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Cell Therapy - Technologies, Markets and Companies

  • ID: 4748145
  • Report
  • 1171 Pages
  • Jain PharmaBiotech
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This report describes and evaluates cell therapy technologies and methods, which have already started to play an important role in the practice of medicine. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is replacing the old fashioned bone marrow transplants. The role of cells in drug discovery is also described. Cell therapy is bound to become a part of medical practice.

Stem cells are discussed in detail in one chapter. Some light is thrown on the current controversy of embryonic sources of stem cells and comparison with adult sources. Other sources of stem cells such as the placenta, cord blood and fat removed by liposuction are also discussed. Stem cells can also be genetically modified prior to transplantation.

Cell therapy technologies overlap with those of gene therapy, cancer vaccines, drug delivery, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Pharmaceutical applications of stem cells including those in drug discovery are also described. Various types of cells used, methods of preparation and culture, encapsulation and genetic engineering of cells are discussed. Sources of cells, both human and animal (xenotransplantation) are discussed. Methods of delivery of cell therapy range from injections to surgical implantation using special devices.

Cell therapy has applications in a large number of disorders. The most important are diseases of the nervous system and cancer which are the topics for separate chapters. Other applications include cardiac disorders (myocardial infarction and heart failure), diabetes mellitus, diseases of bones and joints, genetic disorders, and wounds of the skin and soft tissues.

Regulatory and ethical issues involving cell therapy are important and are discussed. The current political debate on the use of stem cells from embryonic sources (hESCs) is also presented. Safety is an essential consideration of any new therapy and regulations for cell therapy are those for biological preparations.

The cell-based markets was analyzed for 2018 and projected to 2028. The markets are analyzed according to therapeutic categories, technologies, and geographical areas. The largest expansion will be in diseases of the central nervous system, cancer, and cardiovascular disorders. Skin and soft tissue repair, as well as diabetes mellitus, will be other major markets.

The number of companies involved in cell therapy has increased remarkably during the past few years. More than 500 companies have been identified to be involved in cell therapy and 312 of these are profiled in part II of the report along with tabulation of 302 alliances. Of these companies, 170 are involved in stem cells. Profiles of 72 academic institutions in the US involved in cell therapy are also included in part II along with their commercial collaborations. The text is supplemented with 67 Tables and 25 Figures. The bibliography contains 1,200 selected references, which are cited in the text.

The report contains information on the following:

  • Cell Therapy Technologies
  • Stem Cells
  • Clinical Applications of Cell Therapy
  • Cell Therapy of Cardiovascular Disorders
  • Cell Therapy for Cancer
  • Cell Therapy for Neurological Disorders
  • Ethical, regulatory, and, safety Aspects of Cell Therapy
  • Markets and future prospects for Cell Therapy
  • Companies Involved in Cell Therapy
  • Academic Institutions Involved in Cell Therapy
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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Part I: Technologies, Ethics & Regulations

0. Executive Summary  

1. Introduction to Cell Therapy
Introduction  
Historical landmarks of cell therapy  
Interrelationship of cell therapy technologies
Cells and organ transplantation
Cells and protein/gene therapy
Cell therapy and regenerative medicine
Cell therapy and tissue engineering
Therapy based on cells involved in disease  
Advantages of therapeutic use of cells  
Synthetic cell therapy  
Cell-based drug delivery  
Cells as vehicles for gene delivery
Red blood cells as vehicles for drug delivery
Advantages of cell-based drug delivery  
Limitations of cell-based drug delivery

