloadable Resources 331

Appendix III: Answers to Chapter Review Questions 337

Index 000

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