Stain Protection in Textiles and Apparel: Preserving Aesthetics, Durability, Functionality and Sustainability

  • ID: 4393028
  • Report
  • 47 pages
  • Textiles Intelligence Ltd.
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FEATURED COMPANIES

  • Ably Apparel
  • Columbia Sportswear
  • HeiQ
  • MIT
  • ODO
  • POSTECH
  • MORE

The main objective of stain protection in apparel is to preserve the aesthetics, durability and functionality of a garment by preventing liquids and particulate matter from attaching to the fabric from which the garment is made. Moreover, stain protection is essential in applications such as medical apparel and industrial workwear where it is important to prevent spills from penetrating a garment and reaching the wearer if those spills have the potential to cause harm. However, stain resistance is also in demand for everyday wear. Stain repellent treatments minimise the need to launder and dry clean garments, and a combination of stain resistance, wrinkle resistance and anti-odour treatments helps to keep clothes looking fresher for longer. But several stain repellent treatments are based on fluorocarbons–whose manufacture can result in the generation of chemicals which may have adverse effects on the environment and on human health. This has prompted several companies to invest in innovation and the development of treatments which are environmentally sustainable without compromising on performance. This report provides a wealth of information on stain repellent treatments, applications of stain repellent apparel, and developments in stain protection technologies.

The report also features information on: the market for stain repellent apparel; the properties of stain repellent materials; the benefits of stain protection; methods used to achieve stain repellency; materials and technologies used for stain protection in textiles; innovations in stain repellent apparel; and the outlook for the stain protection market.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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FEATURED COMPANIES

  • Ably Apparel
  • Columbia Sportswear
  • HeiQ
  • MIT
  • ODO
  • POSTECH
  • MORE

SUMMARY

INTRODUCTION

SIZE OF THE MARKET FOR STAIN REPELLENT APPAREL STAINS IN APPAREL ITEMS WORN BY CONSUMERS
What is a stain?
Causes and sources of stains
Ways in which fabrics become stained
Stain protection characteristics of different fibre types
Combining stain protection treatments with other treatments
Domestic treatment of stains in apparel

STAIN PROTECTION
Stain protection: repelling stains and releasing stains
Surface tension and surface free energy

BENEFITS OF STAIN PROTECTION
Preservation of garment aesthetics
Prolongation of the life of a garment
Contribution to environmental sustainability
Saving time

METHODS USED TO ACHIEVE STAIN REPELLENCY
Chemical modification: materials and methods used
Surface modification: materials and methods used

APPLICATIONS OF STAIN REPELLENT APPAREL

PROPERTIES OF STAIN PROTECTION MATERIALS
Anti-wetting properties
Hydrophobicity
Superhydrophobicity
Oleophobicity
Superamphiphobicity

METHODS OF TESTING THE STAIN PROTECTION PROPERTIES OF FABRICS
AATCC TM22-2014, Water Repellency: Spray Test
AATCC TM79-2014, Absorbency of Textiles
AATCC TM118-2013, Oil Repellency: Hydrocarbon Resistance Test
AATCC TM130-2015, Soil Release: Oily Stain Release Method
AATCC TM193-2012, Aqueous Liquid Repellency: Water/Alcohol Solution Resistance Test

STAIN PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES
Development of stain protection technologies
Influence of models in nature on the development of stain protection technologies
Stain protection technologies
Stain repellency
Stain release treatments
Combination of stain repellency and stain release

FLUOROCARBON-BASED FINISHES
Structure and properties of fluorocarbons

EFFECTS OF FLUOROCARBONS AND THE PROCESSES USED TO PRODUCE THEM ON HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Guidelines on the production and use of fluorinated chemicals
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2010/15 PFOA Stewardship Program
EU Directive 2006/122/EC on the use of perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS)
The Madrid Statement regarding fluorinated compounds and the FluoroCouncil’s response
Role of the Zero Discharge of Hazardous Chemicals (ZDHC) Programme
The positions of manufacturers and other suppliers on the use of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)

INNOVATIONS IN MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES USED FOR STAIN PROTECTION IN TEXTILES
Albert-Ludwig-Universität Freiburg (University of Freiburg): self-repairing material
Chemours: Teflon
Teflon EcoElite
Columbia Sportswear: Omni-Shield
Dropel Fabrics: DropelTech
Harvard John A Paulson School Of Engineering And Applied Sciences (SEAS) and the Wyss
Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University: slippery liquid infused porous surfaces
HeiQ: HeiQ Eco Dry
Institute Of Textiles and Clothing (ITC) at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University: fabric
modelled on the microstructures of aquatic bird feathers
MIT: superhydrophobic material modelled on nasturtium leaves and morpho butterfly wings
Nanotex: Aquapel
Nanotex: Releases Stains
Nanotex: Resists Spills
Nanotex: Resists Spills & Releases Stains
POSTECH: environmentally friendly superhydrophobic coating made with salt particles
RMIT University: textile which degrades organic matter when exposed to light
Schoeller: 3XDRY Bio and ecorepel Bio
Schoeller: NanoSphere
University of Michigan: durable, spray-on coating with self-healing and superhydrophobic properties
W L Gore & Associates (Gore): fabrics with durable water repellent (DWR) treatments which are free from perfluorinated compounds (PFCs)

INNOVATIONS IN STAIN REPELLENT APPAREL
Ably Apparel: Ably
Labfresh: shirts with stain repellent, anti-odour and anti-wrinkle properties
ODO: jeans which are resistant to odours and repel stains
Old Navy: Stay White jeans
Threadsmiths: the Cavalier
Vardama: stain repellent men’s wear

OUTLOOK

List of tables
Table 1: Classification and sources of stains
Table 2: Stain protection characteristics of different fibre types
Table 3: Surface free energy of solids and surface tension of liquids
Table 4: Versions of Teflon fabric protector and their properties, 2017

List of figures
Figure 1: Contact angle on a water repellent fabric
Figure 2: Water beading up on a fabric surface
Figure 3: Water droplets on the leaf surface of Lady’s Mantle
Figure 4: Fabric treated with 3XDRY Bio
Figure 5: Fabric treated with ecorepel Bio
Figure 6: NanoSphere
Figure 7: Untreated surface
Figure 8: Old Navy Stay White jeans

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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  • Ably Apparel
  • Albert-Ludwig-Universität Freiburg (University of Freiburg)
  • Chemours
  • Columbia Sportswear
  • Dropel Fabrics
  • HeiQ
  • Labfresh
  • MIT
  • Nanotex
  • ODO
  • Old Navy
  • POSTECH
  • Schoeller
  • Threadsmiths
  • Vardama
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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