Heat Metering Report 2017 Edition 1

  • ID: 4423530
  • Report
  • Region: Global
  • 102 Pages
  • StatPlan Energy Ltd
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Heat Metering is demanding, with powerful technical obstacles and cost constraints. The report profiles 28 national Heat Metering Markets, Meter Types and Vendors, and technical factors governing each market. Each market has different characteristics. 

Forecasts of Sales of Heat Meters and Heat Cost Allocators in 32 countries, in units and $ value, from 2016 to 2021.

Sales of Heat Meters and Heat Cost Allocators in 32 countries by end-users, 2016.

Each country has different Heat Metering plans; e.g. four of the most advanced Heating markets, already launching 4th Generation District Heating technology are diametrically opposed on residential Heat Metering. Denmark and Germany have long had mandatory residential Heat Metering or Cost Allocation, Finland and Sweden have conducted comprehensive studies and their governments have concluded that residential Heat Metering saves little and is not worth the cost.

Countries employ different technologies for Heating and Metering systems. The use of steam or hot water, single/double pipes, vertical or horizontal internal piping determine what Metering devices can or cannot be used. Sometimes Metering and Heat Cost Allocation are not cost efficient. The report outlines the technologies in each country and what Heat Metering or Cost Allocation are used. 

The report includes information on the following areas:

1. Heat Supply And Consumption

2. Billing Practices, Heat Metering And Technical Issues 

Billing practices range from detailed consumption methods with Heat Meters, cost estimates with Heat Cost Allocators, and calculations without apartment level metering but based on floor area. These are itemised for each of the28  markets surveyed, with details of the technologies of different meters and their applications - Vortex, Differential Pressure, Magnetic, Ultrasonic. Heat Cost Allocators (HCA).

The vital technical issues are itemised for each country - central group substations, building level substations,apartment level substations - vertical and horizontal internal piping. These issues determine what metering can beemployed and where it is not possible. Each country has its own solution. Heat can be used for space heating, heating water, cooking, and various industrial processes. Due to the variety of energy sources and end uses, heat can be produced and consumed at many scales, from very small domestic applications at the local level to large-scale use in industrial processes and District Heating and Cooling networks.

  • Industry - with high temperature steam/medium temperature water/chilled water.
  • District Heating and Cooling systems (DHC).
  • Commercial buildings and Collective stand-alone Central Heated (CH) buildings.
  • In small scale units with their own heat source, residential units, with DHC, CH, or own heat.

The Heat Metering and Cost Allocation solutions for these end-users vary. 

3. Smart Heat Metering For 4Gdh-The Path To The Future

A review of the development of the 4th Generation (4GDH) of District Heating technology and Smart Heat Metering, and how the Smart Thermal Grid meshes with the Smart Electricity Grid. 

4. Heat Meter Consumption

  • Sales forecasts for each of 32 countries in Meter and HCA units and $ value from 2016 to 2021.
  • Analysis by end-user group - heat source (CHP/HOB/waste heat), commercial/industrial buildings, apartment buildings, residential units.

Chapters 5 to 12 contain profiles of the Heating Sectors, Heat Metering and Heat Cost Allocation and Billing in each of the listed countries.  
5. Heat Meterng In The CIS - Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belarus.
6. Heat Metering In The Baltic Republics - Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.
7. Heat Metering In Eastern Europe -  Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Slovakia.
8. Heat Metering In The Nordics - Denmark, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden.
9. Heat Metering In Western Europe - Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, United Kingdom.
10. Heat Metering In United States
11. Heat Metering In China
12. Heat Metering In Korea
13. Heat Meter Vendors - Heat Meter vendors and Metering & Billing services companies are profiled.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. HEAT SUPPLY AND CONSUMPTION

  • Residential use of heat
  • Heat metering/measurement
  • Commercial buildings
  • Industrial use of heat

2. BILLING PRACTICES AND HEAT METERS

  • Billing practices
  • Shares for basic and consumption based cost
  • Methods of calculation of each cost component
  • Collective central heating
  • Apartment level meters or heat cost allocators - allocation methods
  • Types of heat meter
  • Heat metering for steam systems
  • Vortex meters
  • Differential pressure (DP) meters / Pitot tubes
  • Measuring the condensate side
  • Magnetic flow meters - Magmeters
  • Ultrasonic meters
  • Technical issues for apartment level heat meters
  • One pipe system with vertical distribution
  • Two pipe system with vertical distribution
  • One pipe systems with vertical and horizontal distribution
  • How a heat meter works
  • Apartment level heat consumption measurement
  • Heat consumption sub-meters
  • Heat cost allocators (HCA)
  • Evaporative heat cost allocator
  • Electronic heat cost allocator
  • RF heat cost allocator
  • Meter reading
  • Central heating

3. SMART HEAT METERING FOR 4GDH

  • Smart District Heating - the Smart Thermal Grid
  • The first Smart Thermal Grids - Denmark, Sweden, Austria and Germany.
  • The objective of smart DHC

1. Low temperature District Heating
2. District Cooling
3. Renewable energy sources, waste-to energy and surplus heat in DHC systems
4. Smart DHC as an integrated system: CHP, storage, DSM, ICT interactions with networks

