Trunk Injection Technology 2018 - Product Image

Trunk Injection Technology 2018

  • ID: 4534821
  • Report
  • 70 pages
  • Agrow
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FEATURED COMPANIES

  • Arborjet
  • Bayer
  • Chemjet
  • Fertinyect
  • Mediject
  • Rainbow Tree Care
  • MORE
Although the trunk injection industry is relatively small, it is showing positive growth. Companies are looking to supply fungicides, insecticides, fertilisers and plant growth regulators (PGRs) in formulations which can be injected directly into the vascular tissue of trees to better protect orchards, forests, and urban trees.

Key Insights:
  • 70 pages of unique information
  • Sprays, capsules, and injection technologies
  • Active ingredients and formulations
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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FEATURED COMPANIES

  • Arborjet
  • Bayer
  • Chemjet
  • Fertinyect
  • Mediject
  • Rainbow Tree Care
  • MORE

Executive Summary

Chapter 1: Introduction
1. Introduction
1.1 Trunk anatomy
1.2 Tree physiology and flow rates
1.3 Tree classifications

  • Angiosperms (hardwoods)
  • Gymnosperms (softwoods)
  • Palms

1.4 Trunk injection timeline

  • In history
  • Commercial use

1.5 Injection guidelines

  • Tree health
  • Injection position
  • Timing
  • Number of injection ports

1.6 Benefits and potential of trunk injection

  • Efficient use of chemicals
  • Efficacy over traditional application methods
  • Environmental benefits
  • Residual activity
  • Other uses of trunk injection

1.7 Limitations

  • Duration of application
  • Limited number of formulations
  • Tree wounding

Chapter 2: Trunk injection technologies
2.1 Methods of trunk interface
2.1.1 Plug interfaces
2.1.2 No-plug interfaces
2.1.3 No-drill interfaces
2.2 Methods of administering chemical
2.2.1 Macro-injection systems

  • Gravity systems
  • Low pressure macro-injection (< 60 PSI)
  • High pressure macro-injection

2.2.2 Micro-injection devices

  • Hand injection devices
  • Passive infusion

2.3 Novel trunk injection technologies

Chapter 3: Tree abiotic disorders, diseases and pests
3.1 Abiotic disorders
3.1.1 Iron and manganese chlorosis
3.1.2 Dieback

  • Cause, symptoms and identification
  • Occurrence and distribution

3.2 Tree diseases treated with trunk injection
3.2.1 Dutch elm disease

  • Symptoms
  • 3.2.2 Oak wilt

3.2.3 Elm wilt
3.2.4 Thousand cankers disease
3.2.5 Anthracnose

  • Anthracnose treatments
  • 3.3 Insect pests treated with trunk injection

3.3.1 Beetles (Coleoptera)

  • Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)
  • Bark beetles
  • Asian Longhorned Beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis)
  • Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica)
  • Red palm weevil

3.3.2 Moths and caterpillars (Lepidoptera)

  • Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar)
  • Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata)

3.3.3 Aphids and whiteflies (hemiptera)

  • Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae)

Chapter 4: Injectable ingredients & formulations

  • Water solubility
  • Organic carbon-water partitioning coefficient (Koc)
  • Solution pH

4.1 Injectable insecticides
4.1.1 Imidacloprid

  • Chemistry and history
  • Role in trunk injection

4.1.2 Emamectin
4.1.3 Abamectin

  • Chemistry and history
  • Role in trunk injection

4.1.4 Acephate

  • Chemistry and history
  • Role in trunk injection

4.1.5 Acetamiprid
4.1.6 Other injectable insecticides
4.2 Fungicides
4.2.1 Phosphorous acid
4.2.2 Propiconazole
4.2.3 Thiabendazole

  • Chemistry and history
  • Role in trunk injection

4.2.4 Other injectable fungicides
4.3 Antibiotics: Oxytetracycline Calcium
4.4 Biopesticides
4.5 Plant growth regulators
4.6 Novel trunk injection formulations

Chapter 5: Trunk injection markets
5.1 North America
5.1.1 USA
5.1.2 Canada
5.2 Europe
5.2.1 Spain
5.2.2 Italy
5.2.3 Russia
5.3 Middle East & Africa
5.3.1 South Africa
5.3.2 Iran
5.3.3 Other MEA
5.4 Central and Latin America

Chapter 6: Industry information
6.1 North American tree injection specialists
6.1.1 J. J. Mauget

  • Research and development
  • Training and resources
  • Mauget view on growing the industry

6.1.2 Arborjet

  • Research and development
  • Training and resources
  • Arborjet view on growing the industry

6.1.3 Bioforest technologies

  • Research and development
  • Training and resources

6.1.4 Rainbow Tree Care
6.1.5 ArborSystems
6.1.6 TreeCare Products
6.1.7 Mediject
6.1.8 Phyton Corporation
6.2 Global tree injection specialists
6.2.1 Chemjet

