Desalination & Water Sector Report - 1st Edition - 2018

  • ID: 4564122
  • Report
  • Region: Global
  • 162 Pages +
  • StatPlan Energy Ltd
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Desalination is one of many technologies for water supply. In 2018 desalination accounted for 13.9% of the capex for municipal and industrial water supply and the cumulative desalination plants delivered less than 1% of the supply of water. It is the most expensive form of delivering fresh water and it can cause serious environmental damage with discharges of brine into inland seas. So, when is it viable?

Desalination is sometimes the only solution for water supply in very demanding circumstances, either of water shortage or when ultra pure water is required for industrial process. 

This report positions desalination in the maze of water flows and treatment technologies for water and waste, and examines competitive technologies. 

  • The water and waste sector is quantified In $ capex at all stages of the water value chain, including desalination as a segment within the total infrastructure.
  • The water value chain is analysed in four segments - Water Supply (withdrawal including desalination/distribution/treatment) - Sanitation (collection/treatment) - Industry (including desalination) - Agriculture - Point-of-Use.
  • Desalination sales are plotted from 1972 to 2017 and forecast to 2022 in m3/d and $ value.
  • Comprehensive learning curve analysis is employed to predict price trends.
  • National markets are analysed in detail for all countries using desalination.
  • End-user shares are given with a tabulation of the main customers in user countries.
  • Membrane (ED, EDR & RO) and thermal (MSF, MED & VCD) desalination technologies are described, with global shares regional emphasis.
  • Renewable energy desalination systems are witnessing an increasing interest worldwide and increasingly being adopted in some regions.
  • Municipal and industrial wastewater treatments and their technologies are outlined and discussed, as recycling competitors to desalination supply.
  • The costs of desalination are analysed with the factors influencing them, past trends plotted and future projections made.
  • Peak Salt - the  environmental impact of desalination, is having a critical impact on some inland seas and waterways, notably the Red Sea and Persian Gulf.
  • Desalination, like other major industrial processes, has environmental impacts that must be understood and mitigated.
  • Future desalination technologies are outlined.
  • The three French giants water and waste companies are profiled; Veolia, Suez and Saur.
  • More than 150 participants in the industrial water treatment chemicals market in North America are listed.
  • The 25 top desalination companies are listed.
  • Leading reverse osmosis membrane manufacturers are listed, with materials, configuration (hollow, plated, spiral) and application.
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Desalination within the global water value chain
The global water value chain capex
Desalination capex
Cost of desalination
The global water value chain
Demand for desalination
The competitive pressures – water pollution and its reuse
Industrial waste water
Agricultural pollution
Municipal water pollution
Water Stress
Technology
Desalination Costs
Advantages of Desalination
Peak salt - environmental impact of desalination

1. THE WORLD’S WATER SUPPLY, CONSUMPTION AND POLLUTION
The resources gap
Wastewater treatment

2. DESALINATION AND THE WIDER WATER MARKET
The water value chain
End use of water
Industrial waste water treatment
Municipal waste water treatment
Agricultural waste water treatment
Total cost in the water value chain
Water supply
Sanitation
Salinity
Desalination annual contracted capacity
Desalination capex
Cost of desalination

3. WATER POLLUTION
Industrial waste water
Agricultural pollution
Municipal water pollution

4. MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Preliminary treatment/screening
1. Primary treatment
2. Secondary treatment
3. Tertiary treatment
Advanced treatment
Africa
Arab countries
Asia Pacific
Europe and North America
Latin America and the Caribbean

5. AGRICULTURAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

6. INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Content of industrial wastewater
Industrial water treatment
Cost factors of industrial water treatment
Flow rates
Water quality
Target purity
Construction materials
Capital costs of industrial water treatment
Process water treatment
Process purification and separation
Wastewater treatment systems

7. DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES
Thermal
Multistage Flash (MSF)
Multi Effect Distillation (MED)
Mechanical Vapour Compression / Vapour Compression (VCD)
Membrane
Reverse Osmosis (RO)
Forward Osmosis (FO)
Electrodialysis (ED) and (EDR)
Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR)
Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC)
Cogeneration
Hybrid Systems
Energy Recovery Devices

