Pesticides - Integrated Pest Management

  • ID: 4585632
  • Report
  • Region: Global
  • 78 Pages
  • Agrow
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The author is pleased to bring you their latest report which explores how integrated pest management (IPM) policies and strategies are being implemented across different countries and regions.

It also discusses the drivers and barriers to IPM adoption and the pesticides used. Detailed within are government IPM policies, the companies actively involved in the IPM segment, and the trends in R&D.

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Executive Summary

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Drivers of IPM
1.2 Designing a package of IPM measures
1.2.1. Understanding pest and host biology
1.2.2. Establishing an action threshold
1.2.3. Developing a set of recommended measures

  • Preventative cultural measures
  • Biological crop protection
  • Habitat manipulation

1.3 Implementing an IPM package
1.3.1. Damage and pest identification
1.3.2. Scouting
1.3.3. Implementing measures
1.3.4. Evaluation and recording of results
1.4 Assessing the impacts of IPM

Chapter 2: Biological crop protection
2.1 Types of biological crop protection
2.1.1. Beneficial insects
2.1.2. Microbial

  • Bacteria
  • Fungi
  • Viruses
  • Nematodes

2.1.3. Natural products

  • Neem oil (Azadirachtin)
  • Pyrethrum extract
  • Other commercial natural products

2.1.4. Semiochemicals

Chapter 3: Chemicals and IPM
3.1 Chemical use in IPM
3.2 Spray timing
3.3 Selective chemicals used in IPM

  • Imidacloprid
  • Esfenvalerate
  • Pirimicarb
  • Indoxacarb
  • Diflubenzuron
  • Pymetrozine
  • Buprofezin
  • Cyromazine
  • Methoxyfenozide
  • Chlorantraniliprole
  • Other selective chemicals

3.4 Basic substances

  • Chitosan hydrochloride
  • Clayed charcoal
  • Calcium hydroxide
  • Diammonium phosphate
  • Fructose
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Beer

Chapter 4: Policy and adoption
4.1 Policies by country
4.1.1. North America

  • USA
  • Canada

4.1.2. Europe

  • UK
  • Bulgaria
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus

4.1.3. Near East

  • Iran
  • Turkey
  • Jordan

4.1.4. Asia and Africa

  • Farmer Field Schools
  • Indonesia
  • India
  • China
  • Nepal
  • West Africa

4.1.5. Communication, diffusion and adoption

Chapter 5: The IPM industry
5.1.1. The biological crop protection industry

  • Microbial manufacturers
  • Beneficial insects
  • Natural products
  • Semiochemicals

5.1.2. Involvement of the agrochemical majors

  • Syngenta
  • Bayer

Chapter 6: Bertha armyworm in US Canola

  • The IPM response

Chapter 7: Wheat in Tajikistan

  • Pest problems
  • The IPM response
  • Impact assessment

Chapter 8: Aubergine and gourd in Bangladesh

  • Pest problems
  • The IPM response
  • Impact assessment
  • Adoption

Chapter 9: Mango in Kenya

  • Pest problems
  • IPM response
  • Impact assessment

Chapter 10: The future of IPM
10.1 Fieldwork-based actions
10.2 Technology-based actions

Chapter 11: Summary

Chapter 12: Annex
12.1 Acronyms
12.2 Tobacco and IPM
12.3 Sugarcane in Pakistan
12.4 Push-pull biological control used in IPM
12.5 Data tables on biologicals