  • Chemjet view on growing the industry

6.2.2 Fertinyect

  • Research and development
  • Training and resources
  • Fertinyect view on growing the industry

6.2.3 Difesa Ambientale
6.3 Agrochemical majors
6.3.1 Syngenta
6.3.2 Bayer

Chapter 7: Trunk injection in agricultural fruit trees
7.1 Apples
7.1.1 Apple tree issues

  • Potato leafhopper

7.1.2 Efficacy of trunk injection
7.1.3 Fruit residues
7.2 Phytophthora root rot in avocados
7.3 Citrus
7.4 Palms (Date, coconut, oil palm)
7.4.1 Efficacy of trunk injection
7.4.2 Fruit residues
7.5 Cocoa
7.6 Macadamia nuts
7.7 Grapevines

Chapter 8: Summary

  • North American ornamental trees
  • Formulations
  • Global agricultural fruit trees
  • European ornamental trees

List of Figures
Figure 1: Cross-section of trunk edge showing main layers
Figure 2: Cross-section of trunk edge showing all layers
Figure 3: Ring-porous, diffuse-porous hardwoods and conifer pore patterns
Figure 4: Tree evaporative demand over a 24-hr period, grams water (Kramer, 1937)
Figure 5: Obsolete ferric ammonium citrate system
Figure 6: Arborplugs, plug positioning and example of minimal tree scar
Figure 7: TreeCare ACECAP implant system
Figure 8: Rainbow connector tee
Figure 9: Arborjet plug-free Stinger needle
Figure 10: The ArborSystems’ Wedgle injection system
Figure 11: Effect of lenticular blade on tree xylem and liquid uptake (the “BITE” system)
Figure 12: Mediject gravity system for treatment of iron chlorosis
Figure 13: Arborjet Tree IV
Figure 14: The Arborprof macro-injection system
Figure 15: Mauget low pressure capsule applicator
Figure 16: University of California global map of soil pH, 2016
Figure 17: Pin Oak (Quercus palustris) trunk injected for iron chlorosis before (left) and after
Figure 18: DED symptoms: leaf yellowing, internal stem streaks and coremia
Figure 19: The Emerald Ash Borer: adult, larvae and larval galleries
Figure 20: Spread of EAB in North Eastern states, 2012-2015
Figure 21: Asian Longhorned Beetle: adult, larvae and exit holes
Figure 22: Japanese Beetle and example of foliar damage
Figure 23: Gypsy moth adults, caterpillar and public awareness campaigns
Figure 24: Spread of Gypsy moth throughout North Eastern US states, 2012-2015
Figure 25: Hemlock Woolly Adelgid
Figure 26: World map of trunk injection markets (USD)
Figure 27: USA company market shares
Figure 28: Canada company market shares
Figure 29: Chemjet split of end use
Figure 30: Potato leafhopper images: a. PLH nymph and b. “Hopperburn” damage on a sugar maple
Figure 31: Efficacy of insecticides injected into apple trees (% mortality)
Figure 32: Concentrations of phosphorous acid in avocado tree tissue samples (mg/kg)
Figure 33: Concentrations of OTC in citrus tree tissue samples (mg/kg, 28 days, 2 ports)

List of Tables
Table 1: Water movement rates of different tree species (m / hr)
Table 2: Tree classifications and characteristics
Table 3: History of trunk injection
Table 4: Plug interfaces
Table 5: High pressure macro-injection systems
Table 6: Recent key trunk injection technology patents
Table 7: Fungal pathogens responsible for anthracnose
Table 8: Trunk injection ai Koc and water solubility
Table 9: Injectable imidacloprid products
Table 10: Emamectin products (USA)
Table 11: Abamectin products
Table 12: Acephate products (USA)
Table 13: Other Mauget injectable fungicides
Table 14: Phosphorous products (USA)
Table 15: Propiconazole products (USA)
Table 16: Global thiabendazole registrations
Table 17: Other Mauget injectable fungicides
Table 18: Oxytetracycline products
Table 19: Injectable PGR products
Table 20: Recent patents for trunk injection formulations
Table 21: Trunk injection market size estimates (USD)
Table 22: Trunk injection product registrations, Italy
Table 23: Trunk injection product registrations, Russia
Table 24: Trunk injection product registrations, South Africa
Table 25: Global presence of trunk injection specialists
Table 26: J. J. Mauget in numbers
Table 27: J. J. Mauget studies
Table 28: J. J. Mauget patents
Table 29: Arborjet company information
Table 30: Bioforest Technologies in numbers
Table 31: Syngenta trunk injection registrations
Table 32: Bayer trunk injection registrations
Table 33: Apple fruit residues
Table 34: Date fruit residues

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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  • ArborSystems
  • Arborjet
  • Bayer
  • Bioforest Technologies
  • Chemjet
  • Difesa Ambientale
  • Fertinyect
  • J. J. Mauget
  • Mediject
  • Phyton Corporation
  • Rainbow Tree Care
  • Syngenta
  • TreeCare Products
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
5 of 4
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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