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Empowered Educators in China. How High-Performing Systems Shape Teaching Quality. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 4427401
  • Book
  • April 2017
  • Region: China
  • 156 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd


Empowered Educators in China is one volume in a series that explores how high-performing educational systems from around the world achieve strong results. The anchor book, Empowered Educators: How High-Performing Systems Shape Teaching Quality Around the World, is written by Linda Darling-Hammond and colleagues, with contributions from the author of this volume.

Empowered Educators in China describes the nation's policy reforms that built the modern Chinese educational system and the educational practices that are considered typical in China. The book spotlights Shanghai's system which is distinctive and superior. Shanghai offers a clear illustration of an educational system that continually invests in educating a diverse student population and, by measures of international comparison tests, is achieving outstanding results. Many factors contribute to the Shanghai system's ongoing success, including the students' motivation toward strong performance, the parental support for education that is culturally ingrained throughout the country, the focus that teachers place on high expectations for students, and the individual tutoring they provide. The author argues that these factors are only a partial explanation of Shanghai's success and then closely describes educational policies that support teachers' preparation, hiring, ongoing development, and opportunities for awards and leadership. These policies are based on the assumption that teachers are key to the nation's future and must be appropriately supported in order to contribute to student performance and achievement, an assumption that is also explicitly stated within Chinese law. This volume offers specific descriptions of how these national policies are translated, adapted, and enacted in Shanghai.

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Foreword vii

Acknowledgments xi

About the Sponsoring Organizations xv

About the Authors xvii

Online Documents and Videos xix

Chapter 1 The Surprising Success of Shanghai Students 1

This Study 3

Chapter 2 Situating Shanghai in China’s National Education Policy Context 5

Education Financing in China 7

Building and Reforming China’s Educational System through Policy 10

Establishing the Modern Chinese School System: 1986 Compulsory Education Law 12

Seeking Educational Improvement: 1995 Education Law 15

Expanding Access to Educational Opportunities: Reform in 2001 16

Addressing National Equity Issues: Compulsory Education Law Revisited in 2006 20

Expanding Access and Shifting the Curriculum Focus: 2020 National Educational Reform Plan 21

Chapter 3 China’s Educational System Today 25

Governance of the National Education System 27

The Teaching Population in China 30

Chapter 4 Education in Shanghai 33

Geography and History of the City 33

Shanghai’s Schools and Students 35

Meeting the Needs of Migrant Children in Shanghai’s Schools 37

Controversy about Migrant Children and the PISA Exam Results 38

Governance of the Shanghai Education System 41

Education Financing in Shanghai 42

Family Commitment to Education in Shanghai 43

Educational Reform Efforts in Shanghai 44

Reforms in Curriculum and Teaching 45

Improving the Overall Quality of Schools 47

Chapter 5 Teaching in China and Shanghai 53

Teaching within the Chinese Culture 53

Establishing Teaching as a Profession: National Teacher Laws and Regulations in the 1990s 55

Ensuring Ongoing Quality of Teachers: 2004 Continuing Education Requirements 58

Current Focus on Quality and Distribution of Teaching Expertise: Teachers in the 2020 Plan 58

Responding to the 2020 Plan: 2011 Teaching Standards in China 60

How School Structure Shapes Teachers’ Work 62

The “Class” Grouping of Students 62

Organizing the Physical Space of the School 63

Teachers as Curriculum Specialists 64

The School Schedule 67

Examinations 68

Teaching Practices in China 69

Teaching and Learning in Shanghai 71

Chapter 6 Teacher Preparation in China and Shanghai 79

Teacher Preparation Minimum Expectations 79

Teacher Preparation Program Design 82

Teacher Certifi cation Exams 88

Recruiting and Hiring Teachers in Shanghai 89

Inducting Beginning Teachers in Shanghai 93

Chapter 7 Supporting Teacher Professional Learning in Shanghai 97

Teacher Professional Learning in Shanghai 97

Career Ladders and Leadership for Teachers 109

Teacher Compensation and Evaluation 114

Chapter 8 Conclusion: How Teaching Culture, Policies, and Practices Support Student Performance 119

References 125

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Mistilina Sato
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