It is clear that in order to facilitate these massive changes cities and communities will have to reinvent themselves.
While on a national level many governments find themselves gridlocked in partisan politics, local governments generally have a much better working relationship, at both a political and a citizen level.
However, in order to prepare their cities for the future very significant transformations will need to take place before cities are ready for these developments.
Over the last decades many cities have launched so-called smart city projects, but none of these were backed by a strategic smart city plan, and, while most of them were successful, they ended up in death by pilot'.
Over the last few years the leading smart cities have learned from this and they are now putting strategic smart city plans in place. These leading cities, which still constitute a very small fraction of all the cities, also have strong leadership in common from their mayors in relation to policies, citizens and business engagement, and at a council level from their CEOs, under whose leadership silo-based councils will have to be transformed into smart councils.
With these structures in place those cities are also well-positioned to effectively engage with their citizens. Smart cities will need to be co-created with the citizens at a planning, design and project level.
This report addresses the issues that local councils are facing and signposts the way forward.
2. Cities have been leading the way
3. The need for leadership from the top and smart councils'
4. Advanced cities shifting focus
5. People are ready for smart environments
6. The funding dilemma
7. City-as-a-service investment and business model
8. PPPPs cities collaborating with citizens and private enterprise
9. The industry platform
10. Intercity collaboration
11. Smart Cities and the open data dilemma