2. Cell Therapy Technologies  
Introduction  
Cell types used for therapy  
Sources of cells  
Bone marrow
Blood component therapy
Therapeutic apheresis  
Leukoreduction
Platelet therapy  
Red blood cell transfusion  
Cell lines
Immortalized cells
Xenografts  
Basic technologies for cell therapy  
Cell culture
Automated cell culture devices
Cell culture for adoptive cell therapy
Observation of stem cell growth and viability  
OpTmizer™ CTS™ T cell expansion tissue culture medium
Stem cell movement and behavior in culture  
Companies involved in cell culture
Cell sorting
Flow cytometry
Applications of flow cytometry  
A dielectrophoretic system for cell separation
Adult stem cell sorting by identification of surface biomarkers  
ALDESORTER system for isolation of stem cells
Coulter principle-based cell sorters  
Dynabead technology for cell sorting
Elutra® Cell Separation System  
Magnetophoretic array-based cell sorting for further studies
Molecular beacons for specific detection and isolation of stem cells
Multitarget magnetic activated cell sorter
Nanocytometry
Scepter™ cytometer  
Companies supplying cell sorters  
Cell analysis  
Cell analyzers
In vivo cell imaging
Measuring cell density
Measuring cell volume
Single-cell gene expression analysis
Fluorescent in situ RNA sequencing
Single-cell RNA sequencing of stem cells  
Preservation of cells
Innovations in cryopreservation  
Packaging of cells  
Selective expansion of T cells for immunotherapy  
Cloning and cell therapy
Techniques for cell manipulation  
Altering function of adult human cells
Cell-based drug discovery  
Advantages and limitations of cell-based assays for drug discovery  
Advantages and limitations of cell-based toxicity screening  
Quality control of cells for drug discovery
Companies involved in cell-based drug discovery
Introduction of foreign materials into cells to develop therapeutics  
Use of cell-penetrating peptides for intracellular transduction  
Drug delivery systems for cell therapy  
Intravenous delivery of stem cells  
Intraarterial delivery of stem cells  
Pharmacologically active microcarriers  
Targeted delivery of engineered cells to specific tissues via circulation  
Devices for delivery of cell therapy
Artificial cells
Applications of artificial cells  
Cell encapsulation  
Cell-in-a-Box®  
Diffusion capsule for cells  
Encapsulated cell biodelivery
Ferrofluid microcapsules for tracking with MRI
Implantation of microencapulated genetically modified cells  
Nitric oxide delivery by encapsulated cells
Retrievable cell encapsulation device  
Therapeutic applications of encapsulated cells
Companies involved in encapsulated cell technology
Electroporation  
Gene therapy
Cell-mediated gene therapy  
Fibroblasts
Chondrocyte
Skeletal muscle cells
Vascular smooth muscle cells
Keratinocytes
Hepatocytes
Lymphocytes  
Cell-based CRISPR delivery
CRISPR-Edited Stem Cells
In vivo tracking of cells
Molecular imaging for tracking cells  
MRI technologies for tracking cells  
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as MRI contrast agents
Survival of labeled hMSCs in regenerative therapy grafts
Visualization of gene expression in vivo by MRI  
Optogenetic monitoring of cell therapies
Role of nanobiotechnology in development of cell therapy  
Nano-biocomposites containing living cells  
Cell transplantation for development of organs
Cells transplantation and tolerance
Strategies to improve tolerance of transplanted cells  
Encapsulation to prevent immune rejection  
Expansion of allospecific regulatory T cells
Prevention of rejection of xenotransplants  
Removal and replacement of pathogenic cells of the body
Therapeutic leukocytapheresis
3D Stem Cells
Introduction  
Biology of stem cells  
Embryonic stem cells  
Growth and differentiation of ESCs
Mechanisms of differentiation of ESCs  
Chemical regulation of stem cell differentiation
In vitro differentiation of hESCs  
SIRT1 regulation during stem cell differentiation
Regulation of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation
hESCs for reprogramming human somatic nuclei  
Stem cells differentiation in the pituitary gland
Influence of microenvironment on ESCs  
Role of genes in differentiation of ESCs
Global transcription in pluripotent ESCs
Role of p53 tumor suppressor gene in stem cell differentiation
Role of Pax3 gene in stem cell differentiation  
Signaling pathways and ESC genes
Epigenetics of hESCs  
Chromatin as gene regulator for ESC development  
Mechanism of regulation of stem cells for regeneration of body tissues
Role of microenvironments in the regulation of stem cells  
Regulation and regeneration of intestinal stem cells  
Parthenogenesis and human stem cells
Uniparental ESCs  
Haploid ESCs  
Bone marrow stem cells  
Hematopoietic stem cells  
Clonal events that regulate HSC development  
Derivation of HSCs from ESCs  
Role of HSCs in the immune system  
Mesenchymal stem cells
Cryopreservation of MSCs  
Multipotent adult progenitor cells
Side population stem cells
Differentiation of adult stem cells
Growth and differentiation of HSCs  
HSCs and aging  
Mathematical modeling of differentiation of HSCs  
Role of prions in self renewal of HSCs  
Signaling pathways in the growth and differentiation of HSCs
Sources of stem cells
Sources of of human embryonic stem cells  
Nuclear transfer to obtain hESCs
Direct derivation of hESCs from embryos without nuclear transfer
Alternative methods of obtaining hESCs  
Establishing hESC lines without destruction of embryo
Altered nuclear transfer
Advantages and disadvantages of ESCs for transplantation
Use of ESC cultures as an alternative source of tissue for transplantation
Spermatogonial stem cells  
Very small embryonic-like stem cells  
Amniotic fluid as a source of stem cells
Amniotic fluid stem cells for tissue repair and regeneration  
Generation of iPS cells from AF cells  
Placenta as source of stem cells
Amnion-derived multipotent progenitor cells.
Placenta as a source of HSCs  
Umbilical cord as a source of MSCs
Umbilical cord blood
Applications of UCB
Advantages of UCB
Limitations of the use of UCB and measures to address them
Licensing and patent disputes involving UCB  
Infections following UCB transplants  
Unanswered questions about UCB transplantation
Companies involved in UCB banking  
UCB banking in the UK  
US national UCB banking system  
Future of UCB
UCB as source of stem cells.
Cryopreservation of UCB stem cells
Epigenetic programming for expansion of UCB cells
UCB as source of MSCs  
Techniques of nuclear reprogramming for stem cells  
Induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human somatic cells  
Characteristics of iPSCs  
DNA methylation patterns of iPS cells
Techniques for obtaining iPSCs  
iPSCs derived from skin  
iPSCs derived through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)
iPSCs derived from oocytes  
iPSCs derived from adult stem cells using SCNT  
iPSCs derived from blood  
Use of CRISPR for generation of iPSCs  
Use of retroviral vectors for generation of iPSCs  
Use of non-integrating viral vectors for generation of iPSCs
Generation of other cells from iPSCs
Generation of HSCs from iPSCs
Generation of MSCs from iPSCs  
Generation of RBCs from iPSCs
Banks providing patient-specific iPSC lines  
Center for iPS Cell Research Application  
Companies providing iPSCs
Generation of clinically relevant iPSCs  
Equivalence of human iPSCs and ESCs
Genome editing and iPSCs
iPSCs and disease modeling
iPSCs for patient-specific regenerative medicine
Concluding remarks about clinical potential of iPSCs  
Induced conditional self-renewing progenitor cells
iXEN cells
Epiblast stem cells
Comparison of development of human and mouse ESCs
Conversion of hESCs to mouse ESC-like naïve states  
Sources of adult human stem cells  
Adipose tissue as a source of stem cells  
Encapsulation and hypothermic storage of adipose-derived stem cells
Intravenous infusion of adipose tissue derived MSCs
iPSCs derived from adult human adipose stem cells  
Regulation of adipose stem cells differentiation
Transforming adult adipose stem cells into other cells
Endometrium as a source of adult stem cells
Multipotent stem-like cells derived from vascular endothelial cells  
Skin as a source of stem cells  
Controlling the maturation of embryonic skin stem cells
Epidermal neural crest stem cells  
Follicle stem cells  
Mesenchymal stem cells in skin  
Regulation of stem cells in hair follicles  
Skin-derived precursor cells
Regulation of epidermal stem cells by circadian rhythms
Stem cells in teeth
Peripheral blood stem cells  
Spleen as a source of adult stem cells  
Search for master stem cells
Vascular cell platform to self-renew adult HSC
Adult stem cells vs embryonic stem cells
Biological differences between adult and embryonic stem cells  
Neural crest stem cells from adult hair follicles  
Transdifferentiation potential of adult stem cells  
Attempts at stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotentcy
Limitations of adult stem cells
Pitfalls of pluripotency  
Comparison of human stem cells according to derivation  
VENT cells  
ESC banking
Stem cell technologies
Analysis of stem cell growth and differentiation
Activation of bone marrow stem cells into therapeutic cells
Role of nitric oxide in stem cell mobilization and differentiation  
Role of natriuretic peptide receptor-C in self-renewal of murine ESCs
Stem cell biomarkers  
Endoglin as a functional biomarker of HSCs  
STEMPRO EZChek for analysis of biomarkers of hESCs  
SSEA-4 as biomarker of MSCs  
p75NTR as a biomarker to isolate adipose tissue-derived stem cells  
Neural stem cell biomarker  
Protein expression profile as biomarker of stem cells
Real-time PCR for quantification of protein biomarkers  
Study of stem cell pathways  
Stem cell genomics  
Gene expression in hESCs  
Genomic alterations in cultured hESCs
Study of transcriptional regulation of stem cell genes  
Casanova gene in zebrafish  
Nanog gene  
Gene inactivation to study hESCs
RNAi to study gene inactivation in hESCs
Study of ESC development by inducible RNAi
Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes  
Homologous recombination of ESCs.
Gene modification in genomes of hESCs and hiPSCs using zinc-finger nuclease  
miRNA and stem cells
Role of miRNAs in gene regulation during stem cell differentiation
Influence of miRNA on stem cell formation and maintenance  
Restricted differentiation potential of miRNA-deficient PSCs
Transcriptional regulators of ESCs control miRNA gene expression  
Stem cells and cloning  
Cell nuclear replacement and cloning
Nuclear transfer and ESCs  
Cloning from differentiated cells  
Cloning mice from adult stem cells  
Creating interspecies stem cells  
Cloned cells for transplantation medicine
Claims of cloning of hESCs
hESCs derived by SCNT
Cytogenetics of embryonic stem cells
Stem cell proteomics  
Comparative proteomic analysis of somatic cells, iPSCs and ESCs
hESC phosphoproteome
Proteomic studies of mesenchymal stem cells
Proteomic profiling of neural stem cells  
Proteome Biology of Stem Cells Initiative
Technologies for mobilization, expansion, and engraftment of stem cells  
Chemoattraction of neuronal stem cells through GABA receptor  
Enhancement of HSC engraftment by calcium-sensing receptor  
Ex vivo expansion of human HSCs in culture  
Ex vivo expansion of MSCs
Ex vivo expansion of UCB cells for transplantation
Expansion of adult stem cells by activation of Oct4
Expansion of transduced HSCs in vivo
Expansion of stem cells in vivo by Notch receptor ligands  
In vivo adipogenesis induced by adipose tissue-derived stem cells  
Selective mobilization of progenitor cells from bone marrow
Selective Amplification
Synthetic substrates for ESC growth and expansion  
Technologies for inducing differentiation of stem cells
Enhancement of stem cell differentiation by Homspera  
Generation of RBCs from HSCs
Generation of multiple types of WBCs from hESCs and iPSCs  
Growth factor-induced differentiation of MAPCs
Lineage selection to induce differentiation of hESCs.
Mechanical strain to induce MSC differentiation
Neurotrophin-mediated survival and differentiation of hESCs  
Synthetic biology and stem cells
Use of RNAi to expand the plasticity of autologous adult stem cells
Use of various molecules to induce differentiation of stem cells
Limitations of the currently available stem cell lines in the US
Stem cell separation
Stem cell culture  
Culture of hMSCs  
Elimination of contaminating material in stem cell culture  
Long-term maintenance of MSC multipotency in culture
Nanofiber scaffolds for stem cell culture
Conversion of stem cells to functioning adipocytes
Mass production of stem cells  
Mass production of ESCs  
Mass production of MSCs
Promoting survival of dissociated hESCs
Analysis and characterization of stem cells  
Havesting and identification of EPCs
Labeling of stem cells
Labeling, imaging and tracking of stem cells in vivo
Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles to track therapeutic cells in vivo
PET imaging for tracking of stem cells
Project for imaging in stem cell therapy research  
Quantum dots for labeling and imaging of stem cells
Radiolabeling of MSCs for in vivo tracking  
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for tracking MSCs
Tracking of transplanted muscle stem cells
Applications of stem cells  
Commercial development and applications of adult stem cells
Preparation of cells for therapeutic administration to patients
Retrodifferentiation of stem cells
MultiStem  
Self renewal and proliferation of HSCs  
Optimizing the preparation and transfer of allogeneic HSCs
Aging of stem cells
Aging and rejuvenation of HSCs  
Aging and MSCs  
iPSC-based modeling of late-onset age-related diseases
Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation
Role of stem cells in regeneration  
Pluripotent stem-cell-derived gastric organoids
Promotion of regeneration by Wnt/beta-catenin signaling
Stem cell activation for regeneration by using glucocortoids
Stem cells and human reproduction
Expansion of spermatogonial stem cells
Conversion of ESCs into spermatogonial stem cells
Conversion of stem cells to oocytes
ESCs for treatment of infertility in women  
Cloning human embryos from oocytes matured in the laboratory  
In utero stem cell transplantation
Innovations in delivery of stem cells
Polymeric capsules for stem cell delivery
Immunological aspects of hESC transplantation
Immunosuppression to prevent rejection of hESC transplants
Histocompatibility of hESCs  
Strategies for promoting immune tolerance of hESCs  
Stem cells for organ vascularization
Activation of EphB4 to enhance angiogenesis by EPCs
Advantages and limitations of clinical applications of iPSCs
Advantages and limitations of clinical applications of MSCs  
Biofusion by genetically engineering stem cells  
Stem cell gene therapy
Combination of gene therapy with nuclear transfer  
Gene delivery to stem cells by artificial chromosome expression
Genetic manipulation of ESCs
Genetic engineering of human stem cells for enhancing angiogenesis  
HSCs for gene therapy
iPSCs for targeted gene correction of α1-antitrypsin deficiency
Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors for gene transfer in ESCs  
Lentiviral vectors for in vivo gene transfer to stem cells
Linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer technology
Mesenchymal stem cells for gene therapy  
Microporation for transfection of MSCs
Regulation of gene expression for SC-based gene therapy
Stem cells and in utero gene therapy  
Therapeutic applications for hematopoietic stem cell gene transfer  
Targeted genome editing for human repopulating HSCs
The future of hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy  
Stem cell pharmaceutics  
Pharmaceutical manipulation of stem cells  
Expansion of HSCs in culture by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase  
Expansion of HSCs in vivo by use of prostaglandin E2  
Manipulation of stem cells with growth factors  
Mobilization of stem cells by cytokines/chemokines
Mobilization of adult human HSCs by use of inhibitors
Mobilization of stem cells by HYC750
Mobilization of stem cells by hyperbaric oxygen  
Mobilization by adenoviral vectors expressing angiogenic factors  
Stem cell mobilization by acetylcholine receptor agonists
Use of parathyroid hormone to increase HSC mobilization  
Use of small molecule compounds for expansion of HSCs
Use of a small molecule for targeting systemically infused MSCs
Role of stem cells in therapeutic effects of drugs  
Stem cells for drug discovery  
Target identification  
High-throughput screening
ESCs as source of models for drug discovery  
hESC-derived hepatocytes for drug discovery
hESC-derived cardiomyocytes for drug discovery  
iPSCs for drug discovery  
Advantages and limitations of use of stem cells for drug discovery  
Stem cells for drug delivery
Toxicology and drug safety studies using ESCs versus other cells
Future challenges for stem cell technologies
Generation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells
Hybrid embryos/cybrids for stem cell research
In vivo study of human hemopoietic stem cells  
Inhibition of stem cell-derived teratoma formation by small molecules
Markers for characterizing hESC lines
MBD3-deficient ESC line
Research into plasticity of stem cells from adults
Reversion of human stem cells to ground state pluripotency  
Stem cell biology and cancer
Stem cells and aging  
Stem cells in space  
Study of the molecular mechanism of cell differentiation
Switch of stem-cell function from activators to repressors
Stem cell research at academic centers
International Regulome Consortium
Companies involved in stem cell technologies
Concluding remarks about stem cells  
Future challenges in applications of stem cells  
Challenges in research and development of stem cells  
Challenges in the clinical use of pluripotent stem cells  

