Noise in the Plastics Processing Industry: A Practical Guide

  • ID: 4402402
  • Book
  • Region: Global
  • 318 Pages
  • Smithers Information Ltd
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This is an updated and revised version of a book published by RAPRA in 1985 ‘Noise in the Plastics Processing Industry’. The original version provided guidance to managers and engineers in the plastics industry on ways to reduce high noise levels in the workplace, in order to reduce risk of noise induced hearing damage to employees. Practical methods for reducing noise from industrial machinery in general were described and then illustrated with 25 case studies all relating to plastics processing machines such a granulators, shredders, extruders and injection moulders.

Noise control techniques described include standard noise control measures such as enclosures, silencers and the use of sound insulating, sound absorbing materials, use of vibration isolation and damping. Most of these techniques have not changed since 1985, however one new technique is now available – the use of active noise control methods. The scope of the revised text has been extended to include chapters on environmental noise, European Union machinery noise emission regulations, hearing protection and prediction of noise levels, and the design of quieter workplaces.

A new chapter of case studies has been added which reviews many already published case studies and introduces some new ones.

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1 Basic Concepts and Terminology of Sound and Vibration
1.1 Sound Pressure, Frequency and Wavelength
1.1.1 Sound
1.1.2 Sound or Noise?
1.1.3 Sound Pressures
1.1.4 Frequency 
1.1.5 Broadband Noise 
1.1.6 Pure Tones
1.2  Frequency Weightings and Frequency Analyses
1.2.1 A-Weighted Decibels
1.2.1.1 A Brief History of the A-Weighting and its Relationship to Loudness
1.2.2 Frequency Analyses
1.2.3 Wavelength
1.2.3.1 The Significance of Frequency and Wavelength in Noise Control
1.3 The Decibel Scale
1.3.1 ‘Level’ Means ‘dB’
1.3.2 What do Changes in dB Level Mean in Ordinary (Non-Decibel) Terms?
1.3.3 Subjective Effects of Changes in Level
1.3.4 Combining Sound Levels
1.3.5 Prioritising Control of Multiple Noise Sources 
1.3.5.1 Segregating Quiet and Noisy Areas
1.3.6 Average Sound Levels
1.4 Maximum and Peak Sound Pressure Levels
1.4.1 Time-Weighted Sound Levels 
1.4.1.1 Peak Sound levels
1.5 Sound Pressure Levels and Sound Power Levels
1.5.1 Relationship between Sound Pressure Levels and  Sound Power Levels 
1.6 Sound-Generating Mechanisms: Noise from Vibrating Surfaces,  from Air Flow and from Impacts
1.6.1 Air Flow-Generated Noise - Aerodynamic Noise
1.6.2 Noise from Vibrating Surfaces
1.6.3 Noise from Impacts 
1.7 Airborne and Structure-borne Sound
1.8 Sound Insulation, Sound Absorption and Vibration Isolation and Damping
1.8.1 Sound Insulation
1.8.2 Double-Leaf Partitions
1.8.3 Sound Absorption
1.8.3.1 Reduction of Reverberant Sound Levels by Increasing Sound Absorption
1.8.4 Vibration Isolation
1.8.5 Materials for Sound Insulation, Sound Absorption and Vibration Isolation
1.8.6 Damping
1.9 Summary