8. RENEWABLE ENERGY (RE) POWERED DESALINATION
Solar
Solar Thermal
Solar PV
Wind
Geothermal
Medring
Biomass
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)
Wave
Salinity Gradient/Osmotic Power
Hydroelectric
Nuclear

9. COSTS OF DESALINATION
Cost Components – CAPEX
Cost Components – OPEX

10. FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES
Forward Osmosis (FO)
Capacitive Deionisation (CDI)
The FO market
Other new desalination technologies

11. PEAK SALT - ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DESALINATION
Peak salt
Technical factors
Water Stress, Surplus and Users
Water Users

12. WATER TYPES

13. GLOBAL DESALINATION MARKET
Historical development of the desalination market
Cost of water
Construction cost versus size
Construction gains and plant size
Cost trends
Future price trends
The learning curve concept
Validation of the learning curve predictions
Capex
Installed cost
The installed base of desalination plant
End -users of desalination
Private and Public Sector Participation

14. NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS – MIDDLE EAST
Middle Eastern Mediterranean countries
Israel and the Palestinian Territories
Jordan
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)
Bahrain
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Persian Gulf countries
Iran
Iraq
Yemen

15. NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - AFRICA
North Africa
Algeria
Egypt
Libya
Morocco
Sudan
Tunisia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Kenya
Namibia
South Africa

16. NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - ASIA
Afghanistan
China
The desalination market in China
Past constraints on desalination development in China
India
Japan
Maldives
Pakistan
Singapore
South Korea
Taiwan

17. NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS – THE STANS
Kazakhstan
Turkmenistan
Uzbekistan

18. NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - PACIFIC
Australia
Pacific Islands

19. NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - AMERICAS
NORTH AMERICA
Mexico
United States
Financial engineering
Municipal desalination
Industrial desalination
Regional distribution of desalination
SOUTH AMERICA
Brazil
Chile
Peru
Caribbean
American Virgin Islands
Anguilla and the Bahamas
Aruba
Barbados
Bermuda
Bonaire
British Virgin Islands
Cayman Islands
Cuba
Netherland Antilles
Puerto Rico
St Maarten
Trinidad and Tobago

20. NATIONAL DESALINATION MARKETS - EUROPE
North
Ireland
United Kingdom
Cyprus
Greece
Italy
Malta
Spain

21. WATER & WASTE TREATMENT AND DESALINATION COMPANIES
The three French leaders in water & waste, municipal and industrial
Suez
Veolia Environnement
SAUR Group-Societé d'Aménagement Urbain et Rural
Industrial waste water treatment companies
Companies managing and optimising the global industrial water cycle
Desalination

