This report informs about the competitive field of novel DNA vaccines in clinical development for prevention and/or treatment of cancer, infectious and other diseases. The competitor evaluation identified more than 50 DNA vaccines in active clinical studies as of January 2019.
Information is presented in a tabular format with a special focus on:
- Target antigen(s);
- Vaccine composition (naked plasmid, formulation, construction)
- Route of administration;
- Use of devices;
- Vaccination regimen(single vs prime-boost);
- Usage and doses
- Indications & therapeutic areas;
- Companies and non-corporate institutions
DNA vaccines favor a cell-mediated immune response. DNA plasmid vector vaccines carry the genetic information encoding an antigen, allowing the antigen to be produced inside of a host cell, leading to a cell-mediated immune response via the MHC I pathway. The plasmid DNA vaccine carries the genetic code for a piece of pathogen or tumor antigen. The plasmid vector is taken up into cells and transcribed in the nucleus. The single-stranded mRNA is translated into protein in the cytoplasm. The DNA vaccine-derived protein antigen is then degraded by proteosomes into intracellular peptides.
The vaccine derived-peptide binds MHC class I molecules. Peptide antigen/MHC I complexes are presented on the cell surface, binding cytotoxic CD 8+ lymphocytes, and inducing a cell-mediated immune response. Because DNA vaccines generate cell-mediated immunity, the hope is that they will be effective against some difficult viruses even as standard vaccines have failed to work.
DNA vaccines have a number of advantages over conventional vaccines, including the ability to induce a wider range of immune response types and more:
- Efficient at generating T-cell responses and may therefore also be used as a therapeutic to treat existing disease.;
- Opportunity to design sophisticated, multi-antigen vaccines and/or vaccines based on conserved genes and antigens that are common to evolved strains of a pathogen;
- DNA sequences from multiple strains of a virus like influenza can also be designed in a "consensus" form;
- DNA vaccines can potentially be developed from concept to FDA approval in eight to 10 years
- They can be readily and cost-effectively manufactured using off-the-shelf, well-proven fermentation technology
Intact cells in the body resist uptake of DNA. This has kept previous DNA-based immunotherapies from producing the target antigens in vivo in sufficient quantities to generate the robust immune responses necessary to effectively treat cancer and infectious diseases. A significant improvement in the efficacy of plasmid transfection was achieved by novel delivery devices. Electroporation devices can efficiently deliver DNA plasmids into cells where they can be expressed to generate robust antibody and T-cell responses.
DNA uptake by electroporation was shown to be enhanced 100- to 1,000-fold as measured by gene expression. Electroporation has also been shown to recruit and trigger cells involved in antigen presentation and immune response, further augmenting the benefits of superior DNA delivery.
The report includes a compilation of currently active projects in research and development of DNA vaccines. In addition, the report lists company-specific R&D pipelines of DNA vaccines.
Competitor projects are listed in a tabular format providing information on:
- Drug Codes
- Target / Mechanism of Action
- Vaccine Composition & Administration
- R&D Stage
- Usage and Dosage with a hyperlink leading to the source of information.
About Competitor Analysis:
The Competitor Analysis delivers NO-FRILLS, but concise information about the pipeline of R&D projects for targets, diseases, technologies and companies at low prices. The information is provided in a tabular format and fully referenced.