Unit Operations in Environmental Engineering

  • ID: 4427405
  • Book
  • 702 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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The book presents the principles of unit operations as well as the application of these principles to real–world problems.

The authors have written a practical introductory text exploring the theory and applications of unit operations for environmental engineers that is a comprehensive update to Linvil Rich′s 1961 classic work, "Unit Operations in Sanitary Engineering". The book is designed to serve as a training tool for those individuals pursuing degrees that include courses on unit operations. Although the literature is inundated with publications in this area emphasizing theory and theoretical derivations, the goal of this book is to present the subject from a strictly pragmatic introductory point–of–view, particularly for those individuals involved with environmental engineering.

This book is concerned with unit operations, fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer. Unit operations, by definition, are physical processes although there are some that include chemical and biological reactions. The unit operations approach allows both the practicing engineer and student to compartmentalize the various operations that constitute a process, and emphasizes introductory engineering principles so that the reader can then satisfactorily predict the performance of the various unit operations equipment.

"This is a definitive work on Unit Operations, one of the most important subjects in environmental engineering today. It is an excellent reference, well written, easily read and comprehensive. I believe the book will serve well those working in engineering disciplines including those beyond just environmental and chemical engineering. Bottom–line: A must for any technical library". Kenneth J. Skipka, CCM

The book will serve as a reference for practicing environmental and process engineers in various industry, consulting, regulatory, and municipal government positions. The book can also be used in environmental engineering graduate and undergraduate programs.

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Preface xi

Introduction xvii

Part I: Introduction to Principles of Unit Operations 1

1 History of Chemical Engineering and Unit Operations 3

2 Transport Phenomena versus the Unit Operations Approach 7

3 The Conservation Laws and Stoichiometry 11

4 The Ideal Gas Law 19

5 Thermodynamics 27

6 Chemical Kinetics 39

7 Equilibrium versus Rate Considerations 51

8 Process and Plant Design 57

Part II: Fluid Flow 69

9 Fluid Behavior 71

10 Basic Energy Conservation Laws 81

11 Law of Hydrostatics 89

12 Flow Measurement 95

13 Flow Classification 107

14 Prime Movers 121

15 Valves and Fittings 135

16 Air Pollution Control Equipment 145

17 Sedimentation, Centrifugation, and Flotation 157

18 Porous Media and Packed Beds 171

19 Filtration 181

20 Fluidization 193

21 Membrane Technology 205

22 Compressible and Sonic Flow 219

23 Two–Phase Flow 225

24 Ventilation 237

25 Mixing 247

26 Biomedical Engineering 253

Part III: Heat Transfer 265

27 Steady–State Conduction 267

28 Unsteady–State Conduction 275

29 Forced Convection 281

30 Free Convection 289

31 Radiation 299

32 The Heat Transfer Equation 311

33 Double Pipe Heat Exchangers 325

34 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers 337

35 Finned Heat Exchangers 347

36 Other Heat Transfer Equipment 357

37 Insulation and Refractory 369

38 Refrigeration and Cryogenics 375

39 Condensation and Boiling 391

40 Operation, Maintenance, and Inspection (OM&I) 403

41 Design Principles 411

Part IV: Mass Transfer 419

42 Equilibrium Principles 421

43 Phase Equilibrium Relationships 429

44 Rate Principles 443

45 Mass Transfer Coefficients 453

46 Classification of Mass Transfer Operations 465

47 Characteristics of Mass Transfer Operations 473

48 Absorption and Stripping 485

49 Distillation 495

50 Adsorption 505

51 Liquid–Liquid and Solid–Liquid Extraction 517

52 Humidification 529

53 Drying 543

54 Absorber Design and Performance Equations 555

55 Distillation Design and Performance Equations 571

56 Adsorber Design and Performance Equations 589

57 Crystallization 597

58 Other and Novel Separation Processes 609

Part V: Case Studies 615

59 Drag Force Coefficient Correlation 617

60 Predicting Pressure Drop with Pipe Failure for Flow through Parallel Pipes 621

61 Developing an Improved Model to Describe the Cunningham Correction Factor Effect 623

62 Including Entropy Analysis in Heat Exchange Design 625

63 Predicting Inside Heat Transfer Coefficients in Double–Pipe Exchangers 629

64 Converting View Factor Graphical Data to Equation Form 631

65 Correcting a Faulty Absorber Design 633

66 A Unique Liquid–Liquid Extraction Unit 635

67 Effect of Plate Failure on Distillation Column Performer 639

Appendix A: Units 641

Appendix B: Miscellaneous Tables 649

Appendix C: Steam Tables 653

Appendix D: Basic Calculations 663

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Louis Theodore, MChE and EngScD, is a retired professor of chemical engineering (50 years). He is the author of several publications, including Fluid Flow for the Practicing Chemical Engineer, Thermodynamics for the Practicing Engineer, Mass Transfer Operations for the Practicing Engineer, and Air Pollution Control Equipment Calculations. Dr. Theodore is also a contributor to Perry′s Chemical Engineers′ Handbook.

R. Ryan Dupont has more than 35 years of experience teaching and conducting applied and basic research in environmental engineering at the Utah Water Research Laboratory at Utah State University. He received his PhD degrees in Environmental Health Engineering from the University of Kansas, Lawrence and has been a Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at USU since 1995, serving as the Head of the Environmental Engineering Division for 10 years. He was a 2015 National Air and Waste Management Association Richard I. Stessel Waste Management Award winner for excellence in Waste Management Education.

Kumar Ganesan is currently a professor and department head of the Department of Environmental Engineering at Montana Tech where he has been for the past 35 years. He received his PhD from Washington State University at Pullman, Washington in Engineering Science. His current research includes developing bio–fiber based metallic nanoparticle filters to remove toxic metals from air and water.

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