4. Clinical Applications of Cell Therapy
Introduction  
Cell therapy for hematological disorders
Transplantation of autologous hematopoietic stem cells  
Cytomegalovirus infection after allogeneic HSC transplantation
Lymphoproliferative disorders after allogeneic HSC transplants
HSCs derived from pluripotent stem cells  
Hemophilias  
Ex vivo cell/gene therapy of hemophilia B  
Cell/gene therapy of hemophilia A
Hematopoietic stem cell therapy for thrombocytopenia
Stem cell transplant for sickle cell anemia
Treatment of chronic acquired anemias.
Implantation of genetically engineered HSCs to deliver rhEpo
Drugs acting on stem cells for treatment of anemia
Stem cell therapy of hemoglobinopathies  
iPSC-based therapy for β-thalassemia
Stem cells for treatment of immunoglobulin-light chain amyloidosis
Future of cell therapy of hematological disorders
Cell therapy for immunological disorders  
Role of dendritic cells in the immune system
Modifying immune responses of DCs by vaccination with lipiodol-siRNA mixtures
Potential of MSCs as therapy for immune-mediated diseases
Stem cell therapy of chronic granulomatous disease
Stem cell therapy of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency  
Stem cell therapy of autoimmune disorders
Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome  
Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with stem cells
Treatment of Crohn's disease with stem cells
Stem cell transplants for scleroderma  
Role of T Cells in immunological disorders
Autologous T cells from adult stem cells
Cell therapy for graft vs host disease  
T cell infusion for suppressing GVHD
Genetically modified Tregs expressing CAR for prevention of GVHD
Concluding remarks on prevention and treatment of acute GVHD  
MSCs for GVHD
Cell therapy for viral infections  
Anti-HIV ribozyme delivered in hematopoietic progenitor cells
Dendritic-cell targeted DNA vaccine for HIV
Exosomes and viral infections  
Manipulation of T cells for treatment of viral infections
T cell therapy for CMV
T cell therapy for HIV infection
T cell immunity by Overlapping Peptide-pulsed Autologous Cells
Modification of iPSCs with a mutation to confer resistance to HIV
Cell therapy of lysosomal storage diseases  
Niemann-Pick disease
Gaucher’s disease  
Fabry's disease  
Cell therapy for endocrine disorders  
Hypopituitarism
Adrenal insufficiency  
Cell therapy for diabetes mellitus  
Limitations of current treatment  
Limitations of insulin therapy for diabetes mellitus  
Limitations of pancreatic transplantation  
Islet cell transplantation
Autologous pancreatic islet cell transplantation in chronic pancreatitis
Clinical trials of pancreatic islet cell transplants for diabetes
Drawbacks of islet cell therapy
Use of an antioxidant peptide to improve islet cell transplantation
Cdk-6 and cyclin D1 enhance human beta cell replication and function  
Devices for delivery of therapeutic cells in diabetes
Monitoring of islet cell transplants with MRI  
Concluding remarks about allogeneic islet transplantation for diabetes  
Encapsulation of insulin producing cells  
Encapsulated porcine pancreatic islet cells for pancreas
Encapsulated insulinoma cells
Magnetocapsule enables imaging/tracking of islet cell transplants
Islet precursor cells  
Dedifferentiation of β cells to promote regeneration
Pharmacological approaches for β cell regeneration  
Xenotransplantation of embryonic pancreatic tissue
Non-pancreatic tissues for generation of insulin-producing cells
Exploiting maternal microchimerism to treat diabetes in the child  
Bio-artificial substitutes for pancreas  
Role of stem cells in the treatment of diabetes  
Embryonic stem cells for diabetes
HSC transplantation to supplement immunosuppressant therapy  
Insulin-producing cells derived from UCB stem cells  
iPSc for diabetes
Pancreatic stem cells
Pluripotent stem cell-derived pancreatic β-like cells
Stem cell injection into portal vein of diabetic patients
Conversion of progenitor cells into insulin-producing cells
Human neural progenitor cells converted into insulin-producing cells
Isolation of islet progenitor cells
Pancreatic progenitor cells
Cell-based immunotherapy for type 1 diabetes  
Dendritic cell-based therapy
T regulatory cell therapy for diabetes  
Vaccine for diabetes  
Synthetic biomimetic β-cells for dynamic insulin secretion
Gene therapy in diabetes  
Viral vectors for gene therapy of diabetes  
Genetically engineered dendritic cells  
Genetically altered liver cells  
Genetically modified stem cells
Companies developing cell therapy for diabetes
Concluding remarks about cell and gene therapy of diabetes
Cell therapy of gastrointestinal disorders  
Inflammatory bowel disease  
Cell therapy for liver disorders  
Types of cells used for hepatic disorders
Culture and expansion of primary human hepatocytes
Hepatocyte progenitor cells  
Hybrid periportal hepatocytes
Methods of delivery of cells for hepatic disorders
Hepatic failure
Bioartificial liver
Hepatocyte-based artificial liver  
Extracorporeal Liver Assist Device
Limitations of bioartificial liver  
Proliferating cell-based bioartificial liver
Stem cells for hepatic disorders
Deriving hepatocytes from commercially available hMSCs  
Implantation of hepatic cells derived from hMSCs of adipose tissue
Heterologous adult liver progenitor cells  
Liver stem cell culture
MSC derived molecules for reversing hepatic failure  
Cell-based gene therapy for liver disorders
Transplantation of genetically modified fibroblasts.
Transplantation of genetically modified hepatocytes  
Genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells  
iPSCs derived from somatic cells for liver regeneration  
Hepatocyte-like cells derived from human parthenogenetic stem cells
Clinical applications  
Future prospects of cell-based therapy of hepatic disorders
Cell therapy of renal disorders
Bioartificial kidney  
Cell-based repair for vascular access failure in renal disease
Mesangial cell therapy for glomerular disease  
Stem cells for renal disease
Role of stem cells in renal repair
Bone marrow stem cells for renal disease  
Human amniotic fluid stem cells for renal regeneration  
MSC therapy for renal disease  
MSCs as aid to renal graft survival  
Transplantation of cell-based bioengineered kidney  
Cell therapy for pulmonary disorders
Delivery of cell therapy for pumonary disorders
Intratracheal injection of cells for pulmonary hypoplasia  
Role of stem cells in pulmonary disorders
Lung stem cells
Lung tissue regeneration from stem cells
Role of autologous MSCs in the treatment of severe emphysema  
Role of stem cells in construction of the Cyberlung  
Respiratory epithelial cells derived from UCB stem cells
Respiratory epithelial cells derived from hESCs
Lung tissue engineering with adipose stromal cells  
Cell-based tissue-engineering of airway
Pulmonary disorders that can be treatable with stem cells  
Acute lung injury and ARDS treated with MSCs
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia treated with MSCs  
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with MSCs
Cystic fibrosis treatment with genetically engineered MSCs  
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis  
Lung regeneration by integrin α6β4-expressing alveolar epithelial cell
Pulmonary arterial hypertension treatment with EPCs  
Cell therapy for disorders of bones, joints and tendons
Cell therapy for repair of fractures and bone defects  
Bone regeneration by human very small embryonic-like (hVSEL) cells
Cell therapy for cervical vertebral interbody fusion  
Cell-mediated gene therapy for bone regeneration  
ESCs for bone repair
hiPSCs for engineering personalized bone grafts
Intrauterine use of MSCs for osteogenesis imperfecta  
In vivo bone engineering as an alternative to cell transplantation  
In vivo differentiation of pluripotent stem cells for bone regeneration  
MSCs for repair of bone defects  
MSCs for repair of bone fractures  
Osteocel  
Stem cells for repairing skull defects
Stem cell-based bone tissue engineering
Spinal fusion using stem cell-based bone grafts  
Wnt stimulation to enrich BMMCs for repair of bone fractures
Cell therapy of tendon injuries
Autologous tenocyte implantation in rotator cuff injury repair
Platelet injection for tennis elbow  
Cell-based techniques for cartilage repair and regeneration
Cartilage generation from stem cells
Cartilage engineering from iPSCs  
Genetically modified fibroblasts expressing TGF-β for cartilage repair  
Juvenile cartilage implant for repair of damage to articular cartilage  
Cell therapy for repair of knee cartilage injuries
Autologous chondrocyte therapy of the knee  
Meniscus-derived stem cells
MSC-based constructs for knee joint replacement
Nanobiotechnology scaffolds for MSC-based cartilage reconstruction
Role of cells in the repair of anterior cruciate ligament injury  
Osteoporosis
Stem cell gene therapy for osteoporosis.
Osteoarthritis of the joints  
Autologous cultured chondrocytes
Autologous intervertebral disc chondrocyte transplantation  
Intraarticular MSCs for osteoarthritis
Mosaicplasty
Stem cell therapy of osteoarthritis of the knee  
Osteonecrosis  
Cell therapy for osteonecrosis
Cell therapy for radionecrosis
Repair of osteonecrosis by bone marrow derived MSCs  
Rheumatoid arthritis
Cell therapy for diseases of the eye
Cell therapy for corneal repair
Use of human cultured endothelial cells for bullous keratopathy
Lens regeneration from endogenous stem cells  
Stem cell therapy for limbal stem cell deficiency  
Role of stem cells in fibrosis following eye injury  
Stem cell transplantation for radiation sickness  
MSCs for treatment of radiation damage to the bone  
MSCs for regeneration of ovaries following radiotherapy damage
Cell therapy for wound healing  
Cells to form skin substitutes for healing ulcers
CellSpray for wound repair  
Cell therapy for burns
Closure of incisions with laser guns and cells
Genetically engineered keratinocytes for wound repair
MSCs for wound healing
Role of amniotic fluid MSCs in repair of fetal wounds  
Treatment of diabetic foot ulcers with stem cells  
Role of cells in regenerative medicine
Stem cells for regeneration of skin and appendages
Bifunctional ectodermal stem cells and nail regeneration  
Stem cells for regeneration of skin in junctional epidermolysis bullosa
Follicular stem cells for skin and wound repair  
Regeneration of aging skin by adipose-derived stem cells  
Reprogramming autologous stem cells for regeneration of skin
Concluding remarks on regeneration of skin by stem cells  
Cell therapy for regeneration of muscle wasting
Role of stem cells in regeneration of esophageal epithelium  
Stem cell-based regenerative therapy for xerostomia
Concluding remarks for use of cells in regenerative medicine.
Genomic studies for examining the role of stem cells in regeneration  
Cell therapy for regenerating organs
Umbilical cord blood for regeneration  
Future prospects of stem cells for regenerative medicine  
Role of cells in tissue engineering and reconstructive surgery  
Scaffolds for tissue engineering
Improving vascularization of engineered tissues  
Reconstruction of vasculature
Repair of aging skin by injecting autologous fibroblasts  
Enhancing vascularization by combining cell and gene therapy  
Nanobiotechnology applied to cells for tissue engineering
Choosing cells for tissue engineering  
Stem cells for tissue repair  
ESCs vs adult SCs for tissue engineering  
Use of adult MSCs for tissue engineering  
Measuring MSC interactions with environment for tissue engineering
Stem cells for tissue engineering of various organs  
Breast reconstruction by adipose tissue-derived stem cells
Engineering of healthy living teeth from stem cells  
Intra-uterine repair of congenital defects using amniotic fluid MSCs  
Skin regeneration by stem cells as an alternative to face transplant  
Tissue engineering of bone by stem cells
Cell-based tissue engineering in genitourinary system  
Urinary incontinence
Tissue engineering of urinary bladder  
Label retaining urothelial cells for bladder repair
MSCs for bladder repair
Tissue-engineering of urethra using autologous cells
Repair of the pelvic floor with stem cells from the uterus
Reconstruction of vagina from stem cells
Reconstruction of cartilage for repair of craniofacial defects
Intraoperative cell therapy  
Cell therapy for rejuvenation
Reversal of muscle weakness and atrophy in aging  
Reversal of cognitive impairment in aging
Treatment of fraility of aging with MSCs
Cell therapy for performance enhancement in sports  
Application of stem cells in veterinary medicine  
Stem cells for repair of tendon injuries in horses  
Stem cells for spinal cord injury in dogs  
Stem cells for arthritis in horses  

