Making the Most of Your Host: The Metrosideros-Feeding Psyllids (Hemiptera, Psylloidea) of the Hawaiian Islands

  • ID: 4415675
  • Book
  • 163 pages
  • Pensoft
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A remarkable radiation of jumping plant lice, or psyllids, in the Hawaiian Islands reveals complex patterns of variation indicative of dynamic evolutionary processes. These small, herbivorous insects have diversified on a single, highly variable host plant by partitioning the host plant phenospace. They appear to have done this by partitioning the host ecologically, making different gall types on different plant parts, and by fine scale temporal and spatial partitioning. The genus, Pariaconus, is redescribed and 25 new species are described, taking the total number of species in the radiation to 36 named taxa with more species likely still to be discovered.

The host plant, Metrosideros polymorpha, is one of the most widespread and iconic species in the native Hawaiian flora, know locally as ‘ohia’ or ‘ohia lehua’. Yet, despite being both widespread and abundant, this plant species is known to be vulnerable to a variety of ecologically devastating proce sses, e.g. a fungal pathogen causing “rapid ohia death”, which could precipitate local extinction in many of the rarer Pariaconus species. Pariaconus provides a superb model system for understanding evolution in herbivorous insects.

The 36 species are distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands and provide many natural replicates for testing hypotheses of plant-insect interaction, host manipulation during galling, parallel evolution, and sympatric speciation.
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  • Introduction
  • Materials, methods and terminology
  • Sampling
  • Molecular analysis
  • Morphological analysis
  • Results
  • Taxonomic placement of Pariaconus and outgroup analysis.
  • Ancestral character state reconstruction: a galling or non-galling origin?
  • Divergence within Pariaconus
  • Divergence within the bicoloratus group
  • Divergence within the minutus group
  • Divergence within the kamua group
  • Divergence within the ohialoha group
  • Discussion
  • Origins of Pariaconus and other Myrtaceae-feeders
  • Does Pariaconus diversification parallel Metrosideros?
  • Intra-island divergence in Pariaconus
  • Parallel diversification in Pariaconus
  • Conclusions
  • Taxonomic treatment
  • Triozidae Löw, 1879
  • Pariaconus Enderlein, 1926
  • bicoloratus species group
  • Adult key to Pariaconus species groups
  • Adult key to Pariaconus species in the bicoloratus and minutus species groups (found on Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Hawaii)
  • Pariaconus nigricapitus (Crawford, 1918)
  • Pariaconus hina Percy, sp. n.
  • Pariaconus wyvernus Percy, sp. n.
  • Pariaconus nigrilineatus Percy, sp. n.
  • Pariaconus kapo Percy, sp. n.
  • Pariaconus proboscideus Percy, sp. n.
  • Pariaconus poliahu Percy, sp. n.
  • Pariaconus lona Percy, sp. n.
  • Pariaconus liliha Percy, sp. n.
  • Pariaconus gracilis (Crawford, 1918)
  • Pariaconus dorsostriatus Percy, sp. n.
  • Pariaconus namaka Percy, sp. n.
  • minutus species group
  • Pariaconus minutus (Crawford, 1918)
  • Pariaconus gibbosus Percy, sp. n.
  • kamua species group.
  • Adult key to Pariaconus species found on Kauai - kamua species group
  • Pariaconus iolani (Kirkaldy, 1902), comb. n.
  • Pariaconus hiiaka Percy, sp. n.
  • Pariaconus melanoneurus Percy, sp. n.
  • Pariaconus grandis Percy, sp. n.
  • Pariaconus caulicalix Percy, sp. n.
  • Pariaconus crassiorcalix Percy, sp. n.
  • Pariaconus lehua (Crawford, 1925), comb. n.
  • Pariaconus elegans Percy, sp. n.
  • Pariaconus gagneae Percy, sp. n.
  • Pariaconus haumea Percy, sp. n.
  • ohialoha species group
  • Adult key to Pariaconus species in the ohialoha species group found on Oahu
  • Adult key to Pariaconus species in the ohialoha species group found on Molokai
  • Adult key to Pariaconus species in the ohialoha species group found on Maui
  • Adult key to Pariaconus species in the ohialoha species group found on Hawaii
  • Pariaconus oahuensis Percy, sp. n.
  • Pariaconus ohiacola (Crawford, 1918), comb. n.
  • Pariaconus lanaiensis (Crawford, 1918), comb. n.
  • Pariaconus pullatus (Crawford, 1918), comb. n.
  • Pariaconus molokaiensis (Crawford, 1927), comb. n.
  • Pariaconus hualani Percy, sp. n.
  • Pariaconus mauiensis Percy, sp. n.
  • Pariaconus kupua Percy, sp. n.
  • Pariaconus montgomeri Percy, sp. n.
  • Pariaconus hawaiiensis (Crawford, 1918), comb. n.
  • Pariaconus pele Percy, sp. n.
  • Pariaconus pyramidalis Percy, sp. n.
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Supplementary material 1
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Diana M. Percy
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