T-Cell Receptors (TCR) and Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CAR) are the cutting edge of adoptive T-cell therapy. Both receptors deploy T-cells to target the tumor, but CAR T-cells (CAR-T) are limited to binding to cell surface antigens, while TCR T-cells (TCR-T) recognize peptides (derived from intracellular proteins) presented on the cell surface by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I.
TCR-Ts have so far operated in the shadow of CAR-Ts, but may have the advantage in solid tumors. The first approved CD19-specific CAR-Ts are indicated for hematologic malignancies, but CAR-Ts were less successful against solid tumors.
This report, TCR Engineered T-Cell Therapy 2018: an industry analysis of technologies, pipelines, stakeholders & deals" published in May 2018 brings you up-to-date regarding key TCR-T players, key TCR-T technologies and product candidates, business models, deals and funding opportunities. The report analyzes the TCR-T pipelines and stakeholders in the field, especially focused and diversified TCR-T companies and their relationship with academia and major pharma/biotech. The report highlights the value of TCR-T assets in terms of partnering economic conditions, acquisition prices and financing rounds.
This report has been prepared by use of in-house databases and desktop search to identify and describe company, product, technology and business/financing profiles which then were evaluated and analyzed with a final outlook describing perspectives with challenges and opportunities. Sources of information are provided by scientific and non-scientific references, e.g. press releases, stock exchange disclosures, presentations, annual reports, fact sheets and patent applications (with hyperlinks leading to the source of information).
Key questions answered:
- Which targets are chosen for development of TCR-Ts?
- How close are neoantigen-specific TCR-Ts to the clinic?
- Which technologies are used for generation of T-Cell Receptors?
- Has clinical proof-of-concept been shown for any TCR-T?
- How does the TCR-T pipeline look like?
- What manufacturing strategies and solutions have companies chosen?
- Are next generation TCR-Ts already in development?
- What are the key technologies for a successful TCR-T?
- Who are the key players in the TCR-T field?
- How tough is competition among TCR-T developers?
- Should companies be focused on TCR-Ts only or be diversified into various adoptive T-cell therapeutics?
- Which technologies and assets attract licensees?
- How is the financing situation for TCR-T?
- What are the key success factors for TCR-Ts?
- Leading Pharmaceutical companies
- R&D staff
- Business development managers
- Industry organisations
1 Executive Summary
2 Introduction, Overview & Background
3.1 Overview & Discussion
3.1.1 Technologies for Discovery of Antigens for TCRs
3.1.2 Technologies for Discovery of TCRs
3.1.3 Allogeneic T-Cell Technologies
3.1.4 Technologies for Next Generation TCR T-Cells
3.2 Technologies for Discovery of Targets for TCRs
3.2.2 Target Selection for SPEAR T-Cells
3.2.3 Phosphopeptide Library
3.2.4 HTS Platform for Neoantigen Identification
3.2.5 pMHC Target Discovery
3.2.6 EpiTarget Platform
3.2.7 Neoantigen Prediction
3.3 Technologies for TCR Discovery
3.3.1 SPEAR T-Cell Technology
3.3.2 High-Throughput Identification of TUMAP-Restriced TCRs & ActEngine