5. Cell Therapy for Cardiovascular Disorders  
Introduction to cardiovascular disorders
Limitations of current therapies for myocardial ischemic disease  
Types of cell therapy for cardiovascular disorders
Cell-mediated immune modulation for chronic heart disease
Inducing the proliferation of cardiomyocytes
Pericardial origin of colony-forming units  
Role of splenic myocytes in repair of the injured heart  
Reprogramming of fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes  
Stem cell-based therapies for cardiovascular diseases  
Human cardiovascular progenitor cells
Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes  
Large cardiac-muscle patches based on hiPSC technology  
Magnetic antibody-linked nanoparticles to deliver cells to the heart
Role of the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis in therapies for myocardial ischemia
Small molecules to enhance myocardial repair by stem cells.
Stem cells and atherosclerosis  
Cell therapy for atherosclerotic coronary artery disease
MyoCell™ (Bioheart).
Cardiac stem cells  
Cardiomyocytes derived from epicardium  
Cardiac atrial appendage stem cells
Methods of delivery of cells to the heart  
Cellular cardiomyoplasty
IGF-1 delivery by nanofibers to improve cell therapy for MI
Non-invasive delivery of cells to the heart by Morph®guide catheter  
Cell therapy for cardiac revascularization  
Transplantation of cardiac progenitor cells for revascularization of myocardium
Stem cells to prevent restenosis after coronary angioplasty.
Role of cells in cardiac tissue repair
Cardiac repair with myoendothelial cells from skeletal muscle
Modulation of cardiac macrophages for repair of infarct  
Multipotent cells from placenta for regeneration of the heart
Myocardial tissue engineering  
Patching myocardial infarction with fibroblast culture
Transplantation of myoblasts for myocardial infarction  
Role of stem cells in repair of the heart
Role of stem cells in cardiac regeneration following injury
Cardiomyocytes derived from adult skin cells  
Cardiomyocytes derived from ESCs  
Cardiomyocyte differentiation from hIPSCs
Studies to identify subsets of progenitor cells suitable for cardiac repair
Technologies for preparation of stem cells for cardiovascular therapy
Pravastatin for expansion of endogenous progenitor and stem cells
Cytokine preconditioning of human fetal liver CD133+ SCs  
Expansion of adult cardiac stem cells for transplantation  
Role of MSCs in growth of CSCs  
Role of ESCs in repair of the heart
ESC transplantation for tumor-free repair of the heart
Transplantation of stem cells for myocardial infarction  
Autologous bone marrow-derived stem cell therapeutics  
Autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal precursor stem cells  
Intracoronary infusion of mobilized peripheral blood stem cells
Transplantation of cord blood stem cells  
Transplantation of hESCs
Transplantation of HSCs.
Transplantation of autologous angiogenic cell precursors
Transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells
Transplantation of bone marrow-derived cells for myocardial infarct  
Transplantation of human umbilical cord perivascular cells
Transplantation of endothelial cells  
Transplantation of cardiomyocytes differentiated from hESCs
Stem cell therapy for cardiac regeneration  
3D printed scaffold for regeneration of myocardial infarct with cells
Cryopreserved hESC-derived cardiomyocytes for cardiac regeneration
Exosomal miRNAs from hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes  
HSCs for regeneration of the chronic myocardial infarcts  
Human MSCs for cardiac regeneration
In vivo tracking of MSCs transplanted in the heart  
MSCs for hibernating myocardium
Simultaneous transplantation of MSCs and skeletal myoblasts  
Transplantation of genetically modified cells
Transplantation of genetically modified MSCs  
Transplantation of cells secreting vascular endothelial growth factor  
Transplantation of genetically modified bone marrow stem cells.
Cell transplantation for congestive heart failure  
AngioCell gene therapy for congestive heart failure  
Injection of adult stem cells for CHF
Intracoronary infusion of cardiac stem cells
Myoblasts for treatment of congestive heart failure  
Stem cell therapy for dilated cardiac myopathy  
Role of cell therapy in cardiac arrhythmias  
Biological pacemakers  
Stem cells as biological pacemakers  
Stem cells for cardiac arrythmias  
Prevention of myoblast-induced arrhythmias by genetic engineering  
Ventricular tachycardia
ESCs for correction of congenital heart defects
Cardiac progenitors cells for treatment of heart disease
Autologus stem cells for chronic myocardial ischemia
Role of cells in cardiovascular tissue engineering  
Cell-based in vitro regeneration of heart for transplantation  
Construction of blood vessels with cells  
Engineered arteries for bypass grafts  
Engineering heart valves with UCB progenitor cells  
Epicardial regeneration from hPSCs  
Fetal cardiomyocytes seeding in tissue-engineered cardiac grafts
Targeted delivery of endothelial progenitor cells labeled with nanoparticles
Cell therapy for peripheral vascular disease  
ALD-301
Cell/gene therapy for PVD
Cell therapy for CLI in diabetics
Colony stimulating factors for enhancing peripheral blood stem cells  
Intramuscular autologous bone marrow cells
Ixmyelocel-T cell therapy for critical limb ischemia
Stem cell-coated vascular grafts for femoral-tibial arterial bypass  
Clinical trials of cell therapy in cardiovascular disease  
Mechanism of the benefit of cell therapy for heart disease  
A critical evaluation of cell therapy for heart disease  
Publications of clinical trials of cell therapy for CVD  
Current status of cell therapy for cardiovascular disease
Future directions for cell therapy of CVD
Combination of cells with biomedical scaffolds
Prospects of adult stem cell therapy for repair of heart
Role of cells in regeneration of the heart
Regeneration of cardiomyocytes without use of cardiac stem cells  

