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DeGarmo's Materials and Processes in Manufacturing. Edition No. 12

  • ID: 4377302
  • Book
  • January 2018
  • 804 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
Newly revised, DeGarmo's Materials and Processes in Manufacturing has been the market-leading text on manufacturing and manufacturing processes courses for over fifty years. Authors J T. Black and Ron Kohser have continued this book's long and distinguished tradition of exceedingly clear presentation and highly practical approach to materials and processes, presenting mathematical models and analytical equations only when they enhance the basic understanding of the material. Updated to reflect all current practices, standards, and materials, this edition has new coverage of additive manufacturing, lean engineering, and processes related to ceramics, polymers, and plastics.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

Preface iii

1 Introduction to DeGarmo’s Materials and Processes in Manufacturing 1

1.1 Materials, Manufacturing, and the Standard of Living 1

1.2 Manufacturing and Production Systems 3

Review Questions 24

Problems 25

2 Properties of Materials 26

2.1 Introduction 26

2.2 Static Properties 28

2.3 Dynamic Properties 38

2.4 Temperature Effects (Both High and Low) 43

2.5 Machinability, Formability, and Weldability 46

2.6 Fracture Toughness and the Fracture Mechanics Approach 46

2.7 Physical Properties 48

2.8 Testing Standards and Testing Concerns 48

Review Questions 48

Problems 50

3 Nature of Materials 51

3.1 Structure - Property - Processing - Performance Relationships 51

3.2 The Structure of Atoms 52

3.3 Atomic Bonding 52

3.4 Secondary Bonds 53

3.5 Atom Arrangements in Materials 54

3.6 Crystal Structures 54

3.7 Development of a Grain Structure 56

3.8 Elastic Deformation 56

3.9 Plastic Deformation 57

3.10 Dislocation Theory of Slippage 58

3.11 Strain Hardening or Work Hardening 59

3.12 Plastic Deformation in Polycrystalline Material 60

3.13 Grain Shape and Anisotropic Properties 60

3.14 Fracture 61

3.15 Cold Working, Recrystallization, and Hot Working 61

3.16 Grain Growth 62

3.17 Alloys and Alloy Types 62

3.18 Atomic Structure and Electrical Properties 62

Review Questions 63

Problems 64

4 Equilibrium Phase Diagrams and the Iron–Carbon System 65

4.1 Introduction 65

4.2 Phases 65

4.3 Equilibrium Phase Diagrams 65

4.4 Iron–Carbon Equilibrium Diagram 71

4.5 Steels and the Simplified Iron–Carbon Diagram 72

4.6 Cast Irons 74

Review Questions 75

Problems 76

5 Heat Treatment 77

5.1 Introduction 77

5.2 Processing Heat Treatments 77

5.3 Heat Treatments Used to Increase Strength 80

5.4 Strengthening Heat Treatments for Nonferrous Metals 80

5.5 Strengthening Heat Treatments for Steel 83

5.6 Surface Hardening of Steel 94

5.7 Furnaces 96

5.8 Heat Treatment and Energy 97

Review Questions 98

Problems 99

6 Ferrous Metals and Alloys 101

6.1 Introduction to History-Dependent Materials 101

6.2 Ferrous Metals 101

6.3 Iron 102

6.4 Steel 102

6.5 Stainless Steels 113

6.6 Tool Steels 115

6.7 Cast Irons 117

6.8 Cast Steels 120

6.9 The Role of Processing on Cast Properties 120

Review Questions 121

Problems 122

7 Nonferrous Metals and Alloys 123

7.1 Introduction 123

7.2 Copper and Copper Alloys 123

7.3 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 128

7.4 Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys 134

7.5 Zinc and Zinc Alloys 136

7.6 Titanium and Titanium Alloys 137

7.7 Nickel-Based Alloys 138

7.8 Superalloys, Refractory Metals, and Other Materials Designed for High-Temperature Service 138

7.9 Lead and Tin and Their Alloys 141

7.10 Some Lesser-Known Metals and Alloys 141

7.11 Metallic Glasses 141

7.12 Graphite 142

7.13 Materials for Specific Applications 142

7.14 High Entropy Alloys 142

Review Questions 143

Problems 144

8 Nonmetallic Materials: Plastics, Elastomers, Ceramics, and Composites 145

8.1 Introduction 145

