Ecosystem Sustainability and Global Change - Product Image

Ecosystem Sustainability and Global Change

  • ID: 4542293
  • Book
  • Region: Global
  • 234 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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This volume provides various examples and dimensions, chemical, biological, climatic, or related to extreme (hazards). It describes, by reciprocity, the vulnerability of ecosystems, resources, heritage, human health and, consequently, economic and social sectors.  it considers climate scenarios and socio–economic status indicators research, design strategies and patterns of adaptation, development of innovative monitoring systems, analysis of perceptions of major hazards and valuation of ecosystem services.

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FOREWORD ix

CHAPTER 1. OCEAN, BIODIVERSITY AND RESOURCES 1Gilles BOEUF

1.1. The history of life in the oceans 1

1.2. Specifics of marine biodiversity 6

1.3. Renewable living resources 9

1.3.1. Fisheries 10

1.3.2. Aquaculture 12

1.4. Ocean and public health 21

1.5. Research of molecules of interest of marine origin 22

1.6. Research in marine models (regarding their originality and specificity) 24

1.7. Conclusion 30

1.8. Bibliography 32

CHAPTER 2. PELAGIC MARINE ECOSYSTEMS AND BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES 37Louis LEGENDRE

2.1. Introduction 37

2.1.1. Ocean dynamics: surface and deep circulation 37

2.2. Marine pelagic ecosystems: from viruses to whales 42

2.2.1. Different points of view on marine pelagic ecosystems 42

2.2.2. Main types of planktonic marine ecosystems 43

2.3. Pelagic ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles: inseparable 46

2.3.1. Dissolved inorganic nutrients 47

2.3.2. Dissolved gases 49

2.3.3. Particulate inorganic carbon 53

2.3.4. Dissolved organic carbon 56

2.3.5. Particulate organic carbon 60

2.4. The ocean in the rescue of the planet: carbon pumping and sequestration 66

2.4.1. Carbon pumps and carbon sequestration in the ocean 66

2.4.2. The four ocean carbon pumps 67

2.5. Biogeochemical equilibria, ecosystems and human societies: danger! 72

2.6. Bibliography 74

CHAPTER 3. INDICATORS 77Marie–Joëlle ROCHET and Verena TRENKEL

3.1. Introduction 77

3.2. Approach 79

3.2.1. Context: managing human activities in marine ecosystems 79

3.2.2. Why do we need indicators? 81

3.2.3. Formalizing an indicator framework 82

3.3. Selecting indicators 85

3.3.1. Matching indicators with objectives 85

3.3.2. Criteria 85

3.3.3. Selecting indicator suites 87

3.3.4. Indicator lists 88

3.3.5. Illustrations 88

3.4. From indicators to ecosystem assessment 90

3.4.1. Reference points, states and direction and management objectives 91

3.4.2. Using knowledge and data to define reference points 92

3.4.3. Reference points and indicator suites 94

3.4.4. Reference domains and reference directions 94

3.4.5. Integrated assessment 95

3.5. Giving advice 100

3.6. Indicators in practice 101

3.6.1. Monitoring program 102

3.6.2. Calculation of indicators and their trends105

3.7. A summary by way of conclusion 106

3.8. Acknowledgments 107

3.9. Bibliography 107

CHAPTER 4. THE IMPACT OF GLOBAL CHANGE ON THE DYNAMICS OF MARINE LIVING RESOURCES 113Philippe GROS and Patrick PROUZET

4.1. Fisheries, aquaculture and food supply 113

4.1.1. Introduction 113

4.1.2. Overview of the world aquatic animal food supply 114

4.1.3. A combination of diverse issues and contexts 120

4.1.4. Climate change impacts on fishery resources 132

4.2. From exploited populations ecology knowledge to fisheries management 140

4.2.1. From observations to modeling hypothesis 140

4.2.2. From the model to ecological concepts 146

4.2.3. Three examples of demographic strategies 148

4.2.4. Basic concepts for fishery management 155

4.3. From concepts to reality: management and governance 162

4.3.1. Representation of stock–fleet interactions management objectives 162

4.3.2. The dual overcapacity–overexploitation crisis: fisheries faced with the tragedy of the commons  164

4.3.3. The convergence of sector–specific maritime and environmental politics 169

4.3.4. The progressive emergence of the ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) 172

4.4. From EAF to the systemic approach: working toward a better regulation for the usages of marine biodiversity 174

4.4.1. Diadromous fish, under many combined forms of pressure 174

4.4.2. In favor of a systems approach 181

4.5. Appendix 184

4.5.1. Stock assessment models: period 1950 1970 184

4.5.2. Structured models of population dynamics 190

4.6. Bibliography 194

LIST OF AUTHORS 213

INDEX 215

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André Monaco is Emeritus Director of Research for the French national research center (CNRS). His research interests concern marine sedimentology and geochemistry. He was responsible for part of the organizing committee for several French and European programs and has been guest editor for four special issues in international journals.

Patrick Prouzet is Director of Research focusing on the ecosystemic approach at Ifremer in France. He specializes in the biology and dynamics of anadromous fish such as Atlantic salmon and eels. He is the author or co–author of several works on these species or on estuary fishing.

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