6. Cell Therapy for Cancer.
Introduction  
Cell therapy technologies for cancer  
Cell-based delivery of anticancer therapy  
Cellular immunotherapy for cancer  
Treatments for cancer by ex vivo mobilization of immune cells  
Granulocytes as anticancer agents
Neutrophil granulocytes in antibody-based immunotherapy of cancer
Cancer vaccines
Autologous tumor cell vaccines  
BIOVAXID  
OncoVAX
Tumor cells treated with dinitrophenyl
Vaccines that simultaneously target different cancer antigens
Gene modified cancer cells vaccines
GVAX cancer vaccines
K562/GM-CSF
Active immunotherapy based on antigen specific to the tumor
The use of dendritic cells for cancer vaccination
Autologous dendritic cells loaded ex vivo with telomerase mRNA  
Dendritic cell-targeted protein vaccines
Dendritic/tumor cell fusion
Electro-hyperthermia for improving DC immunotherapy
Genetically modified dendritic cells  
In vivo manipulation of dendritic cells  
Preclinical and clinical studies with DC vaccines  
Vaccines based on dendritic cell-derived exosomes
Limitations of DC vaccines for cancer.
Future developments to enhance clinical efficacy of DC vaccines
Cell-based cancer immunotherapy
Adoptive cell therapy
CD8+ T cells for use in tumor immunotherapy  
Combination of antiangiogenic agents with ACT  
Expansion of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes
Genetically modified T cells for targeting tumors
Genetic engineering of tumor cells to activate T helper cells
Targeting T regulatory cells  
T cells with immunological memory and stem cell-like properties  
T cell imaging for predicting response to cancer vaccines
Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes
Chimeric antigen receptor T cells
Basics of CAR-T cell
Basis of anticancer effect of CAR-T cells
CAR-T cell manufacture
CAR-T cell therapy for leukemia  
CAR-T cell therapy for multiple myeloma
CAR-T cell therapy for lymphoma  
CAR-T cell therapy for solid tumors
CAR-T cell therapy for cardiac fibrosis  
Companies developing CAR-T cell therapy  
CAR NK cells derived from human iPSCs  
Genome editing of CAR-T cells  
ProCAR-NK cancer immunotherapy
Remote control of CAR-T cells.
Safety of CAR-T cell therapy
Concluding remarks and future of T-cell therapy
Chemoimmunotherapy
Hybrid cell vaccination  
Stem cell-based anticancer therapies  
Stem cell transplantation in cancer.
Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation  
Stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies
Long-term results of HSC transplantation
Prediction of T cell reconstitution after HSC transplantation.
HSC transplantation followed by GM-CSF-secreting cell vaccines
HSC transplantation for renal cell cancer  
Umbilical cord blood transplant for hematological malignancies
Complications of stem cell transplants in cancer  
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).
Delayed immune reconstitution leading to viral infections and relapse
Tumor cell contamination
Neurological complications
Hepatic veno-occlusive disease
Current status and safety of allogeneic HSC transplantation
Complications of PBSC transplantation in children
Role of MSCs in cancer
MSC-mediated delivery of anticancer therapeutics
Mesenchymal progenitor cells for delivery of oncolytic adenoviruses  
MSCs for oncolytic HSV delivery for brain metastases of melanoma
Nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
hESC-derived NK cells for treatment of cancer
ESC vaccine for prevention of lung cancer
Genetic modification of stem cells for cancer therapy
Genetic modification of hematopoietic stem cells  
Use of hematopoietic stem cells to deliver suicide genes to tumors
Delivery of anticancer agents by genetically engineered MSCs  
Genetically modified NSCs for treatment of neuroblastoma  
Innovations in cell-based therapy of cancer  
Use of immortalized cells  
Cancer therapy based on natural killer cells
Cytokine-induced killer cells  
Mesothelin as a target for cancer immunotherapy  
Nanomagnets for targeted cell-based cancer gene therapy  
Implantation of genetically modified encapsulated cells for anticancer therapy  
Antiangiogenesis therapy by implantation of microencapsulated cells  
Recombinant tumor cells secreting fusion protein  
A device for filtering cancer and stem cells in the blood
Cancer stem cells
Cancer stem cell biomarkers.
Integrative nuclear signaling and development of cancer in stem cells
Origin of cancer in normal stem cells
Role of intestinal stem cells in intestinal polyposis
Role of endothelial progenitor cells in tumor angiogenesis  
Role of cancer stem cells in metastases
Role of cancer stem cells in chemotherapy
Therapeutic implications of cancer stem cells  
Targeting breast cancer stem cells  
Targeting cancer stem cells in leukemia
Targeting cancer stem cells in ovarian cancer
Targeting cancer stem cells to screen anticancer drugs  
Companies involved in cell-based cancer therapy  
American Association for Cancer Research and ESCs
Future of cell-based immunotherapy for cancer.