8.2 Plastics 145

8.3 Elastomers 156

8.4 Ceramics 159

8.5 Composite Materials 166

Review Questions 174

Problems 175

9 Material Selection 177

9.1 Introduction 177

9.2 Material Selection and Manufacturing Processes 179

9.3 The Design Process 179

9.4 Approaches to Material Selection 180

9.5 Additional Factors to Consider 183

9.6 Consideration of the Manufacturing Process 183

9.7 Ultimate Objective 184

9.8 Materials Substitution 185

9.9 Effect of Product Liability on Materials Selection 186

9.10 Aids to Material Selection 186

Review Questions 187

Problems 188

10 Fundamentals of Casting 191

10.1 Introduction to Materials Processing 191

10.2 Introduction to Casting 192

10.3 Casting Terminology 193

10.4 The Solidification Process 194

10.5 Patterns 202

10.6 Design Considerations in Castings 203

10.7 The Casting Industry 206

Review Questions 206

Problems 208

11 Expendable-Mold Casting Processes 209

11.1 Introduction 209

11.2 Sand Casting 209

11.3 Cores and Core Making 222

11.4 Other Expendable-Mold Processes with Multiple-Use Patterns 225

11.5 Expendable-Mold Processes Using Single-Use Patterns 226

11.6 Shakeout, Cleaning, and Finishing 232

11.7 Summary 232

Review Questions 232

Problems 234

12 Multiple-Use-Mold Casting Processes 235

12.1 Introduction 235

12.2 Permanent-Mold Casting 235

12.3 Die Casting 238

12.4 Squeeze Casting and Semisolid Casting 241

12.5 Centrifugal Casting 242

12.6 Continuous Casting 244

12.7 Melting 244

12.8 Pouring Practice 247

12.9 Cleaning, Finishing, Heat Treating, and Inspection 247

12.10 Automation in Foundry Operations 248

12.11 Process Selection 248

Review Questions 250

Problems 251

13 Fabrication of Plastics, Ceramics, and Composites 252

13.1 Introduction 252

13.2 Fabrication of Plastics 252

13.3 Processing of Rubber and Elastomers 262

13.4 Processing of Ceramics 263

13.5 Fabrication of Composite Materials 267

Review Questions 275

Problems 277

14 Fundamentals of Metal Forming 279

14.1 Introduction 279

14.2 Forming Processes: Independent Variables 280

14.3 Dependent Variables 281

14.4 Independent–Dependent Relationships 281

14.5 Process Modeling 282

14.6 General Parameters 282

14.7 Friction, Lubrication, and Wear under Metalworking Conditions 283

14.8 Temperature Concerns 284

14.9 Formability 290

Review Questions 290

Problems 292

15 Bulk Forming Processes 293

15.1 Introduction 293

15.2 Classification of Deformation Processes 293

15.3 Bulk Deformation Processes 294

15.4 Rolling 294

15.5 Forging 298

15.6 Extrusion 308

15.7 Wire, Rod, and Tube Drawing 312

15.8 Cold Forming, Cold Forging, and Impact Extrusion 314

15.9 Piercing 317

15.10 Other Squeezing Processes 318

15.11 Surface Improvement by Deformation Processing 320

Review Questions 321

Problems 322

16 Sheet-Forming Processes 325

16.1 Introduction 325

16.2 Shearing Operations 325

16.3 Bending 331

16.4 Drawing and Stretching Processes 338

16.5 Alternative Methods of Producing Sheet-Type Products 349

16.6 Seamed Pipe Manufacture 349

16.7 Presses 350

Review Questions 354

Problems 356

17 Powder Metallurgy (Particulate Processing) 357

17.1 Introduction 357

17.2 The Basic Process 357

17.3 Powder Manufacture 358

17.4 Powder Testing and Evaluation 359

17.5 Powder Mixing and Blending 360

17.6 Compacting 360

17.7 Sintering 363

17.8 Advances in Sintering (Shorter Time, Higher Density, Stronger Products) 364

17.9 Hot-Isostatic Pressing 365

17.10 Other Techniques to Produce High-Density P/M Products 366

17.11 Metal Injection Molding (MIM) 366

17.12 Secondary Operations 368

17.13 Properties of P/M Products 369

17.14 Design of Powder Metallurgy Parts 371

17.15 Powder Metallurgy Products 371

17.16 Advantages and Disadvantages of Powder Metallurgy 373

17.17 Process Summary 374

Review Questions 375

Problems 376

18 Additive Processes - Including 3-D Printing 377

18.1 Introduction 377

18.2 Layerwise Manufacturing 378

18.3 Liquid-Based Processes 381

18.4 Powder-Based Processes 383