2 Principles of Noise Generation and Control
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Good Planning, Management and Housekeeping
2.3 Mechanisms of Noise Generation
2.4 The ‘Source Path Receive’ Model of Noise Control
2.5 Noise Control at Source
2.5.1 Machinery Noise - Generation and Control
2.6 Noise Control during Sound Transmission
2.7 Isolation
2.8 Damping
2.9 Close Shielding or Acoustic Lagging
2.10 Use of Screens and Barriers
2.11 Specification and Selection of Damping, Isolating and Lagging Materials
2.12 Fans and Blowers
2.13 Acoustic Attenuators or Silencers
2.14 Jets and Exhausts
2.14.1 Pneumatic Jet Silencers
2.15 Punch Presses
2.16 Mechanical Handling and Transport of Materials
2.17 Active Noise Control
2.18 Specification of Noise Emission Levels from Machinery, Plants and Equipment
2.19 Diagnosis of Noise Sources, Paths and Mechanisms
2.19.1 Identifying Sound-Radiating Surfaces
2.20 Hearing-Conservation Policies
2.21 Appendix 1: The Health and Safety Executive Noise Reduction Topic Inspection Packs: Table E1 on Generic Noise Control Measures
2.21.1 Generic Noise-Control Measures
2.21.1.1 Activity: Air Movement
2.21.1.2 Conveying/Transporting
2.21.1.3 Forming
2.21.1.4 Processing
2.22 Appendix 2: Summary of Workplace Noise-Control Measures 
2.22.1 Reduction of Noise Exposure by Organisational Control 
2.22.2 Reduction of Noise Exposure by Technical/Engineering Control
2.23 Appendix 3: Top 10 Noise-Control Methods
2.22 Summary

3 Noise Control in the Plastics Processing Industries
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Noise Control at the Source
3.3 Noise Test Code for Granulators
3.4 Conclusion

4 Noise in the Workplace
4.1 Introduction
4.2 The Ear and Hearing - The Ear and How it Works
4.3 Audiometry - The Measurement of Hearing
4.4 Types and Sources of Hearing Loss
4.4.1 Conductive Hearing Loss
4.4.2 Sensorineural Hearing Loss
4.4.3 Presbycusis
4.4.4 Noise-Induced Hearing Loss
4.4.5 Acoustic Trauma
4.4.6 Nature and Effects of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss
4.4.7 Development of a Dose-Response Relationship for Noise-Induced Hearing Loss
4.4.8 Estimation of the Risk of Hearing Damage
4.4.9 Combined Effects of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss and Presbycusis
4.5 Otoacoustic Emission
4.6 Summary of the Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005
4.6.1 Action and Limit Values
4.6.2 Duties of Employers
4.6.2.1 Assess Risks to Employees
4.6.2.2 Take Action to Reduce Noise Exposure
4.6.2.3 Provide Employees with Hearing Protection
4.6.2.4 Ensure Legal Limits on Noise Exposure Are Not Exceeded
4.6.2.5 Maintenance and Use of Equipment
4.6.2.6 Carry Out Health Surveillance if the Risk Assessment Indicates that there is a Risk to Health
4.6.2.7 Provide Employees with Information, Instruction and Training
4.6.3 Duties of Employees
4.7 Duties of Suppliers and Manufacturers of Equipment
4.8 Carrying Out Risk Assessments
4.8.1 Fixed Positions
4.8.2 Activity Samples
4.8.3 Noise Dosemeters for Mobile Employees
4.8.4 Data-Logging Dosemeters
4.8.5 Workplace Noise-Level Maps
4.8.5.1 Peak Action Levels
4.9 Reporting the Risk Assessment/Noise Exposure Assessment
4.9.1 Recording the Risk Assessment
4.9.2 When to Review the Risk Assessment 
4.10 Action Plans
4.11 Record-Keeping
4.11.1 Record-Keeping In the UK
4.11.2 Record-Keeping Worldwide
4.12 Costs and Benefits of Measures to Reduce Noise in the Workplace
4.13 Hearing-Damage Claims
4.14 A Brief History of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss
4.15 Summary

5 Hearing Protection and the Use of Personal Hearing Protectors
5.1 Introduction
5.1.1 Hierarchy of Hearing Protection Controls
5.2 Types of Hearing Protectors
5.2.1 Specialist Types
5.3 Noise-attenuating Performance of Hearing Protectors
5.3.1 Octave-Band Method
5.3.2 HML Method
5.3.3 SNR Method
5.3.4 Optimum Range for the Sound Pressure Level at the Protected Ear
5.4 Inspection, Care, Maintenance and Replacement
5.5 Accounting for ‘Real World’ Protection
5.6 Dual Protection
5.7 Overprotection
5.8 Selection of Hearing Protectors
5.8.1 Adequate Noise-Attenuating Performance
5.8.2 Compatibility, Comfort, Convenience and Hygiene
5.9 Difficulties and Limitations of Hearing Protectors
5.9.1 Costs of Ear Protectors 
5.10 Two Health and Safety Executive Reports on Hearing Protection
5.10.1 Real-World Use and Performance
5.11 The Need for Health Surveillance - Routine Hearing Tests
5.12 Information Instruction and Training
5.13 Hearing Protectors - Summary and Conclusions
5.14 Conclusions