7. Cell Therapy for Neurological Disorders  
Introduction  
Use of stem cells for research in neurosciences
Cerebral organoids for modeling human brain development  
Use of human stem cell-derived neurons in neuropharmacology  
Regeneration of brain by in vitro/in vivo reprogramming of cells  
Molecular mechanism of neurogenesis  
Generation of neurons from astroglia
In vivo cell replacement therapy by locally induced neural progenitor cells  
In vivo reprogramming to generate new neurons
Types of cells used for treatment of neurological disorders
Activated T lymphocytes
Differentiation of placenta-derived multipotent cells into neurons
Fibroblast-derived human striatal neurons  
Mesenchymal stem cells induced to secrete neurotrophic factors  
MUSE cells transplantation for neuronal regeneration
Neural stem cells
Development of human CNS stem cells  
Direct conversion of adult fibroblasts into neural progenitor cells  
Distinction between NSCs and intermediate neural progenitors
Embryonic stem cell-derived neurogenesis
Epidermal neural crest stem cells for neurological disorders
Fusion of NSCs with endogenous neurons  
Induction of NSCs from hESCs  
Induction of NSCs from adult MSCs
Mechanism of migration of NSCs to sites of CNS injury  
Monitoring of implanted NSCs labeled with nanoparticles
Neural progenitor cells
Neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of the brain  
Neural stem cells derived from induced neural plate border stem cells
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells
Promotion of neural stem cells expansion by betacellulin
Proteomics of neural stem cells
Regulation of neural stem cells in the brain  
Role of CSF in regulation of neural progenitor cells  
Sequencing the transcriptomes of neural stem cells  
Study of neural differentiation of hESCs by NeuroStem Chip
Transformation of neural stem cells into other cell types  
Stem cell transplantation in the CNS  
Development of CNS cells from non-CNS stem cells  
Expansion of adult human neural progenitors
Hair-follicle stem cells for neural repair  
Human NSCs for treatment of neurological disorders
NSCs and scaffolds for regeneration therapy of CNS disorders  
Neurospheres
Stem cells from olfactory epithelium for transplantation in the CNS
Stem cells from human umbilical cord blood for CNS disorders
Choroid plexus cells for transplantation.
Dental pulp cells for neuroprotection  
Derivation of CNS cells from peripheral nervous system  
Fetal tissue transplants
Immortalized cells for CNS disorders  
Laboratory mice with human brain cells  
Olfactory ensheathing cells for CNS repair
Ideal cells for transplantation into the nervous system
Cell therapy techniques for neurological applications  
Carbon nanotubes to aid stem cell therapy of neurological disorders  
Cell transplantation for regeneration of the nervous system  
Cells used for gene therapy of neurological disorders
Fibroblasts
Stem cells  
Neuronal cells
Immortalized neural progenitor cells
Astrocytes  
Cerebral endothelial cells
Human retinal pigmented epithelial cells  
Enhancement of growth of stem cells in the brain by drugs
C3-induced differentiation and migration of NPC for repair of the brain  
Stem cell therapies of neurological disorders combined with HBO
hESCs for CNS repair  
Motor neurons derived from stem cells
MSCs for CNS repair
Neuronal differentiation of stem cells  
Apigenin promotes differentiation of stem cells into neural lineage  
Stem cells preparations for CNS disorders
Tracking of stem cells in the CNS by nanoparticles and MRI  
Use of neural stem cells to construct the blood brain barrier  
Methods of delivery of cells to the CNS
Cerebrospinal fluid-stem cell interactions for therapy of CNS disorders  
CNS delivery of cells by catheters
Engineered stem cells for drug delivery to the brain  
Encapsulated cells
Intrathecal delivery of stem cells  
Intraparenchymal delivery of stem cells to the spinal cord
Intravascular administration
Neural stem cells as therapeutic delivery vehicles
Neurological disorders amenable to cell therapy
Neuroprotection by cell therapy
Cells secreting neuroprotective substances
Stem cells for neuroprotection  
Neuroprotection by intravenous administration of HSCs
Human UCB-derived stem cells for the aging brain  
Neurodegenerative disorders
MSCs for therapy of neurodegenerative disorders
Role of stem cells in neurodegenerative disorders
Role of NSCs in disorders associated with aging brain  
NSCs for improving memory
Parkinson's disease  
Cell therapies for PD  
Delivery of cells for PD
Dopamine neurons for PD  
Encapsulated cells for PD
Graft survival-enhancing drugs
Human retinal pigment epithelium cells for PD  
Potential of regeneration of endogenous stem cells in PD
Pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons  
Stem cell transplantation in animal models of PD  
Stem cells for production of glial derived neurotrophic factor  
Transplantation of embryonic medial ganglionic eminence cells
Trials of stem cell transplantation in PD patients
Tumorigenic potential of transplantated dopaminergic hESCs
Xenografting porcine fetal neurons  
Personalized stem cell therapy for PD  
Future perspectives of clinical trials of stem cell therapy for PD  
MSCs for multiple system atrophy  
Cell therapy for Huntington's disease  
Fetal striatal cell transplantation
Transplantation of encapsulated porcine choroids plexus cells
iPSCs for HD.
Mobilization of endogenous neural progenitor cells in HD
Cell therapy for Alzheimer's disease
Choroid plexus epithelial cells for AD
Implantation of genetically engineered cells producing NGF  
Neural stem cell implantation for Alzheimer's disease  
Use of autologous stem cells for dementia
Cell therapy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Stem cell techniques for study of ALS  
Rational for use of stem cells for ALS
Experimental studies with various types of stem cells for ALS
Clinical trials of stem cells for ALS
Transplantation of glial restricted precursors in ALS  
Stem cell-based drug discovery for ALS
Cell therapy for demyelinating disorders
Autologous bone marrow stem cell therapy for multiple sclerosis  
ESCs for remyelination  
Fusokine method of personalized cell therapy of MS  
Genetically engineered macrophages expressing NaV1.5  
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for MS
MSCs for multiple sclerosis
Neural progenitor cells for neuroprotection in MS  
NSC transplantation for repair of demyelination after  
iNSCs for antiinflammatory effect in MS
Oligodendrocyte generation from human iPSCs
T cell-based personalized vaccine for MS  
T cell-directed therapies for MS  
Stem cells for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
Stem cell transplantation for Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease  
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy
Cell therapy of stroke
Adult stem cell therapy in stroke
Cell therapy of intracerebral hemorrhage
Implantation of genetically programmed ESCs  
Intravenous infusion of MSCs
Intravenous infusion of human UCB stem cells
Intravenous MSCs to prevent rupture of experimental aneurysms
Intracerebral administration of human adipose tissue stromal cells
Neural stem cell therapy for stroke
Preconditioning with hyperbaric oxygen for stem cell therapy
Transplantation of encapsulated porcine choroids plexus  
Transplantation of fetal porcine cells
Role of cell therapy in management of stroke according to stage  
Clinical trials of cell therapy for stroke
Future of cell therapy for stroke  
Cell therapy of traumatic brain injury
Cell/gene therapy for TBI
Clinical trials of autologous stem cell therapy for TBI
Limitations of stem cell therapy for acute TBI
Improving the microenvironments of transplanted cells in TBI  
MSC-derived exosomes for treatment of TBI  
Cell therapy for spinal cord injury  
Autoimmune T cells against CNS myelin-associated peptide
Fetal neural grafts for SCI  
Olfactory-ensheathing cells for SCI
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells for treatment of SCI
Schwann cell transplants for SCI
Transplantation of glial cells for SCI  
Stem cells for SCI  
Bone marrow stem cells for SCI  
Embryonic stem cells for SCI  
ESC-derived neural aggregates for treatment of SCI
Transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cells in SCI  
Transplantation of MSCs for SCI
Transplantation of NSCs for SCI  
Transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells
Transdifferentiation of BM stem cells into cholinergic neurons for SCI  
Evaluation of experimental studies of stem cell transplantation in SCI
Spinal stem cells for treatment of ischemic injury of spinal cord
Combined approaches for regeneration in SCI
Combined cell/gene therapy for SCI  
Delivery of cells in SCI  
Intrathecal injection of cells labeled with magnetic nanoparticles  
Intravenous injection of stem cells for spinal cord repair  
Clinical applications of stem cells for SCI.
Autologous bone marrow cell transplantation for SCI
Cell therapy of syringomyelia
Cell therapy for neurogenetic disorders
Hurler's syndrome treated with stem cells  
Krabbe’s disease treated with UCB stem cells
Krabbe's disease treated with combination of cell and gene therapy  
Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies treated with stem cells
Sanfilippo syndrome type B treated with UCB stem cells  
Cell therapy for lysosomal storage disorders  
Cell therapy for Batten disease
Cell/gene therapy for Farber’s disease
Genetically modified HSCs for metachromatic leukodystrophy.
Neural stem cells for lysosomal storage disorders
Cell therapy of epilepsy  
Cell therapy of posttraumatic epilepsy
Cell therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy  
Cell therapy for pharmacoresistant epilepsies
Cell therapy for developmental neurological disorders  
Cell therapy for cerebral palsy
Cell-based therapies for malignant CNS tumors
Bone morphogenetic protein for inhibition of glioblastoma  
CAR-T cell therapy of glioblastoma  
Dendritic cell therapy for brain tumors
Encapsulated cells for brain tumors
Engineered human NSCs for treatment of spinal cord gliomas  
Immunotherapy of glioblastoma targeting cancer stem cells
Mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of gliomas  
Neural stem cells for treatment of malignant brain tumors
Role of cancer stem cells in resistance to radiotherapy  
Stem cell-based therapy targeting EGFR in glioblastoma  
Targeting stem cells in brain tumors  
Clinical trials of cell therapy of glioblastoma
Cell therapy for chemobrain  
Cell therapy for muscle disorders
Duchenne muscular dystrophy  
Combination of cell and pharmacotherapy for DMD
Myoblast transplant for DMD  
Myoblast-based gene transfer
Myoblasts lacking the MyoD gene  
Myoblast injection for treatment of other muscular dystrophies.
Role of satellite cells in the treatment of DMD
Stem cells for DMD
Wnt7a treatment for DMD  
Cell therapy for autism
Management of chronic intractable pain by cell therapy  
Implantation of chromaffin cells  
Role of stem cells in management of pain  
Implantation of astrocytes secreting enkephalin  
Cells for delivery of antinociceptive molecules  
Implantation of genetically engineered cells
Cell therapy for low back pain
Cell therapy for neuropathic itch  
Cell therapy for neuroendocrine disorders
Pituitary stem cells  
Cell therapy for regenerating optic pathways
Cell therapy for retinal degenerative disorders
Delivery of CNTF by encapsulated cell intraocular implants
Genetically engineered retinal pigmented epithelial cell lines  
Stem cell-based therapies for retinal degenerative disorders
Adipose-derived stem cells for retinal degeneration
Adipose-derived stem cells transplantation for diabetic retinopathy
ESCs for retinal degenerative disorders  
hESC-derived RPE cells for AMD  
Human retinal stem cells
iPSCs for AMD  
Neuroprotective effect of neural progenitor cell transplantation
Stem-cell based therapy for retinitis pigmentosa
Stem cell transplantation in the retina
Combining stem cell and gene therapies for retinal disorders  
Clinical trials of cell therapy for retinal degenerative disorders
Stem cell therapy for hearing loss  
Cell thery for peripheral nerve lesions.
Cell transplants for peripheral nerve injuries.
Role of adipose-derived stem cells in peripheral nerve regeneration  
Treatment of diabetic neuropathy with endothelial progenitor cells  
Complications of cell therapy of neurological disorders
Tumor formation after CNS transplantation of stem cells
Donor stem cell-derived brain tumor
Glioproliferative lesion of spinal cord as a complication of cell therapy
Uncontrolled differentiation of implanted ESCs  
Tumorigenicity of ESC-derived retinal progenitor cells  
Clinical trials of cell therapy in neurological disorders
Future of cell therapy of CNS disorders  