18.5 Deposition-Based Processes 387

18.6 Uses and Applications 390

18.7 Pros, Cons and Current and Future Trends 393

18.8 Economic Considerations 395

Review Questions 396

Problems 397

19 Fundamentals of Machining/ Orthogonal Machining 398

19.1 Introduction 398

19.2 Fundamentals 398

19.3 Forces and Power in Machining 406

19.4 Orthogonal Machining (Two Forces) 409

19.5 Chip Thickness Ratio, rc 412

19.6 Mechanics of Machining (Statics) 413

19.7 Shear Strain, γ, and Shear Front Angle, ϕ 414

19.8 Mechanics of Machining (Dynamics) (Section courtsey of Dr. Elliot Stern) 416

Review Questions 422

Problems 423

20 Cutting Tool Materials 424

20.1 Introduction 424

20.2 Cutting Tool Materials 428

20.3 Tool Geometry 437

20.4 Tool-Coating Processes 438

20.5 Tool Failure and Tool Life 440

20.6 Taylor Tool Life 441

20.7 Cutting Fluids 446

20.8 Economics of Machining 446

Review Questions 448

Problems 449

21 Turning and Boring Processes 451

21.1 Introduction 451

21.2 Fundamentals of Turning, Boring, and Facing Turning 453

21.3 Lathe Design and Terminology 457

21.4 Cutting Tools for Lathes 462

21.5 Workholding in Lathes 466

Review Questions 470

Problems 471

22 Milling 472

22.1 Introduction 472

22.2 Fundamentals of Milling Processes 472

22.3 Milling Tools and Cutters 479

22.4 Machines for Milling 483

Review Questions 487

Problems 487

23 Drilling and Related Hole-Making Processes 488

23.1 Introduction 488

23.2 Fundamentals of the Drilling Process 489

23.3 Types of Drills 490

23.4 Tool Holders for Drills 500

23.5 Workholding for Drilling 501

23.6 Machine Tools for Drilling 501

23.7 Cutting Fluids for Drilling 504

23.8 Counterboring, Countersinking, and Spot Facing 506

23.9 Reaming 506

Review Questions 508

Problems 509

24 Sawing, Broaching, Shaping, and Filing Machining Processes 510

24.1 Introduction 510

24.2 Introduction to Sawing 510

24.3 Introduction to Broaching 518

24.4 Fundamentals of Broaching 520

24.5 Broaching Machines 525

24.6 Introduction to Shaping and Planing 525

24.7 Introduction to Filing 529

Review Questions 531

Problems 532

25 Abrasive Machining Processes 533

25.1 Introduction 533

25.2 Abrasives 535

25.3 Grinding Wheel Structure and Grade 538

25.4 Grinding Wheel Identification 542

25.5 Grinding Machines 546

25.6 Honing 553

25.7 Superfinishing 554

25.8 Free Abrasives 555

25.9 Design Considerations in Grinding 559

Review Questions 559

Problems 560

26 CNC Processes and Adaptive Control: A(4) and A(5) Levels of Automation 561

26.1 Introduction 561

26.2 Basic Principles of Numerical Control 561

26.3 CNC Part Programming 567

26.4 Interpolation and Adaptive Control 574

26.5 Machining Center Features and Trends 577

26.6 Summary 581

Review Questions 581

Problems 582

27 JIG and Fixture Design 584

27.1 Introduction 584

27.2 Conventional Fixture Design 584

27.3 Tool Design Steps 587

27.4 Clamping Considerations 588

27.5 Chip Disposal 589

27.6 Example of Jig Design 589

27.7 Types of Jigs 591

27.8 Conventional Fixtures 593

27.9 Modular Fixturing 593

27.10 Setup and Changeover 594

27.11 Clamps 599

27.12 Other Workholding Devices 599

27.13 Economic Justification of Jigs and Fixtures 602

Review Questions 603

Problems 603

28 Nontraditional Manufacturing Processes 605

28.1 Introduction 605

28.2 Chemical Machining Processes 607

28.3 Electrochemical Machining Processes 611

28.4 Electrical Discharge Machining 616

Review Questions 624

29 Fundamentals of Joining 626

29.1 Introduction to Consolidation Processes 626

29.2 Classification of Welding and Thermal Cutting Processes 627

29.3 Some Common Concerns 627

29.4 Types of Fusion Welds and Types of Joints 628

29.5 Design Considerations 630

29.6 Heat Effects 630

29.7 Weldability or Joinability 635

29.8 Summary 635

Review Questions 636

Problems 637

30 Gas Flame and Arc Processes 638

30.1 Oxyfuel-Gas Welding 638

30.2 Oxygen Torch Cutting 641

30.3 Flame Straightening 643

30.4 Arc Welding 643

