The size of Germany's current account surplus is an economic phenomenon as the forces behind it go beyond the simple competiveness of German exports. Indeed, the widening gap between domestic savings and investment is the determinant of this trade surplus, which is shaped by the actors of the German economy; namely firms, the government and households. Furthermore, the harmful impact of this trade surplus reaches across the domestic economy - where it is a source of rising inequality and limited social welfare - to the global stage, where it acts as a means of destabilizing the economies of countries that accumulate unsustainable debt through trade deficits.
- The German exporting model has been based on the depreciation of German labor, as that is reflected by industrial relations and labor reforms. Simultaneously, the propensity of German households to save has led to subdued domestic consumption, reinforcing the exporting model. Furthermore, the attachment of the German government to fiscal surpluses has further enhanced this trend.
- The German exporting model is destructive for the global economy as it leads to the indebtedness of other countries while lying on the economic distortions of an undervalued currency.
- The current account surplus of Germany is a source of rising inequality and limited welfare for the German population as it has been built at their expense, with the benefits offering a lot to a few winners.
- Explores the size of the German current account surplus.
- Analyzes the forces behind the German current account surplus.
- Explores the various dynamics across the actors of the German economy that shape its current account surplus.
- Assesses the impact of the German current account surplus on the domestic and the global economies.
- How and why has the German current account surplus reached enormous levels?
- Why is the German current account surplus destabilizing for the global economy?
- Is the German exporting growth model beneficial for the domestic economy?
Export model creates huge surplus
Size of German exports and trade surplus is enormous in relation to national economy
Current account surplus of Germany is a global economic phenomenon
The force behind the German surpluses are the domestic savings and investment gap
Household savings are the cause but not the accumulator of the trade surpluses
German government’s attachment to fiscal savings urges trade surpluses and puts brake on domestic consumption
Firms have accumulated capital stock exploiting the internal depreciation of labor and the German industrial relations model
German trade surplus sets at risk the sustainability of national and global economies
The trade surpluses of Germany are the trade deficits of the other countries
Germany exploits fact that Euro is an undervalued currency for her and an overvalued currency for the other Euro Area members
German economic growth model does not seem to work for its people
Current account surplus built at expense of household income
Consumption rigidity of German households limits their own prosperity
There is no robust economy without domestic consumption - Germany is playing with fire following a self-destructive model
List of Tables
Table 1: Germany - Key macroeconomic indicators, 2010-16
Table 2: International trade figures of the largest economies, 2016
Table 3: Household Savings, 2010-15, (% GDP)
Table 4: Public Finance of Germany, 2010-2016, (% GDP)
Table 5: Public Finance of Germany, 2010-2016, EUR (bn)
Table 6: Government spending of Germany, 2010-2016, (% GDP)
Table 7: Government Spending of Germany by function, 2010-2015, (% GDP)
Table 8: Government Spending of Germany, 2008-2016, (% GDP)
Table 9: Net Lending, Capital Account Balance and Foreign Account Balance of Germany, 2005 - 2016, ($bn)
Table 10: Correlation pattern of the overall trade balance of certain countries and their trade balance with Germany, based on 2001 - 2016 trade figures
Table 11: Income and living conditions in Germany and the Euro Area, 2005-2015, (%)
Table 12: At-risk-of-poverty rate before and after social transfers, 2015
Table 13: General government expenditure in social protection in Germany, 2005-2015, (% GDP)
Table 14: Inequality of income distribution, 2015
Table 15: People at risk of poverty or social exclusion by educational attainment level (population aged 18 and over), 2005-2015, (%)
List of Figures
Figure 1: German exports and foreign trade balance 1991-2016, current prices ($bn)
Figure 2: Current account balance, 2000-2016, ($bn)
Figure 3: Gross domestic savings and gross capital formation, 2000-2016, (% GDP)
Figure 4: Household Savings and Savings Rate in Germany, 2000-2016, (% GDP)
Figure 5: Household Financial Assets in Germany, 2015, (% total)
Figure 6: Household Consumption of the most developed economies, 2010-2016, (% GDP)
Figure 7: Relative Unit Labor Costs (1999-2016), 1999 index-based
Figure 8: Gross wages and salaries and output per employed person in the manufacturing industry, 200-2016, (2010-index based)
Figure 9: Unemployment and growth of labor compensation, 2010-16 (%)
Figure 10: External Position of the Bundesbank in the ECB, 1999-2016 (EURm)
Figure 11: Gini coefficient of net household income in Germany, (1991-2014)
Figure 12: Index of labor costs in Germany, 1996-2016, 2012 index-base year