8. Ethical, Legal and Political Aspects of Cell therapy
Introduction  
Political and ethical aspects of hESC research in the US  
Ethical issues concerning fetal tissues
Morality and hESC research  
Opponents of hESC research in the US
Use of hESCs in NIH-supported research  
Politics of hESC research in the US  
Public opinion in the US about hESC research
Human stem cell cloning in the US  
Stem cell guidelines of various US institutions  
Ethics of transplanting human NSCs into the brains of nonhuman primates
Stem cell research around the world
ESC lines available worldwide  
ESC policies around the world  
Countries with no defined policies on hESC research  
Australia
Canada
China
Denmark  
France  
Germany  
India  
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Russia  
The Netherlands  
Saudi Arabia
Singapore
South Africa  
South Korea  
Spain
Sweden  
Switzerland
United Kingdom
UK StemCellBank  
European Union
EU guidelines for stem cell research  
European stem cell bank  
EMBO’s recommendations for stem cell research
Public opinion in Europe about hESC research
United Nations, cloning and nuclear transfer  
The Embryo Project for information on ESC research  
Concluding remarks about ethics of ESC research  
Ethical issues concerning umbilical cord blood  
Legal issues associated with stem cells
Stem cell patents
Stem cell patents in the United States
Current status of Thomson patents at WARF.
Stem cell patents in the European Union  
Cell therapy tourism  

9. Safety and Regulatory Aspects of Cell Therapy
Introduction  
Safety issues of cell therapy  
Immune-mediated reactions to transpanted stem cells
Human virus infections associated with stem cell transplantation
Herpes simplex virus type 1
Cytomegalovirus
Opportunistic infections among hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients  
Cord colitis syndrome
Carcinogenic potential of stem cells and its prevention
Regulatory challenges for the clinical use of cell products
Prediction of in vivo performance of cell-based therapies  
FDA safety regulations for cell and tissue products
FDA Guidance on license applications for umbilical cord blood products.
Regulation of cord blood banks in the US  
Regulatory issues for biotechnology-derived drugs
Regulation of products for adoptive cell therapy of cancer  
Regulation of cell selection devices for PBSCs at point of care  
FDA rules for human cells and tissues
FDA regulation of fetal cellular or tissue products
FDA and ESC lines
FDA and clinical trials using hESCs
Cell and gene therapies approved by the FDA  
Cell and gene therapy INDs placed on hold by the FDA
Regulatory issues for genetically engineered cell transplants
FDA guidelines for human tissue transplantation  
FDA considers cultured stem cells for therapy as drugs
FDA perspective on safety-efficacy and risk-benefit of stem cell therapy
FDA action against unapproved cell therapy in the US  
Xenotransplantation  
Clinical Protocol Review and Oversight  
Informed consent and patient education
Xenotransplantation product sources  
FDA guidelines for xenografts  
US regulations for manufacture of cell therapy products
GMP in USA  
Regulations relevant to cell therapy in the European Union
Regulations about use of stem cells in the EU  
Guidelines for cell therapy in the UK
Quality requirements for ex vivo-expanded MSC products for clinical use  
European regulations for manufacture of cell therapy products  
GMP in Europe  
Global regulation of stem cell approval  
Transport of stem cells between countries  
Temperature limitations during transport of stem cells
NIH and stem cells
hESC lines approved under the new NIH guidelines  
Clinical trials in cell therapy
Assessment of clinical trial registration and publication
Misuse of listing on ClinicalTrials.gov to provide unapproved stem cell therapy  

