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Looking at the Potential of Carbon Sequestration 2018

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  • 125 Pages
  • June 2018
  • Region: Global
  • Aruvian Research
  • ID: 4577467

Atmospheric Levels of CO2 have Risen from Pre-Industrial Levels of 280 Parts Per Million (ppm) to Present Levels of 375 ppm

Zooming levels of CO2 from rapid industrialization have started to emerge now as more than just statistics on the environmental radar. Atmospheric levels of CO2 have risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 parts per million (ppm) to present levels of 375 ppm. The heavy dependence on fossil fuel as an energy source for the economic activity has vastly contributed to the meteoric rise in carbon levels. Worldwide trends do not suggest a slowdown in consumption of such fossil fuel unless civilization learns to manage an important component of this equation – CARBON. This can be made possible only through a change in the manner in which we produce as well as consume energy.

An immediate first in this direction will be to manage energy more efficiently in order to control fossil fuel consumption. Secondly, the development and usage of low carbon content or carbon free fuels (nuclear power and renewable sources such as solar energy, wind power, and biomass fuels) 

The third and economically competent way to manage carbon is through carbon sequestration.

Carbon sequestration refers to the provision of long-term storage of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, underground, or the oceans so that the buildup of carbon dioxide (the principal greenhouse gas) concentration in the atmosphere will reduce or slow. In some cases, this is accomplished by maintaining or enhancing natural processes; in other cases, novel techniques are developed to dispose of carbon.

The publisher now brings a research report covering all you need to know on Carbon Sequestration – Looking at the Potential of Carbon Sequestration 2018. This report envisages on the key issue of making carbon sequestration an economically competent and financially viable strategy which links the community in the long run by incentivizing sustained socio-economic activity in conjunction with the environment. The report looks at carbon sequestration projects as a means of promoting sustainable forestry practices as well as conserving the interest of the land stakeholders in implementation of these projects.

The report gives a bipartisan view of the policy and economic support needed for success of sequestration projects and the conceptual framework of the issues challenging progress in general. The need for dissolving individual political ideologies in favor of the larger picture is stressed upon as a necessity. The publisher's report delves into the methodologies currently employed in this arena to address problems related to leakages of carbon in forest based carbon sequestration projects.

The report provides a detailed analysis of establishing the link between carbon and climate change as well as the areas of improvement needed in current applicable treaties like the Kyoto Protocol. In investigating the Methodology, the report elaborates on the various tools of measurement monitoring and verification of carbon emission ratios as well as the subsequent benefits that can be derived from controlling the same in the modern world. Another role of human intervention as explained by this report is the necessity of the shift in attitude from compellance to volunteerism which will turn the entire activity into a positively acceptable economic activity and the feasibility of the market approach to carbon sequestration thorough credits.

Thereafter, the report also addressed the flaws in the current approached applied worldwide and exemplifies the regions where the successful sequestration has been carried out achieving the key factors associated with it as a requisite. The report uses the Bolivia – Noelle Kempff Climate Action model and several other projects as case studies of a large scale carbon project at work in a developing country.

The efforts of some countries and the innovative initiative taken by them in achieving carbon sequestration ahead of the world order and also ensuring the goal of weaving the community in economic activity with the environment ‘ thereby removing one of the most basic reasons for degradation of forest cover. The report is a complete guide to understanding and identifying the true potential of Carbon Sequestration for a clean sustainable future for mankind.

Table of Contents

A. Executive Summary

B. Introduction
B.1 Carbon Sequestration Checkmate GHG & Global Warming?
B.2 Carbon Cycle Conceptualization
B.3 Carbon as a Climate Change Factor
B.4 Carbon Sequestration - Indispensability of Econo-Political Support
B.5 Deriving the Correct Equation for Carbon Credits
B.6 Coordinating Political Ideology
B.7 Kyoto Protocol - Challenges Yet To Be Cornered
B.8 Imbalance of Intentions
B.9 Brief Look at Artificial Sequestration

