District Energy Report Edition 1 2017

  • ID: 4413452
  • Report
  • Region: Global
  • 236 Pages
  • StatPlan Energy Ltd
1 of 5

FEATURED COMPANIES

  • ADC Energy Systems
  • Danfoss
  • Isoplus
  • Logstor
  • Microflex
  • Reflex
  • MORE

The DHC industry is unique among energy markets in that it is dominated by Russia  in size, and led by the Nordics in technology. The DHC market is subject to large variations in local heat prices, currency rates and trends. Devaluations of the rouble, and  national CIS and EE currencies have had a huge impact on the global DHC market. Accurate market estimates and forecasts require  analysis of each country separately.
 
This report profiles 29 separate DHC markets with historical data from 1990 and forecasts  to 2021, sales volume (TJ) and value ($ and €), capex by country for 2016 and global sales of equipment components from 2016 to 2021 - network pipelines, substations,  HIUs, building level heat meters, internal pipework, dwelling unit heat meters and heat cost allocators. The progression from 1 st   to 4 th  generation DH technology is defined and plotted

The report outlines DH and DC technology; prefabricated insulated pipes, direct/ indirect & open/closed systems, one/two/four pipe network systems, hydraulic inter- face units and heat exchangers, compressor chillers, absorption chillers, regulators, heat consumption measurement devices.  

DH Statistics And Markets

  • District Heat Consumption And Network Length, 1990-2020
  • District Heating Turnover, Prices And Exchange Rates, 2016-2021, $ And €
  • District Heating Capex, 2016
  • Equipment Sales, 2016-2021

DH Technology

  • The Four Generations Of District Heating Technology - 1GDH To 4GD
    • District Heating has evolved through 3 generations of technology and the current networks are combination of these in each country. DH systems are already evolving into the 4th generation, which combines new DH technology with renewables, distributed generation and two-way supply.
  • DH System Structure - Open And Closed, Direct And Indirect
  • DH Network Components
  • Billing And Heat Meters, Measurement And Consumption Allocation
    • The structure of network systems, the components and the regulating and billing methods vary by country. Modern consumption metering is fundamental to development, efficiency and capex.

District Cooling 

  • Technology Of District Cooling Systems
  • National Developments

National District Heat And District Cooling Profiles

CIS - Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan

The Russian DH networks are the world’s largest and oldest, accounting for half the world’s heat.
With outdated technology, they are in critical need of investment and modernisation.  

Europe

  • Nordics - Denmark, Finland,  Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Greenland
  • Western Europe - Austria, France, Germany, Italy, United Kingdom - The Nordics and Germany are trailblazing developments of RE technology and growing networks.
  • Eastern Europe - Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia
  • Baltics - Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania - The heirs of Soviet DH, some countries are investing and modernising DH, others are stagnating.
  • Turkey - A new geothermal DH market developing vigorously for residential and agricultural use.

Asia

China, Korea, Japan - China rivals Russia in network size and leads the world in DH growth, drawing on the latest technology to modernise obsolete and run-down systems and to build new ones. Korea is a relative newcomer, smaller but vigorous. After some years of stagnation, Japan is growing and developing. 

Middle East

UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain - With temperatures of 40oC, GCC demand for District Cooling is expanding. 

United States

The first modern user of District Heating, the US networks stagnated for many years and  many ceased operation. Some technology is still 1GDH steam, but both DH and DC have found a new lease of life, looked at European best practice and the markets are growing. 

READ MORE
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
2 of 5

FEATURED COMPANIES

  • ADC Energy Systems
  • Danfoss
  • Isoplus
  • Logstor
  • Microflex
  • Reflex
  • MORE

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. THE HEAT SECTOR
District Heat utilities

2. DISTRICT HEAT CONSUMPTION AND NETWORK LENGTH

3. DISTRICT HEATING TURNOVER, PRICES AND EXCHANGE RATES

4. DISTRICT HEATING CAPEX AND EQUIPMENT SALES

5. DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM STRUCTURE - OPEN AND CLOSED, DIRECT AND INDIRECT DH
The terminology of direct and indirect heating schemes
Disadvantages of an open scheme of District Heating connection
Specific problems of open schemes, which are common in Russia
Advantages of an open scheme of District Heating connection
Disadvantages of a direct scheme of District Heating connection
Closed and indirect schemes of District Heating network connection
Advantages of closed and indirect schemes of District Heating network connection
Disadvantages of closed and indirect schemes of District Heating network connection

6. DEFINITIONS AND UNITS
Units of Power and Energy used in District Heating and Cooling
POWER
ENERGY
HEAT
The equivalent full load hours (EFLH)