Tables
Table 1-1: Landmarks in the history of cell therapy  
Table 1-2: Examples of cells involved in various diseases
Table 2-1: Types of human cells used in cell therapy  
Table 2-2: A selection of companies providing cell culture media
Table 2-3: A sampling of companies supplying cell sorters  
Table 2-4: Companies involved in cell-based drug discovery
Table 2-5: Methods of delivery of cells for therapeutic purposes  
Table 2-6: Therapeutic applications of encapsulated cells  
Table 2-7: Companies working on encapsulated cell technology
Table 2-8: Molecular imaging methods for tracking cells in vivo
Table 3-1: Various levels of potency relevant to stem cells
Table 3-2: Clinical trials of UCB
Table 3-3: Companies involved in cord blood banking as a source of stem cells
Table 3-4: Comparison of techniques for nuclear reprogramming of stem cells  
Table 3-5: Banks of patient-specific iPSC lines
Table 3-6: Companies providing iPSCs
Table 3-7: Sources of adult human stem cells
Table 3-8: Comparison of human stem cells according to derivation
Table 3-9: Enhancing engraftment, mobilization and expansion of stem cells  
Table 3-10: Applications of stem cells  
Table 3-11: Advantages and limitations of methods for optimizing MSCs  
Table 3-12: Pharmaceutical manipulation of stem cells
Table 3-13: Growth factors with positive effects on stem cells and applications
Table 3-14: Examples of drugs that induce granulocytopenia at stem cell level  
Table 3-15: Academic institutes involved in stem cell research  
Table 3-16: Companies involved in stem cell technologies  
Table 4-1: Therapeutic applications of regulatory T cells (Tregs)  
Table 4-2: Various tissue/cell therapy approaches to the treatment of type 1 diabetes
Table 4-3: Companies involved in cell therapy for insulin-dependent diabetes
Table 4-4: Major pulmonary disorders potentially treatable by stem cell manipulation  
Table 4-5: Clinical trials of MSCs in COPD
Table 4-6: Cell-based repair of knee cartilage damage
Table 4-7: Intraoperative cell therapy  
Table 5-1: Classification of various types of cell therapy for cardiovascular disorders
Table 5-2: Clinical trials of cell therapy in cardiovascular disease
Table 6-1: Cell therapy technologies used for cancer  
Table 6-2: Companies developing CAR-T cell therapy
Table 6-3: Companies involved in developing cell-based therapies for cancer  
Table 7-1: Studies in rats or mice of in vivo reprogramming of cells for brain repair
Table 7-2: NSCs-based approaches for neurological disorders.  
Table 7-3: Experimental use of immortalized cells for CNS disorders  
Table 7-4: Combination of stem cells and HBO in models of neurological disorders  
Table 7-5: Therapeutic applications of MSCs for neurological disorders
Table 7-6: Methods for delivering cell therapies in CNS disorders
Table 7-7: Neurological disorders amenable to cell therapy
Table 7-8: Types of cell used for investigative treatment of Parkinson's disease  
Table 7-9: Status of cell therapies for Parkinson's disease  
Table 7-10: Role of cell therapy in management of stroke according to stage  
Table 7-11: Clinical trials of cell therapy for stroke: completed, ongoing and pending  
Table 7-12: Clinical trials of cell therapy for retinal degenerative disorders
Table 7-13: Clinical trials with cell therapy in neurological disorders (excluding stroke)  
Table 8-1: Listed numbers of ESC lines around the world  
Table 8-2: Stem cell policies around the world  
Table 8-3: European public attitudes about research involving human stem cells
Table 9-1: Possible adverse reactions and safety issues of cell therapy
Table 9-2: Cell and gene therapies approved by the FDA  

Figures
Figure 1-1: Interrelationships of cell therapy to other technologies  
Figure 1-2: Interrelationships of gene, cell and protein therapies
Figure 1-3: Engineering of RBCs for drug delivery  
Figure 3-1: A simplified biological scheme of embryonic stem Cells  
Figure 3-2: Steps of iPS cell production  
Figure 3-3: hESC-derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer  
Figure 3-4: Approaches for optimizing preparation of HSCs for transplantation  
Figure 3-5: Flow chart of development of stem cells with potential bottlenecks  
Figure 4-1: Reprograming ESCs/iPSCs cells to β-cells for type 1 diabetes
Figure 4-2: Fluorescently labeled polarized Upcyte® hepatocytes  
Figure 5-1: Ex vivo vs in vivo approaches to regeneration of the heart
Figure 5-2: hESC-derived cardiomyocytes from laboratory to bedside  
Figure 5-3: Steps in growing a new heart in vitro for transplantation
Figure 6-1: A scheme of generation and administration of tumor antigen-pulsed dendritic cells
Figure 6-2: Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells attacking tumor cells
Figure 6-3: Stem cell transplantation techniques
Figure 7-1: Cell-based methods for repair of the brain
Figure 7-2: Reprogramming methods for in vivo generation of neurons.
Figure 7-3: Stem cells that can give rise to neurons
Figure 7-4: Sources of dopaminergic neurons for transplantation in Parkinson’s disease
Figure 7-5: Scheme of iPSCs for personalized cell therapy of Parkinson disease
Figure 7-6: Potential mechanisms of stem cell efficacy
Figure 7-7: Approaches to stem cell therapy in stroke  
Figure 8-1: Global stem cell research publications 2013-2017

Part II: Markets, Companies & Academic Institutions

10. Markets and Future Prospects for Cell Therapy
Introduction  
Methods for estimation of cell therapy markets
Potential markets for cell therapy  
Markets according to technologies  
Stem cell transplants
Supporting cell technologies
Blood transfusion market
Cord blood collection and storage  
Cell therapy and related technologies
Cell therapy markets according to therapeutic areas  
Bone and joint disorders  
Cancer
Cardiovascular disorders  
Diabetes mellitus  
Liver disorders  
Neurological disorders
Retinal degenerative diseases market  
Skin and wound care
Urinary incontinence
Reconstruction of teeth by stem cell implants
Market size according to geographical areas
Unmet market needs in cell therapy  
Drivers of growth of cell therapy markets
Role of stem cells in regenerative medicine
Role of cells in markets for artificial organs
Increase of R&D expense on cell therapy  
Increased used of cell-based drug discovery  
Impact of emerging healthcare trends on cell therapy markets  
Markets for cell therapy tourism  
Involvement of pharmaceutical companies in cell therapy
Future prospects of cell therapy  
Stem cell research around the world  
Stem cell research in China
Consortia for ESC research in Europe
EuroStemCell
UK National Stem Cell Network
Ethical concerns about commercialization of embryonic stem cells
Education of the physicians
Public education
NIH support of stem cell research  
Funding of stem cell research from non-federal sources  
Prospects of venture capital support for stem cell companies
Cell therapy in the developing countries  
Guidelines for stem cell therapies
Business strategies  
Formation of networks  
Market potential of autologous vs allogeneic cells
Future market potential of adult vs embryonic stem cells  
Transportation and handling of cell therapy products  
Translating science into business

11. Companies Involved in Cell Therapy
Introduction  
Profiles of selected companies
Collaborations  

12. Academic Institutions
Introduction  
Stem cell centers
Profiles of institutions
Collaborations  

13. References

Tables
Table 10-1: Market size according to cell therapy and related technologies 2018-2028
Table 10-2: Market size according to therapeutic areas for cell therapy in 2018-2028  
Table 10-3: Cell therapy markets for cardiovascular disorders in 2018-2028
Table 10-4: Values of cell therapies for neurological disorders in 2018-2028
Table 10-5: Total cell therapy market in 2018-2028 according to geographical areas
Table 10-6: Cord blood market according to geographical areas 2018-2028  
Table 10-7: Stem cells transplant market according to geographical areas 2018-2028
Table 10-8: SWOT Autologous cells vs allogeneic cells  
Table 11-1: Publicly traded cell therapy companies  
Table 11-2: Selected collaborations of cell therapy companies
Table 12-1: Therapeutic uses of stem cells
Table 12-2: Commercial collaborations of US academic institutes relevant to stem cells

Figures
Figure 10-1: Unmet needs in cell therapy

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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