30.5 Consumable-Electrode Arc Welding 644

30.6 Nonconsumable Electrode Arc Welding 650

30.7 Other Processes Involving Arcs 654

30.8 Arc Cutting 656

30.9 Metallurgical and Heat Effects in Thermal Cutting 658

30.10 Welding Equipment 658

30.11 Thermal Deburring 659

Review Questions 660

Problems 662

31 Resistance and Solid-State Welding Processes 663

31.1 Introduction 663

31.2 Theory of Resistance Welding 663

31.3 Resistance Welding Processes 665

31.4 Advantages and Limitations of Resistance Welding 669

31.5 Solid-State Welding Processes 669

Review Questions 677

Problems 678

32 Other Welding Processes, Brazing, and Soldering 679

32.1 Introduction 679

32.2 Other Welding and Cutting Processes 679

32.3 Surface Modification by Welding-Related Processes 686

32.4 Brazing 689

32.5 Soldering 696

Review Questions 699

Problems 700

33 Adhesive Bonding, Mechanical Fastening, and Joining of Non-Metals 701

33.1 Adhesive Bonding 701

33.2 Mechanical Fastening 708

33.3 Joining of Plastics 711

33.4 Joining of Ceramics and Glass 713

33.5 Joining of Composites 714

Review Questions 714

Problems 715

34 Surface Integrity and Finishing Processes 717

34.1 Introduction 717

34.2 Surface Integrity 717

34.3 Abrasive Cleaning and Finishing 724

34.4 Chemical Cleaning 729

34.5 Coatings 730

34.6 Vaporized Metal Coatings 738

34.7 Clad Materials 738

34.8 Textured Surfaces 738

34.9 Coil-Coated Sheets 738

34.10 Edge Finishing and Burr Removal 739

Review Questions 741

35 Nano and Micro-Manufacturing Processes 742

35.1 Introduction 742

35.2 Lithography 745

35.3 Micromachining Processes 748

35.4 Deposition Processes 751

35.5 How ICs are Made 757

35.1 Introduction 767

36.2 Standards of Measurement 767

36.3 Allowance and Tolerance 770

36.4 Inspection Methods for Measurement 776

36.5 Measuring Instruments 777

36.6 Vision Systems 784

36.7 Coordinate Measuring Machines 785

36.8 Angle-measuring Instruments 787

36.1 Destructive vs. Nondestructive Testing 793

37.2 Visual Inspection 795

37.3 Liquid Penetrant Inspection 795

37.4 Magnetic Particle Inspection 796

37.5 Ultrasonic Inspection 797

37.6 Radiography 799

37.7 Eddy-Current Testing 800

37.8 Acoustic Emission Monitoring 802

37.9 Other Methods of Nondestructive Testing and Inspection 803

37.10 Dormant vs. Critical Flaws 804

37.1 Introduction 807

38.2 The A(4) Level of Automation 812

38.3 A(5) Level of Automation Requires Evaluation 818

38.4 Industrial Robotics 822

38.5 Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) 828

38.6 Computer-Aided Design 830

38.7 Computer-Aided Manufacturing 832

38.1 Introduction 834

A1.2 Determining Process Capability 835

A1.3 Introduction to Statistical Quality Control 841

A1.4 Sampling Errors 845

A1.5 Gage Capability 846

A1.6 Just in Time/Total Quality Control 846

A1.7 Six Sigma 855

A1.1 Introduction 861

A2.1 Introduction 878

A3.2 The Lean Engineer 878

A3.3 The Lean Production System 879

A3.4 Linked-Cell Manufacturing System Design Rules 879

A3.5 Manufacturing System Designs 880

A3.6 Preliminary Steps to Lean Production 881

A3.7 Methodology for Implementation of Lean Production 882

A3.8 Design Rule MT < CT 894

A3.9 Decouplers 895

A3.10 Integrating Production Control 898

A3.11 Integrating Inventory Control 900

A3.12 Lean Manufacturing Cell Design 901

A3.13 Machine Tool Design for Lean Manufacturing Cells 904

A3.1 Introduction 911

A4.2 History 911

A4.3 Mixed-Model Final Assembly 912

A4.4 An Example of MMFA 913

A4.5 Key Enabling Systems 913

A4.6 Manual Assembly Line Balancing 915

A4.7 Sequencing 917

A4.8 Quality in Mixed-Model Final Assembly 918

A4.9 Examples of Assembly Aids/Poka-Yoke(Error-Proofing) Applications 920

Review Questions 921

Problems 922

Index I1

Selected References For Additional Study S1

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
J. T. Black Auburn University.

Ronald A. Kohser University of Missouri, Rolla.
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