7. THE TECHNOLOGY GENERATIONS OF DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS - 1GDH TO 4GDH
1st Generation District Heating - 1GDH
2nd Generation District Heating - 2 GDH
3rd Generation District Heating - 3 GDH
District Cooling
4th Generation District Heating - 4 GDH
Future conditions
Temperature levels

8. DISTRICT HEAT NETWORK COMPONENTS
Network pipelines
4-pipe system for heating and domestic hot water
Substations
Group substation (GS)
Building level substations (BLS
Single and two pipe central heating system
One-pipe system
Two-pipe system
HIU Hydraulic or Heat Interface Unit
Heat Exchangers
Circulation pump
Accumulator

9. BILLING AND HEAT METERS
Shares for basic and consumption based cost
Methods of calculation of each cost component
Building central heating
Apartment level meters or heat cost allocators
Technical issues for apartment level heat meters
Single pipe system for radiators
Heat metering
How a heat meter works
Heat Cost Allocators (HCA)
Meter reading
Central heating

10. THE GLOBAL DISTRICT COOLING SECTOR

11. TECHNOLOGY OF A DISTRICT COOLING SYSTEM
A. Cooling Source and Generating Plant
Compressor chillers.
Absorption chillers.
Free cooling.
Thermal energy storage.
Cooling Distribution System
Energy Transfer Station

12. DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING IN THE CIS
Thermostatic regulators
Constant flow regime
Steam versus hot water
The decline in heat production after the collapse of the Soviet Union
RUSSIA
Heat industry structure
Heat losses
Energy efficiency
Efficiency Law 2
Heat market reform - the Heat Law of 2
The Russian climate
The Russian District Heat Networks
Liberalisation and regulation
Tariffs
Centralisation versus decentralisation
Lack of investment
Moskovskaya Ob’edinennaya Energenticheskaya Kompaniya (Moscow Integrated Power Company, MIPC)
Moscow District Heating in brief
Heat metering
Metering legislation
Certification and type approval
Russian meter manufacturers
District Cooling
UKRAINE
Alternative heating sources
Structure and ownership
A typical heat producer in Ukraine
Tariffs
Connections
Heat metering
Temperature controls
Lack of investment
ZhKHs - Municipal management companies
Heat supply contracts
District Cooling
BELARUS
Tariffs
The heating season
The development of District Heating
Investment and reconstruction
Heat metering
District Cooling
KAZAKHSTAN
Privatisation
Tariffs
Heat losses
Heat metering
District Cooling

13. DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING IN EUROPE
District Heating
District Cooling

14. DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING IN THE NORDIC COUNTRIES
District Heating
District Cooling in the Nordic countries
DENMARK
District Heating
District Heat structure
Copenhagen
Technical developments
Legislative framework
Heat metering
Rules for individual metering in Denmark
District Cooling
FINLAND
District Heating
District Heating structure
Helsinki
Heat metering
District Cooling
GREENLAND
District Heating
ICELAND
District Heating
Heat metering
NORWAY
District Heating
Oslo
Heat metering
SWEDEN
District Heating
Development of District Heating
Stockholm
Future development of District Heating in Sweden
Pricing
Heat metering
Residential metering
Commercial office metering
District cooling

15. DISTRICT HEATING NETWORKS IN THE BALTIC STATES
ESTONIA
District Heating
Heat metering
District Cooling
LATVIA
District Heating
Heat metering
District Cooling
LITHUANIA
District Heating
Heat metering
District Cooling

16. DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING IN EASTERN EUROPE
POLAND
District Heating
Heat consumers
Structure of the District Heating sector
DH Companies
Modernisation and investment
Heat production
Networks
Warsaw
Krakow
Tariffs
Climate
Heat metering
District Cooling
CZECH REPUBLIC
District Heating
Tariffs
Prague
Heat metering
District Cooling
HUNGARY
District Heating
Tariffs
Heat metering
District Cooling
ROMANIA
District Heating
Bucharest
Heat metering
Meter manufacturers
District Cooling
BULGARIA
District Heating
Heat metering
District Cooling
SLOVAKIA
District Heating
Tariffs
Heat metering
District Cooling
TURKEY
District Heating
District Cooling

17. DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING IN WESTERN EUROPE
AUSTRIA
District Cooling
FRANCE
District Heating
District Heating network structure
Paris
Climate legislation for Paris
Heat metering
District Cooling
Paris
La Défense
GERMANY
District Heating
Berlin
Legislative support
Hamburg
Munich
Heat legislation
Heat metering
District Cooling
ITALY
District Heating
Heat metering
District Cooling
Switzerland
District Heating
Heat metering
District Cooling
UNITED KINGDOM
District Heating
Heat metering
District Cooling

18. DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING IN CHINA
District Heating
Northern urban heating (NUH)
Urban residential
Rural residential
District heat sector
Condition of existing buildings and District Heating networks
Climate
Chinese District Heating statistics
North China
Southern China
Network control
Heat metering
District Cooling
Players in the District Cooling Market
District Cooling utilities.
Potential demand for District Cooling in China

19. DISTRICT HEATNG AND COOLING IN KOREA
District Heating
Industry and the energy sector
District Heating and Cooling applications
Heat meters
District Cooling

20. DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING IN JAPAN
The development of DHC in Japan
Government support for DHC

21. DISTRICT COOLING IN THE MIDDLE EAST

22. DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING IN THE UNITED STATES
The rise and fall of District Heating in the United States
Legislative incentives for CHP
The use of steam in the United States
Current status of District Heating in the United States
St. Paul, Minnesota
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
District Cooling

23. DISTRICT HEAT PRODUCERS

24. LEADING DHC PLANT SUPPLIERS
Danfoss
Logstor
ADC Energy Systems
Grundfos
Shinryo Corporation
Alfa Laval
Keppel DHCS
Perma-Pipe
Isoplus
Rehau
Mibec
Microflex
Reflex
Watts Water Technologies Inc

Figures
Figure 1: Global heat production and consumption in PJ, 1990 to 2015
Figure 2: Heat production from 1990 to 2013 by major regions
Figure 3: Shares of heat production of the major producers, 1990 to 2013
Figure 4: Increase/drop of heat production by major heat user country 2000 on 1991
Figure 5: Global consumption of heat by end user groups
Figure 6: Russia DH prices compared with Western European countries
Figure 7: Exchange rates for the Russian rouble, Ukrainian hryvnia and Kazakh tenge, to US $
Figure 8: Exchange rates for the Russian rouble, the Ukrainian hryvnia and the Kazakh tenge, and the euro to the US $, 2013 to 2017
Figure 9: DH sales in MWh
Figure 10: DH sales in $ million value
Figure 11: District heating capex in 2016, in $ million.
Figure 12: Main components of a District Heating System
Figure 13: The principle of open District Heating connection.
Figure 14: The principle of direct District Heating connection
Figure 15: The principle of the closed and indirect District Heating connection /4, p. 26/. 2.5.
Figure 16: 2nd generation DH pipes, U-turn supply and return pipe placed in the lower pipelines, and a domestic hot water supply and circulation wrapped together in the same insulation, in the upper pipeline.
Figure 17: Pipe support principle, including supports, guides, U-turns, compensators and fixing.
Figure 18: Temperature levels of the 4 generations of District Heating technology
Figure 19: The four generations of District Heating technology - 1GDH to 4GDH
Figure 20: The four generations of District Heating technology, further detail - 1GDH to 4GDH
Figure 21: Pipe laying for District Heating
Figure 22: Options for pipe materials
Figure 23: Four pipe system for heating and hot water
Figure 24: Network structures of traditional group substations as used in China and building level substations as used in Finland.
Figure 25: Countries with main practice for substations
Figure 26: One pipe system
Figure 27: Two pipe system
Figure 28: HIU schematic at apartment level
Figure 29: Plate and coil heat exchangers
Figure 30: Expansion volume in an accumulator
Figure 31: Space heat and hot water cost allocation
Figure 32: Schematic of a 50 storey tower block with riser pipe after heating
Figure 33: One pipe radiator system, with no control devices
Figure 34: Comparison of vertical connections for radiators with horizontal feeders
Figure 35: Components of a heat meter
Figure 36: The components of heat energy meter
Figure 37: Regional shares of District Cooling capacity, 2014
Figure 38: Components of District Cooling Systems
Figure 39: Compressor Chiller
Figure 40: Absorption Chiller
Figure 41: Schematic of Compressor Chiller and Absorption Chiller
Figure 42: Thermal Energy Storage in Raleigh, North Carolina, US
Figure 43: Schematic of District Cooling Distribution System
Figure 44: Two Separate Two-Pipe Networks
Figure 45: District heat supplied in the CIS, 1990 to 2021
Figure 46: The condition of a Russian pipeline
Figure 47: MIPCs’ capacity factor in winter and summer months.
Figure 48:  Reorganisation of the Moscow District Heating companies between 2004 to 2014
Figure 49: Methods for connecting to a DH network
Figure 50: Investment needs, additional costs and efficiency gains, by option