3.3.3 Single Cell Sequencing Platform
3.3.5 HTS TCR Discovery and Sleeping-Beauty Expression System
3.3.6 Natural, High Affinity TCRs (Bellicum)
3.3.7 High-throughput cloning and characterisation of naturally selected TCRs
3.3.8 Natural TCR Library
3.3.9 Natural TCRs from Vaccinated Patients
3.3.10 T-Rx Mammalian TCR Display
3.3.11 VelociT for T-Cell Receptor Discovery
3.3.12 Combinatorial TCR Exchange (CTE)
3.3.13 Immune Repertoire Capture
3.3.14 E-ALPHA Phage Display
3.3.15 TCRL Antibodies
3.4 TCR Engineered Allogeneic T-Cells
3.4.2 universal Immune Cell Therapies (uICT)
3.4.3 GammaDelta T-Cells
3.4.4 Universal Donor Stem Cells
3.4.5 ATO Allogeneic T-Cells
3.5 Next Generation Technologies to Improve Safety & Efficacy
3.5.1 ARTEMIS Technology
3.5.2 CID Technology Platform
3.5.3 Custom Cell Engineering Technologies synNotch and Throttle
3.5.4 DEACT Technology
3.5.5 Dominant TCR Technology
3.5.6 RetroNectin and siTCR Vector Technologies
3.5.7 Stem-to-T-Cell Technology
3.5.8 Transmembrane Immunomodulatory Protein (TIP) Technology
4.1 Overview & Discussion
4.1.2 Target Selection
4.1.3 T-Cell Sources & Subtypes
4.1.4 Use of Switches & Next Generation Constructs
4.2 Profiles of MAGE-A Specific TCR T-Cells
4.2.2 MAGE-A4c1032 T
4.2.3 MAGE-A10c796 T
4.3 Profiles of NY-ESO-1 Specific TCR T-Cells
4.3.2 NYCE T Cells
4.4 Profiles of AFP Specific TCR T-Cells
4.4.1 AFPc332 T
4.4.2 ET1402L1 CAR T-Cells
4.5 Profiles of PRAME Specific TCR T-Cells
4.5.3 Dual Switch PRAME TCR T-Cells
4.6 Profiles of WT1 Specific TCR T-Cells
4.6.3 WT1-Specific Transgenic T-Cells
4.7 Profiles of Other Target Specific TCR T-Cells
4.8 Profiles of Neoantigen Specific TCR T-Cells
6.1 Company Overview & Discussion
6.1.1 Pure Play TCR T-Cell Companies
6.1.2 Diversified Companies with TCR-T Activities
6.2 Pure Play TCR T-Cell Companies
6.2.1 Adaptimmune Therapeutics
6.2.3 Immatics US
6.2.4 Lion TCR
6.2.5 Tactiva Therapeutics
6.2.6 Zelluna Immunotherapies
6.2.7 TCR2 Therapeutics
6.3 Profiles of Diversified Companies with TCR-T Activities
6.3.1 Adicet Bio
6.3.2 AgenTus Therapeutics
6.3.3 Bellicum Pharmaceuticals
6.3.5 Bluebird bio
6.3.6 Cell Medica
6.3.7 Eureka Therapeutics
6.3.9 Intellia Therapeutics
6.3.10 Juno, a Celgene Company
6.3.11 Kite, a Gilead Company
6.3.13 Neon Therapeutics
6.3.14 Regeneron Pharmaceuticals
6.3.15 Takara Bio
6.3.16 TC BioPharm
6.3.17 Tmunity Therapeutics
6.3.18 ZIOPHARM Oncology
6.4 Other Companies with TCR-T Activities
6.4.1 Alpine Immune Sciences
6.4.3 ImmunoCellular Therapeutics
7 Business Development & Financing
7.1 Role of academia for the TCR-T industry
7.2 Role of Big Pharma & Biotech for TCR-T
7.3 Technology In-Licensing Deals
7.4 Collaborative Arrangements
7.5 Acquisitions of Companies and Assets
7.6 Financing of TCR-T Companies
8 Outlook & Perspectives
- Adicet Bio
- Aeon Therapeutics Shanghai
- AgenTus Therapeutics
- Alpine Immune Science
- Bellicum Pharmaceuticals
- Bluebird bio
- Cell Medica
- CRISPR Therapeutics
- Editas Medicine
- Eureka Therapeutics
- ImmunoCellular Therapeutics
- Intellia Therapeutics
- Juno Therapeutics/Celgene
- Kite Pharma/Gilead Sciences
- Lion TCR
- Neon Therapeutics
- Regeneron Pharmaceuticals
- Sangamo Therapeutics
- Tactiva Therapeutics
- Takara Bio
- TC BioPharm
- TCR2 Therapeutics
- Tmunity Therapeutics
- Universal Cells
- Zelluna Immunotherapy
- ZIOPHARM Oncology