List of Figures
Figure 1: Cases of aphid chemical resistance, 1996 - 2016
Figure 2: The economic injury level concept (EIL)
Figure 3: Equation for calculating an EIL
Figure 4: The action threshold (AT)
Figure 5: The IPM Pyramid showing available measures and their compatibility
Figure 6: Examples of intercropping
Figure 7: Placing of water-sensitive paper on plants
Figure 8: Examples of good water coverage, excessive run-off and non-uniform coverage
Figure 9: Response of predator densities in a soybean field with surrounding vegetation
Figure 10: Effect of beetle banks on beetle populations in cropping systems
Figure 11: Diagram of bio-bed layers (tobacco)
Figure 12: Example scouting patterns
Figure 13: Scouting timings of pests in blueberry
Figure 14: Depiction of economic threshold in practical terms
Figure 15: Global biological CP market ($ million, 2010-2016)
Figure 16: Examples of parasitoid beneficial insects
Figure 17: Effect of Sericothrips release (number) on Ulex europaeus control (%)
Figure 18: “Tricho cards” used to release Trichogramma insects
Figure 19: The effect of Beauveria bassiana insecticide on European corn borer
Figure 20: Chrysanthemum harvest used for extraction of pyrethrum
Figure 21: Toxicity of natural product insecticides on whitefly (% mortality)
Figure 22: Pheromone traps and pheromone disruption
Figure 23: Optimal timing of spray applications in IPM
Figure 24: Results of IPM survey in Jordan (%)
Figure 25: A typical Farmer Field School
Figure 26: IPM awareness training for schoolchildren in India
Figure 27: Net income on Chinese cotton production with and without IPM
Figure 28: Suggested use of methods and media for the diffusion of IPM
Figure 29: Extension meeting in Nepal, 2002
Figure 30: Continuum from conventional pest control to IPM
Figure 31: Bertha armyworm life stages
Figure 32: Unitrap to monitor bertha armyworm
Figure 33: A Sunn pest on wheatcorn
Figure 34: IPM impact on wheat yield (kg/plot)
Figure 35: Main aubergine growing districts in Bangladesh (million tonnes)
Figure 36: Eggplant fruit and shoot borer (EFSB) growth stages
Figure 37: Aubergine damage caused by eggplant fruit and shoot borer (EFSB)
Figure 38: Reported cases of Lepidoptera Pyralidae chemical resistance each year
Figure 39: A EFSB sex pheromone-kept aubergine field showing correct height
Figure 40: Pheromone trap spacing in a gourd field
Figure 41: Percentage change in production costs and profitability (IPM, Bangladesh)
Figure 42: Functions of the Augmentorium
Figure 43: Mango revenue less cost of input (Ksh/acre)
Figure 44: Push-pull strategies

List of Tables
Table 1: US crop losses from insects (%)
Table 2: Definitions of measurable IPM impacts (International Potato Centre)
Table 3: IPM systems recommending use of imidacloprid
Table 4: IPM systems recommending use of esfenvalerate
Table 5: IPM systems recommending use of pirimicarb
Table 6: IPM systems recommending use of indoxacarb
Table 7: IPM systems recommending use of diflubenzuron
Table 8: IPM systems recommending use of pymetrozine
Table 9: IPM systems recommending use of buprofezin
Table 10: IPM systems recommending use of cyromazine
Table 11: IPM systems recommending use of methoxyfenozide
Table 12: IPM systems recommending use of chlorantraniliprole
Table 13: Measures used by IPM farmers (USA)
Table 14: DAFF (Canada) IPM projects 2017
Table 15: Available IPM guides in Bulgaria
Table 16: Countries involved in FAO programme GTFS/REM/070/ITA
Table 17: Frequencies of obstacles to IPM adoption in developing countries
Table 18: M&A activity in the biopesticide industry (2010-2017)
Table 19: Source countries of beneficial insects imported to India
Table 20: Bayer products
Table 21: EILs for bertha armyworm in canola
Table 22: Recommended IPM measures developed for bertha armyworm in Canola (USA)
Table 23: IPM measures explored for wheat (Tajikistan)
Table 24: Recommended IPM measures developed for EFSB in Aubergine (Bangladesh)
Table 25: Recommended IPM measures developed in mango (Kenya)
Table 26: Acronyms
Table 27: Economic thresholds for key tobacco insect pests
Table 28: Yield losses from important sugarcane insect pests
Table 29: Recommended IPM measures developed for sugarcane (Pakistan)
Table 30: Economics of biological crop protection
Table 31: Instructions on release of beneficial insects

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  • Syngenta
  • Bayer
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