6 Noise in the Environment
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Regulations, Standards, and Codes 
6.2.1 Nuisance and Planning
6.2.2 Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Regulations
6.3 Criteria and Noise Targets for Environmental Noise Emissions
6.4 Noise-Impact Assessment Methods
6.4.1 BS 4142:2014 
6.4.1.1 Character Corrections
6.4.1.2 Assessment Procedure
6.4.2 BS 7445/ISO 1996
6.5 Criteria for Fixed Noise Levels 
6.6 Strategies for Minimising Noise Emissions and Disturbance to Neighbours
6.6.1 Good Relations with Neighbours
6.7 Effects on Health-Based Noise Limits 
6.8 Extracts from BS 8233:2014 Relating to Industrial Noise
6.8.1 General
6.8.2 Noise Emitted by Factories
6.9 Summary of Main Points

7 Prediction of Noise Levels
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Prediction (Simple Treatment)
7.3 Distance from the Noise Source
7.3.1 Nearby Sound-Reflecting Surfaces
7.3.2 Sound Levels in Indoor Spaces
7.3.3 Sound Distribution in Rooms - Direct and Reverberant Sound 
7.3.4 Ray- or Beam-Tracing Methods
7.3.5 Outdoor Sound Propagation
7.3.6 Ground Attenuation
7.3.7 Effect of Barriers between the Source and Receiver
7.3.8 Refraction of Sound in the Atmosphere
7.3.9 Absorption of Sound in Air
7.4 Predicting Sound Levels Outdoors
7.4.1 Calculations of Sound Level
7.4.2 Examples of Noise-Level Predictions using Simple Acoustic Models
7.4.3 Internal Noise Model
7.4.4 External Noise Model
7.5 Summary

8 Specification of Noise Emission from Machinery and Machinery Noise Regulations (The European Union Machinery Noise Regulations)
8.1 Introduction
8.1.1 Why is the Specification of Noise Emission so Important?
8.1.2 Limitation of Sound Power Levels
8.2 European Union Machinery Noise Directives
8.2.1 Directive 2006/42/EC (Noise and Machinery Directive)
8.2.2 Directive 2000/14/EC (Noise Emission of Outdoor Equipment Directive)
8.2.3 Standards
8.3 Noise Test Codes
8.3.1 Noise Test Codes for Particular Industries
8.3.1.1 Part 1: Blade Granulators
8.3.1.1.1 BS EN 12012-1:2007+A1:2008 - Annex A (Noise Test Code)
8.3.1.1.2 Determination of Sound Power Levels . 1
8.3.1.1.3 Determination of Noise Emission Sound Pressure Levels 
8.3.1.1.4 Installation, Mounting and Operating Conditions
8.3.1.1.5 Information to be Recorded in a Test Report
8.3.1.1.6 Measurement Uncertainty
8.3.1.1.7 Declaration and Verification
8.3.1.2 Part 3: Shredders
8.4 Summary

9 Towards a Quieter Workplace
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Separation of Quieter and Noisier Machines and Activities
9.3 Increasing Distance
9.4 Use of Partitions, Screens or Barriers
9.5 Using Sound-Absorbing Material
9.6 Enclosures and Refuges
9.7 Automation
9.8 Reduction of Structure-borne Sound
9.9 Reduction of Noise Radiated to the External Environment
9.10 Location of External Machinery and Equipment
9.11 Summary

10 Case Studies
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Review of Existing Published Case Studies
10.2.1 HSE 100 Practical Applications of Noise Reduction Methods
10.2.2 HSE Sound Solutions Case Studies
10.2.3 HSE Industry Specific-Case Studies
10.2.4 Environmental Noise-Related Case Studies/Histories
10.3 Additional Case Studies
10.4 Case Studies Provided by the Industrial Noise & Vibration 

Centre 
Glossary
Abbreviations
Index
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