  • Optimisation of existing DHC infrastructure
  • Smart DHC research

4. HEAT METER CONSUMPTION

5. HEAT METERING IN THE CIS

  • Vertical piping
  • RUSSIA
    • Heat metering
    • Apartment level heat metering
    • Building level heat metering
    • Metering legislation
    • Certification and type approval
    • Production of heat meters
    • Meter types
    • Russian meter manufacturers
    • Building and industrial heat meters
    • Apartment level heat meters
  • UKRAINE
    • Building level heat meters
    • Apartment level heat meters
    • Option 1. The current metering situation in Ukraine.
    • Option 2. DH with building-level heat meters, but no temperature controls.
    • Option 3. DH with building-level heat meters and rehabilitated group substations (CTPs), with temperature controls at the CTP.
    • Option 4. DH with building-level meters and heat substations (ITPs) of Ukrainian configuration
    • Option 5. DH with building-level heat meters and ITPs of European configuration.
    • Option 5.1. DH with building-level heat meters, ITPs, control temperature for an individual building, and thermostatic radiator valves (TRVs) and heat-cost allocators (HCAs) in each apartment.
    • Option 6. Apartments disconnect from DH system and install an apartment-level gas heater.
    • Ukrainian heat meter manufacturers
  • BELARUS
    • Building level heat meters
    • Apartment level heat meters
  • KAZAKHSTAN
    • Building level heat meters
    • Apartment level heat meters

6. HEAT METERING IN THE BALTICS REPUBLICS

  • ESTONIA
    • Building level heat meters
    • Apartment level heat meters
  • LATVIA
    • Apartment level heat meters
  • LITHUANIA
    • Building level heat meters
    • Apartment level heat meters

7. HEAT METERING IN EASTERN EUROPE

  • The Soviet technical legacy for heat
  • POLAND
    • Building level meters
    • Apartment level meters
    • Heat meter manufacturers
  • CZECH REPUBLIC
    • Building level meters
    • Apartment level meters
    • Heat meter manufacturers
  • HUNGARY
    • Building level meters
    • Apartment level meters
  • ROMANIA
    • Building level meters
    • Apartment level meters
    • Meter manufacturers
  • SLOVAKIA
    • Building level meters
    • Apartment level meters
  • BULGARIA
    • Building level metering
    • Apartment level metering
    • Heat meter manufacturers

8. HEAT METERING IN THE NORDIC COUNRIES

  • DENMARK
    • Building level metering
    • Apartment level metering
    • Heat meter manufacturers
    • Figure 20: The first heat cost allocator produced by Kemp & Lauritzen in 1917
  • FINLAND
    • Building level metering
    • Apartment level metering
  • GREENLAND
    • Heat metering
  • ICELAND
    • Building level metering
    • Apartment level metering
  • NORWAY
    • Building level metering
    • Apartment level metering
  • SWEDEN
    • Building level metering
    • Apartment level metering
    • Boverket Metering Report
    • Commercial office metering

9. HEAT METERING IN WESTERN EUROPE

  • AUSTRIA
    • Building level metering
    • Apartment level metering
  • FRANCE
    • Building level metering
    • Apartment level metering
  • GERMANY
    • German tenancy law regarding utilities
    • Building level metering
    • Apartment level metering
    • Heat meter manufacturers
    • Metering services
  • ITALY
    • Building level metering
    • Apartment level metering
    • Heat meter manufacturers
  • SWITZERLAND
    • Building level metering
    • Apartment level metering
    • Heat meter manufacturers
  • UNITED KINGDOM
    • Building level metering
    • Apartment level metering
    • Heat meter manufacturer

10.   HEAT METERING IN THE UNITED STATES

  • Heat metering for steam and hot water systems
  • Heat meter manufacturers

11.   HEAT METERING IN CHINA

  • Group level and building level metering
  • Apartment level metering
  • Heat meter manufacturers

12.   HEAT METERING IN KOREA

  • Building level metering
  • Apartment level metering
  • Heat meter manufacturers

Figures
Figure 1:Schematic overview of energy flows from total primary energy supply (TPES) to total final energy use for heat (FEH)
Figure 2: Global consumption of heat by end user groups
Figure 3: Heat requirement by temperature in different industry sectors
Figure 4: Space heat and hot water cost allocation
Figure 5: Latent and sensible heat
Figure 6: Schematic of a 50 storey tower block with riser pipe after heating
Figure 7: One pipe system with vertical distribution
Figure 8: Two pipe system with vertical distribution
Figure 9: Comparison of vertical connections for radiators with horizontal feeders
Figure 10: Components of a heat meter
Figure 11: Schematic of a heat energy meter system
Figure 12 : Radio heat cost allocator system
Figure 13: European cities with District Heating systems
Figure 14: Sales of heat meters by country in Europe in units, 2016 to 2021
Figure 15: Sales of heat meters by country in Europe n $ million, 2016 to 2021
Figure 16: Sales of heat meters by country in CIS in units, 2016 to 2021
Figure 17: Sales of heat meters by country in CIS in $ million, 2016 to 2021
Figure 18 : Sales of heat meters by country in China, Korea, Japan and USA in units, 2016 to 2021
Figure 19: Sales of heat meters by country in China, Korea, Japan and USA in $ million, 2016 to 2021
Figure 20: District heating’s share of the residential; heating market
Figure 21: The first heat cost allocator produced by Kemp & Lauritzen in 1917,
Figure 22: Heat carriers used to heat new homes in Germany.
Figure 23: Market share of metering services companies in Germany
Figure 24: Chinese heat billing compared with Denmark
Figure 25: Demonstration of heat metering/heat cost allocators retrofits in Hubei
Figure 26: Chinese heat meter market shares in units, 2015

Tables
Table 1: Five themes for smart DHC
Table 2: Sales of heat meters all countries in units, 2016 to 2021
Table 3: Sales of heat meters all countries in $, 2016 to 2021
Table 4: Sales of heat cost allocators all countries in units, 2016 to 2021
Table 5: Sales of heat cost allocators all countries in $ million, 2016 to 2021
Table 6: Sales of heat meters and heat cost allocators all countries in units, 2016
Table 7: Sales of heat meters and heat cost allocators all countries in $, 2016
Table 8: Type of meter produced

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