GLOSSARY

List of Figures:
Figure 1: The global water cycle   
Figure 2: Global freshwater withdrawals; consumption and wastewater production by major water use sector   
Figure 3: The water value chain   
Figure 4: Use of withdrawn water by regions   
Figure 5: Investment in water supply by type of cost   
Figure 6: Investment in distribution by type of cost, new networks, renovation & maintenance   
Figure 7: Investment in wastewater collection by type of expenditure, treatment or collection   
Figure 8: The mismatch of capex versus consumption in the water and waste sector   
Figure 9: Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita in 2013   
Figure 10: The cost of water supply measures (Indian example)   
Figure 11: A model of primary, secondary and tertiary water treatment   
Figure 12: Percentage of population served by different types of sanitation systems, 2014   
Figure 13: Changes in wastewater treatment in regions of Europe between 1980 and 2012   
Figure 14: (a) the main desalination processes; (b) the contribution of each desalination process to the world water production   
Figure 15: Diagram of Multistage Flash Distillation plant   
Figure 16: Diagram of Multi Effect Distillation plant   
Figure 17: Diagram of Vapour Compression desalination plant   
Figure 18: Brief timeline of the development of Reverse Osmosis membranes.   
Figure 19: Diagram demonstrating the principles of osmosis   
Figure 20: Diagram demonstrating the principles of Reverse Osmosis   
Figure 21: Flow diagram of a Reverse Osmosis system   
Figure 22: Diagram of a cross-flow membrane compared to a conventional membrane   
Figure 23: Diagram demonstrating the principles of Forward Osmosis   
Figure 24: Diagram of Electrodialysis desalination   
Figure 25: Typical hybrid plant set up   
Figure 26: Energy required to deliver 1 m3 of clean water from various sources   
Figure 27: Shares of renewable technologies in desalination   
Figure 28: Global regions appropriate for solar thermal power plants   
Figure 29: Water stressed countries with wind power potential   
Figure 30: Global hotspots for geothermal activity   
Figure 31: The Medring   
Figure 32: Potential sites for OTEC desalination plants: Caribbean, China, India, Northern Australia, South Western American States and Countries in the Persian Gulf   
Figure 33: Typical SWRO desalination plant CAPEX breakdown   
Figure 34: Typical SWRO desalination plant OPEX breakdown   
Figure 35: Forward Osmosis   
Figure 36: The difference between Reverse Osmosis and Forward Osmosis   
Figure 37: Percentage of population facing severe water stress, 2007   
Figure 38: Global water needs including potential climate change/pollution-driven change   
Figure 39: Different water sources used in the desalination industry   
Figure 40: Installed capacity in m3/d and online capacity additions, 1960-2017   
Figure 41: Capex costs in the MENA region   
Figure 42: Opex costs in the MENA region   
Figure 43: Capex and Opex in the MENA region   
Figure 44: Unit construction cost by size   
Figure 45:  Awarded SWRO capacity from 1977 to 2015 distributed by (top) SWRO plant size and (bottom) online SWRO capacity from 1977 to 2015 distributed by region.   
Figure 46: SWRO Cost Trends   
Figure 47: Cumulative Online Capacity by technology from 1969 to 2015 (   
Figure 48: (top) SWRO Capex Learning Curve for 1977 - 2015 and 1979 - 2003 and (bottom) fit of the modelled capex values to the actual capex values.   
Figure 49: Price trend per m3/d for water sales and capex, 1972 to 2017   
Figure 50: Desalination annual capex and contracted m3/d, 1972 to 2022   
Figure 51: Capex of desalination plants in nominal $ by region, 2017 to 2022   
Figure 52: Total desalination capacity by country, m3/day   
Figure 53: Share of desalination capacity, 2017   
Figure 54: Total worldwide installed capacity by user type   
Figure 55: Share of desalination capacity by country in the Middle East   
Figure 56: Water demand in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the UAE, Qatar, Algeria and Libya (not including agricultural)   
Figure 57: Seawater desalination plants in Saudi Arabia   
Figure 58: The Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System   
Figure 59: Supply capacity of large-scale desalination and recycled water plants for major capital cities versus total urban water use, 2006-07 to 2012-13 (GL/yr)   
Figure 60: Cost distribution of desalination processes   
Figure 61: Location and extent of saline aquifers   

List of Tables
Table 1: Shares of water supply   
Table 2: Composition of water & waste infrastructure and supply cost, 2018   
Table 3: Wastewater treatment level in Arab countries   
Table 4: Countries with the lowest level of wastewater treatment in Asia Pacific   
Table 5: Connections to wastewater treatment   
Table 6: % levels of treatment in selected countries, 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2016   
Table 7: Generation of wastewater by type of industry, EU, 2011   
Table 8: Content of typical wastewater in some major industries   
Table 9: Desalination technologies and processes   
Table 10: Comparison of different filtration and membrane systems   
Table 11: Comparison of the different desalination technologies   
Table 12: Benefits of different hybrid configurations   
Table 13: Possible combinations of renewable energy and desalination technology   
Table 14: Comparison of different energy sources for desalination   
Table 15: Costs for three SWRO plants located in various locations of the globe, such as the US, the Middle East, and Australia.   
Table 16: Naturally occurring salinity levels   
Table 17: Water scarce countries   
Table 18: Water footprint for different energy sources   
Table 19: Capex of desalination plants in nominal $ by region, 2017 to 2022   
Table 20: Types of public and private sector participation in the desalination industry   
Table 21: Key decision makers for desalination plant applications in countries with a significant or potentially significant desalination market   
Table 22: Cumulative investment in water desalination in selected MENA countries ($billion using 2004 prices as a baseline)   
Table 23: Summary of Australian desalination plants   
Table 24: Surface water storage, desalination capacity, desalinated water supplied and recycled water supplied by region.   
Table 25: Overview of suppliers of RO membranes

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  • Suez
  • Veolia Environnement
  • SAUR Group-Societé d'Aménagement Urbain et Rural
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