Revision of Torrent Mites (Parasitengona, Torrenticolidae, Torrenticola) of the United States and Canada: 90 Descriptions, Molecular Phylogenetics, and a Key to Species

  • ID: 4415683
  • Book
  • Region: Canada, United States
  • 496 pages
  • Pensoft
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The descriptive biology of torrent mites (Parasitengona: Torrenticolidae: Torrenticola) of North America (north of Mexico) is investigated using integrative methods. Material examined includes approximately 2,300 specimens from nearly 500 localities across the United States and Canada, and a few collections in Mexico and Central America. Species hypotheses are derived from a phylogenetic analysis of the barcoding region of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) for 476 specimens and supported with morphology and biogeography.

Relationships between species are examined with a combined analysis of COI and two expansion regions (D2-3) of the large ribosomal subunit (28S rDNA) for 57 specimens. All previously described species from the US and Canada are examined. Our results indicate the need to synonymize four species: T. mercedensis (Marshall, 1943) is a junior synonym of T. sierrensis (Marshall, 1943); T. rectiforma Habeeb, 1974 is a junior synonym of T. ellipsoidalis (Marshall, 1943); T. neoconnexa Habeeb, 1957 is a junior synonym of T. magnexa Habeeb, 1955; and T. esbelta Cramer, 1992 is a junior synonym of T. boettgeri KO Viets, 1977.

We describe 66 new species and re-describe all previously described regional species. Our findings indicate that total diversity of Torrenticola in the United States and Canada comprises 90 species, 57 known from the east and 33 from the west. We organize these species into four species complexes that include 13 identification groups. An additional 13 species do not fit within an identification group. The southern Appalachians are suspected to contain the highest concentration of remaining undescribed diversity. A key is provided to all known species in the US and Canada.
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  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results and discussion
  • Biogeography
  • Taxonomy
  • Descriptions
  • Torrenticola anoplopalpa Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola arktonyx Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola biscutella Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola bittikoferae Crowell, 1960
  • Torrenticola boettgeri K.O. Viets, 1977
  • Torrenticola bondi Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola caerulea Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola cardia Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola copipalpa Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola daemon Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola danielleae Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola delicatexa Habeeb, 1955
  • Torrenticola dentirostra Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola dimorpha Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola dolichodactyla Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola dunni Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola ellipsoidalis (Marshall, 1943)
  • Torrenticola elongata Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola elusiva Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola erectirostra Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola feminellai Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola flangipalpa Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola folkertsae Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola glomerabilis Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola gnoma Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola gorti Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola hoosieri Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola indistincta (Marshall, 1929)
  • Torrenticola interiorensis Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola irapalpa Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola ivyae Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola karambita Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola keesdavidsi Cramer, 1992
  • Torrenticola kittatinniana Habeeb, 1955
  • Torrenticola kringi Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola kurtvietsi Cramer, 1992
  • Torrenticola lamellipalpis K.O. Viets, 1977
  • Torrenticola larvata Cheri, Fisher, & Dowling, 2016
  • Torrenticola leviathan Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola longitibia Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola magnexa Habeeb, 1955
  • Torrenticola malarkeyorum Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola manni Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola microbiscutella Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola miniforma Habeeb, 1974
  • Torrenticola mjolniri Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola mohawk Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola mulleni Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola multiforma Habeeb, 1974
  • Torrenticola neoanomala Habeeb, 1957
  • Torrenticola nigroalba Habeeb, 1955
  • Torrenticola nortoni Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola occidentalis (Marshall, 1933)
  • Torrenticola oliveri Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola olliei Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola oregonensis Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola pacificensis Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola pearsoni Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola pendula Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola pinocchio Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola pollani Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola priapus Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola projector Habeeb, 1961
  • Torrenticola pulchra Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola racupalpa Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola rala Cook, 1980
  • Torrenticola raptor Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola raptoroides Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola reduncarostra Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola regalis Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola robisoni Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola rockyensis Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola rufoalba Habeeb, 1955
  • Torrenticola sellersorum Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola sharkeyi Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola shubini isher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola sierrensis (Marshall, 1943)
  • Torrenticola skvarlai Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola solisorta Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola tahoei (Marshall, 1943)
  • Torrenticola tricolor Habeeb, 1957
  • Torrenticola trimaculata Fisher, 2015
  • Torrenticola tysoni Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola ululata Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola unimaculata Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola ventura Habeeb, 1973
  • Torrenticola walteri Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola welbourni Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola whitneyae Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Torrenticola wiedenmanni Fisher & Dowling, sp. n.
  • Key to Torrenticola of the United States and Canada
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Supplementary material
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J. Ray Fisher, et al
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