Figure 51: Path to a modern District Heating system in Belarus
Figure 52: District Heating supply in Europe, 2016
Figure 53: District Cooling Supply in Europe, GWh, 2014
Figure 54: DH Production by type of plant
Figure 55: DH Network in Copenhagen
Figure 56: The District Heating network in QAANAAQ, Greenland
Figure 57: Simplified diagram of the District Heating system in Reykjavik
Figure 58: Market shares of different heating sources in Sweden, 1955 to 2015
Figure 59: Stockholm District Cooling
Figure 60: District Cooling in Sweden, sales and network length
Figure 61: District heating’s share of the residential; heating market
Figure 62: The largest District Heating system in the EU, Warsaw
Figure 63: The decline in the number of flats and in the number of persons using a District Heating system in Romania during the period 1992 to 2014.
Figure 64: Decline in number of localities served by a DH network between 1989 and 2013
Figure 65: A geothermal District Heating system flow diagram
Figure 66: District heating plants in Austria
Figure 67: Network map of CPCU with production plant
Figure 68: Network map of Climespace with production sites
Figure 69: Heat carriers used to heat new homes in Germany.
Figure 70: Cooling consumption in the UK in TWh, 2012 and 2025
Figure 71: Chinese residential building areas m2
Figure 72: Chinese commercial and industrial building area m2
Figure 73: Residential floor space and centralised heating are in China
Figure 74: Steam pipeline for heat supply in the cold with damaged thermal insulation
Figure 75: Distribution pipelines without any thermal insulation in the residential area
Figure 76: Residential buildings in Chaochangxiang, Urumchi with dilapidation and mildew
Figure 77: The 5 Chinese climate zones
Figure 78: Heat volumes in Chinese District Heating systems from different data sources, 1980-2010. Data sources: China statistical yearbook (NBSC, various years) and International Energy Agency (IEA, 2011)
Figure 79: Total pipe length and heated area of Chinese District Heating system, 1981-2012.
Figure 80: District heating (including both steam and hot water) supplied by CHPs, boilers
Figure 81: Network control method, China and Denmark
Figure 82: Schematic of levels of control from heat source, to GS to BLS
Figure 83: Comparison of Chinese and Finnish heat network chracteristics
Figure 84: Chinese heat billing compared with Denmark
Figure 85: Demonstration of heat metering/heat cost allocators retrofits in Hubei
Figure 86: The status of District Heating in Korea, 2015
Figure 87: Statistics of DH in Korea
Figure 88: Growth in number of buildings supplied with DC in Korea
Figure 89: The growth of DHC licensed districts and utilities, 1972 to 2015
Figure 90: DHC companies in Japan, 2008
Figure 91: Makuhari New City DHC Centre
Figure 92: District Heating and Cooling Supply Volume in TJ, 1972 to 2015
Figure 93: Selected other District Cooling systems in Japan
Figure 94: Yokohama Minato Mirai 21 District Cooling service area
Figure 95: Country shares of District Cooling in the GCC
Figure 96: Dubai, the highest DC penetration in the world
Figure 97: St Paul Downtown District Energy System
Figure 98: Annual increase in District Energy in North America
Figure 99: Largest 24 heat producers globally in TWh, 2015
Figure 100: Project Record for District Heating and Cooling systems in Japan
Figure 101: International District Cooling projects

Tables
Table 1: District Heat consumption by country in TJ, 1990 to 2020
Table 2: Trench length of District Heating transmission and distribution pipelines in km, 2010 to 2020
Table 3: District heat sales turnover in US$ million, 2000 to 2021
Table 4: District heat sales turnover in € million, 2000 to 2021
Table 5: Global sales of equipment for District Heating, $ million
Table 6: Implemented and on-going District Cooling projects in China
Table 7: GCC District Cooling market estimate in 2011
Table 8: GCC District Cooling market estimate in 2015
Table 9: Major DC Developers in the GCC
Table 10: Selected District Cooling systems in North America
Table 11: Largest heat producers globally in TWh, 2008 to 2015
Table 12: Largest heat producers globally by country of origin, 2009 to 2015

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
3 of 5

Loading
LOADING...

4 of 5
  • ADC Energy Systems
  • Alfa Laval
  • Danfoss
  • Grundfos
  • Isoplus
  • Keppel DHCS
  • Logstor
  • Mibec
  • Microflex
  • Perma-Pipe
  • Reflex
  • Rehau
  • Shinryo Corporation
  • Watts Water Technologies Inc
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
5 of 5
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
Adroll
adroll