C. How to go About Carbon Sequestration
C.1 Carbon Benefits – How to Measure, Monitor & Verify
C.2 Multi Project Approach & Measurement
C.3 Technology as a Facilitator to Sequestration
C.4 Carbon Leakage – Tough Economic Challenge
C.5 Forestry Projects & Carbon Leakage
C.6 Leakage Containment Methods
C.7 Mentoring Volunteerism against Compellance
C.8 Market Dynamics to Carbon Sequestration

D. US DOE’s Carbon Sequestration Program
D.1 CO2 Capture
D.2 Carbon Storage
D.3 Monitoring, Mitigation, and Verification
D.4 Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Control
D.5 Infrastructure
D.6 Program Management

E. Constraints to Present Methods
E.1 Multiplicity of Benefits
E.2 Carbon Markets & Sustainable Development
E.3 Financing & Distribution of Carbon Sequestration
E.4 Future Aligning Ancillary Financial Activities to Carbon Markets

F. Storage Methods
F.1 Geological Storage
F.2 Ocean Storage
F.3 Mineral Storage

G. Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide
G.1 Introduction
G.2 Climate, Energy Use & Carbon Dioxide Emissions
G.2.1 Role of Oceans in the Carbon Cycle
G.2.2 Human Influence on the Climate
G.3 Looking at Ocean Fertilization
G.3.1 Iron Fertilization
G.3.2 Macro-Nutrients Fertilization
G.4 CO2 Disposal in to Oceans
G.4.1 Penalties Associated
G.4.2 Technology behind Deep Sea Disposal
G.4.3 Ocean Circulation
G.4.4 Ecological Impacts
G.4.5 Research & Development
G.5 Injection of CO2 into Sub-Sea Aquifers & Formations
G.6 Conclusion

H. Carbon Sequestration in Forests

I. Carbon Sequestration Projects
I.1 Establishment of Woodlots for Carbon Sequestration in Benin
I.2 Sequestration Project in Otway Basin, Australia
I.3 The Weyburn Project
I.4 Noelle Kempff National Park Project

J. Leading Players in Carbon Sequestration
J.1 BP Plc
J.2 Chevron Corporation
J.3 ENI Spa
J.4 Royal Dutch Shell Plc
J.5 Norsk Hydro ASA
J.6 Encana Corporation
J.7 Suncor Energy

K. Appendix
K.1 FAQs on Carbon Sequestration
K.2 Figures & Tables

N. Glossary of Terms

List of Figures
Figure 1: 1990 CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion & Land-Use Change
Figure 2: Area of Vegetation Types as Percentage of Global Total
Figure 3: Effect of Fossil Fuels
Figure 4: Fossil Fuel Conversion Platforms and CO2 Capture
Figure 5: CO2 Capture Supporting Roadmap
Figure 6: Example - CO2 Capture System Using Amine-Enriched Sorbents
Figure 7: Carbon Storage Supporting Roadmap
Figure 8: MM&V Supporting
Figure 9: Annual Global Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuels & Land-Use Change (Deforestation)
Figure 10: Benefits for Stakeholders
Figure 11: Sequestration Financing Mechanisms
Figure 12: Financing – Distribution Model of Sequestration Fund
Figure 13: Schematic Representation of the Global Carbon Cycle for Post Industrial Times
Figure 14: Schematic Diagram for a Process for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Power Station/Industrial Process Flue Gases
Figure 15: Diagrammatic Representation of the Major Oceanic Domains Characterized by Depth of Water
Figure 16: Diagrammatic Representation of Injection of Carbon Dioxide into Sub-Seabed Geological Formations from a Fixed Platform
Figure 17: Terrestrial Carbon Cycle
Figure 18: CO2 Intensity of GDP & CO2 Emissions in the U.S., 1980-2025
Figure 19: U.S. GHG Emissions Scenario & Technologies to Fill the Gap
Figure 20: Funding Requirements of the DOE Carbon Sequestration Program, 2001-2020
Figure 21: Carbon Sequestration from a Fossil-Fuel Power Station

List of Tables
Table 1: Non-CO2 GHG Roadmap

Companies Mentioned

  • BP Plc
  • Chevron Corporation
  • Encana Corporation
  • ENI Spa
  • Norsk Hydro ASA
  • Royal Dutch Shell Plc
  • Suncor Energy