The Middle Pleistocene Vertebrate Fauna from Khok Sung (Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand): Biochronological and Paleobiogeographical Implications

  • ID: 4415667
  • Book
  • Region: Thailand
  • 158 pages
  • Pensoft
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The Khok Sung sand pit has yielded abundant and diverse Pleistocene fossils including large mammals and other vertebrates with excellent preservation. We mainly describe mammalian fossils from this locality. The Khok Sung mammalian fauna consists of several modern species present today in mainland Southeast Asia, some extirpated species (Crocuta crocuta ultima, Rhinoceros unicornis, Sus barbatus and Axis axis), and an extinct proboscidean (Stegodon cf. orientalis).

The Khok Sung mammalian assemblage includes similar species to those of other late Middle to early Late Pleistocene sites in Southeast Asia, especially Thum Wiman Nakin from northern Thailand, suggesting the age of late Middle Pleistocene. However, a younger paleomagnetic age of about 120 ka (“Blake”) remains possible. With regards to the faunal comparisons and the geographical location of northeastern Thailand, Khok Sung constitutes a witness of the faunal exchanges from South China to Java via the Sino-Malayan migration route.
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  • Material and methods
  • Fossil collecting and material
  • Dental terminology and taxonomic nomenclature
  • Measurements
  • Body mass estimation
  • Faunal similarity measures and cluster analysis
  • Systematic paleontology
  • Macaca sp
  • Cuon sp
  • Stegodon cf orientalis Owen, 1870
  • Elephas sp
  • Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest, 1822
  • Rhinoceros unicornis Linnaeus, 1758
  • Sus barbatus Müller, 1838
  • Axis axis (Erxleben, 1777)
  • Panolia eldii (M’Clelland, 1842)
  • Rusa unicolor (Kerr, 1792)
  • Bos sauveli Urbain, 1937
  • Bos gaurus (Hamilton-Smith, 1827)
  • Bubalus arnee (Kerr, 1792)
  • Capricornis sumatraensis (Bechstein, 1799)
  • Crocodylus cf siamensis Schneider, 1801
  • Python sp
  • Varanus sp
  • Faunal composition of Khok Sung vertebrate assemblage
  • Individual species distribution patterns
  • Stegodontids and elephantids
  • Javan and Indian rhinoceroses
  • Bearded pigs
  • Chitals
  • Eld’s and sambar deer
  • Koupreys, gaurs, and wild water buffaloes Sumatran serows
  • Faunal comparisons of the assemblage with other penecontemporaneous assemblages
  • Discussion
  • Biochronology of
  • Khok Sung fauna
  • Evolutionary and biogeographic affinities of Khok Sung fauna
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Appendices
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K Suraprasit, Somsak Panha, et al
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