Vaccines/Forms for Bovine Mastitis 2017

  • ID: 4421355
  • Report
  • 93 pages
  • Animal Pharm
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This report describes new technical developments in the field of bovine mastitis and ruminant reproductive disease and efforts to develop new vaccines and other prophylactic approaches.

Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the mammary glands (udder) of cows. It has a significant impact on productivity, animal welfare and milk quality.

Bovine mastitis and reproductive diseases remain as largely unmet market needs from the perspective of preventive medicine. Despite a clear environmental component, mastitis control has depended heavily on the routine use of antimicrobials both for treatment of clinical cases but also for prevention as dry cow therapy.

The pursuit of prophylactics has been a holy grail for the animal health industry and veterinary academia for many years but although there a few vaccine products on the market now, this has not been very fruitful in terms of broadly effective vaccines or other products.

Attention is beginning to turn away from conventional vaccine approaches and more towards exploitation of innate immunological mechanisms.

Historically the successful control of mastitis has relied on treatment with antibiotics (antimicrobials), however in recent years it has been recognised that antibiotic usage has contributed to an increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains.

In fact, the phenomenon of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a major global health and technical challenge in both human and veterinary medicine. There is therefore a huge incentive to develop novel alternative safe products for the control of this and many other diseases.

The mastitis therapeutic market is currently estimated at about US$1 bilion per annum and thus the vaccine market potential is very attractive if the technical challenges could be overcome.

However, it is clear that there is still insufficient understanding of the immune mechanisms of the lactating mammary gland. Attention is beginning to turn towards exploitation of the innate immune system in controlling mastitis and indeed other related infectious diseases.

Vaccines for brucellosis have been available for many years. However, all have issues of safety and or efficacy and there is therefore still an unmet need for improved vaccines.
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Executive summary

Chapter 1: Bovine mastitis and ruminant reproductive disease as targets
for the animal health industry
1.1 The animal health industry: some statistics
1.2 Mastitis: a brief introduction
1.3 Reproductive diseases

Chapter 2: Bovine mastitis
2.1 Introduction, clinical aspects and economic impact
2.2 Mastitis and reproductive performance
2.3 Causes, pathogenesis and current therapy and prevention for mastitis
2.3.1 Contagious mastitis
2.3.2 Environmental mastitis
2.3.3 Mastitis pathogens
2.3.4 Biofilms

Chapter 3: Diagnosis and identification of cause of mastitis
3.1 Somatic cell counts
3.2 Acute phase proteins

Chapter 4: Treatment and prevention of mastitis: use of antibiotics
4.1 Dry cow intra-mammary therapy

Chapter 5: Vaccines for mastitis
5.1 Some current vaccine products
5.2 Vaccines against Streptococcus uberis
5.3 Non-specific immunostimulants against mastitis
5.3.1 Immunomodulators
5.3.2 Immunology of the mammary gland
5.3.3 The innate immune system
5.3.4 Genetic selection of cattle for resistance to clinical mastitis
5.4 Antibiotic resistance in cattle
5.5 Alternative therapies and preventatives
5.5.1 Botanical medicines
5.5.2 Bacteriophage therapy
5.5.3 Nutritional supplements
5.5.4 Electromagnetic product

Chapter 6: Brucellosis
6.1 The causative agents: Brucella species
6.2 Clinical Brucella abortus disease
6.3 Brucella melitensis
6.4 Brucella ovis
6.5 Brucella suis
6.6 Brucellosis in humans
6.7 Brucellosis In developing countries / smaller markets
6.8 Immunity to brucellosis
6.9 Diagnosis of brucellosis
6.10 Brucellosis control

Chapter 7: Vaccines for brucellosis
7.1 Brucella abortus vaccines
7.2 Brucella melitensis and B. suis
7.3 Brucellosis Vaccine Prize
7.4 Brucella abortus vaccine strains
7.4.1 Strain 19
7.4.2 Strain RB51
7.4.3 Strain 45/20
7.4.4 Strain SR82
7.5 Brucella melitensis vaccine strains
7.6 Brucella suis vaccine strain 2
7.7 Novel /experimental approaches to vaccine development
7.7.1 Oral vaccination
7.7.2 Microspheres
7.7.3 Sub unit vaccines
7.7.4 DNA vaccines
7.7.5 Heterologous expressed vaccines

Chapter 8: Other causes of reproductive disease
8.1 Campylobacter fetus
8.2 Coxiella burnetii
8.3 Neosporosis
8.4 Trichomoniasis

Chapter 9: Future prospects
9.1 Mastitis control
9.2 Brucellosis and other diseases of reproduction
Appendix 1
Further information on Antimicrobial resistance
Reference list

List of Figures
Figure 1: Anatomy of the bovine udder
Figure 2: Illustrating the multi factorial nature of mastitis
Figure 3: Schematic diagram of mechanism of bacterial invasion in mastitis
Figure 4: Range of clinical signs with mastitis
Figure 5: Illustration of secretion of somatic cells
Figure 6: California mastitis test kit, with CMT fluid, a 4 well paddle and dropper for adding CMT fluid
Figure 7: Interpretation of the California Milk Test (After Leach et al., 2008)
Figure 8: Changes in plasma concentrations of acute phase proteins after inflammatory stimuli
Figure 9: Illustration of the production of acute phase proteins following an inflammatory stimulus
Figure 10: The relationship between SCC and haptoglobin concentration in milk (Thomas et al., 2015)
Figure 11: Inserting an antibiotic syringe into a cow’s teat
Figure 12: Differential responses of bovine mammary epithelial cells to Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli agonists of the innate immune system (After Gilbert et al., 2013)
Figure 13: The putative relationship between infections and antimicrobial resistance in food animals and in humans
Figure 14: The transmission chain of Brucella spp. among wildlife, livestock and human (After Yang et al., 2013)
Figure 15: Confirmed human cases of brucellosis in Europe 2014
Figure 16: Brucellosis in animals due to B. abortus distribution
Figure 17: Brucellosis due to B. melitensis distribution.
Figure 18: Modelling the largest five consumers of antimicrobials in livestock
Figure 19: Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of bacterial species associated with mastitis in India (Mahato et al., 2017)

List of Tables
Table 1: Top 5 rankings in 2016 with Boehringer and Merial combined
Table 2: Some infectious causes of abortion and methods of treatment and prevention
Table 3: Clinical interpretation of somatic cell count (SCC) data (Source: AHDB, UK)
Table 4: Economic losses due to mastitis in different countries (Tiwari et al., 2013)
Table 5: Considerations in the prevention and treatment of mastitis
Table 6: Listing of main Brucella species their hosts and geographical distribution
Table 7: Seroprevalence of Brucella in selected African countries (Adapted from Ashenafi et al., 2016)
Table 8: The OIE standard tests for brucellosis
Table 9: A selection of manufacturers of Brucella vaccines
Table 10: Results of some published Neospora vaccine candidate efficacy studies
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