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European Energy Studies Volume XIV - The European Energy Transition: Actors, Factors, and Sectors

  • ID: 4761296
  • Book
  • Region: Europe
  • 500 Pages
  • Claeys & Casteels Publishing
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This comprehensive and timely book on the European energy transition has been written by Europe’s leading energy experts and provides guidance for the incoming policymakers at a European level. It reflects on the latest policy developments, such as the Clean Energy for All Europeans package and the outcomes of the UN Climate Conference COP 24.

The energy transition is Europe’s flagship project. It needs to provide sound answers to the climate and sustainability-, security of supply- and competitiveness imperatives. The energy transition corresponds to a large scale economic and cultural change. It encompasses sector coupling- linking up sectors that have ignored each other previously, like mobility and power. What is the meaning of digitalization, and how to face cybersecurity risks? What is the response to energy poverty, that 50 million Europeans are victims of?

While the geographical scope in Europe at large, divide lines from the past continue to exist, and new ones emerge: What are the borders of the new Energy Europe?

The book analyses the factors driving change: where are we on climate and sustainability, competitiveness and market, and security of supply? It presents the actors: what genesis of and what contemporary institutions for European energy policy, how is energy addressed by the national and by the European; what about the active customer paradigm and the many startups and business models changing, as well as NGOs? It looks into sectors: power, gas, mobility and the powerful push from digitalization. It proceeds with a reality check, based on facts and figures and reflects on modelling. Edited by Susanne Nies the book is prefaced by Jacques Delors and sees contributions from distinguished authors from policy, research, industry and NGOs across Europe.

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Chapter 1

  • Foreword by Jacques Delors, Founding President of the Jacques Delors Institute

Chapter 2

  • 42 Authors exploring Europe’s Energy Transition: About this Book
  • Susanne Nies


Chapter 3

  • EU Climate Policy as a Driver of Change
  • Jos Delbeke & Peter Vis

1. Introduction
2. International process
3. EU policy response
4. Carbon pricing and the EU’s Emissions Trading System
5. Conclusion

Chapter 4

  • Security of Supply: a new Focus on Electricity
  • Susanne Nies

1. Risks are changing
2. Security of supply and the scope of risks Europe is exposed to
3. The EU institutional and regulatory set up for energy security
4. Oil
5. Gas: from golden age of gas to bronze and back to gold again?
5.1 Import Dependency gas: the status quo
5.2 The role of LNG for security of supply
5.3 Europe’s regulatory response to import dependency on gas
6. Power: changing electricity paradigm and new risks
6.1 Europe’s meandering electricity geography
6.2 European blackouts and challenges since 2003
6.3 Nuclear risks
6.4 Traditional risks related to third countries
7. Always a winning bet: the first fuel energy efficiency
7.1 Managing risks in a system with variable Renewables
7.2 New climate risks
7.3 New risks: Cybersecurity, power electronics and sector coupling
7.4 Regulatory response to the security of electricity supply risks
7.5 Recommendations for the incoming EC and EP

Chapter 5

  • The Distributional Effects of Climate Policies
  • Gustav Fredriksson & Georg Zachmann

1. Introduction
2. Assessing the distributional impact of policies
2.1 Income side
2.2 Expenditure side
2.3 Government side
2.4 Summary
3. Distributional effects of climate policies
4. The distributional effects of real-world climate policy: The EU ETS
4.1 Allocation of free allowances
4.2 Indirect cost compensation for electricity-intensive firms
4.3 Overall distributional impact of the EU ETS
5. Non-action
6. Conclusion and recommendation to the incoming Commission and EP
7. References

Chapter 6

  • Innovation: a Vital Challenge for the European Energy Transition
  • Pascal Lamy & Thomas Pellerin-Carlin

1. Innovation is vital for Europe and for the energy transition
1.1 Innovating to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions
1.2 Innovating for competitiveness
1.3 Innovating to enhance Europe’s soft power
2. Leading in energy innovation: EU successes and challenges
2.1 Energy sectors: where the EU leads, lags or falls behind
2.2 Two cross-sector challenges for the EU
2.3 Energy-specific challenges
3. The EU has potent tools to boost energy R&I
3.1 How much does the EU invest in R&I?
3.2 H2020: how the EU R&I budget is being invested
4. How to get it done: proposals to improve the European energy R&I policy
4.1 Horizon Europe
4.2 A significantly increased EU R&I budget
4.3 Designing energy-related innovation « missions »
4.4 The European Innovation Council
4.5 Involving citizens to legitimize the EU R&I policy
5. Conclusion and recommendation to the next European Parliament and next European Commission
6. References

Chapter 7

  • Renewables Driving the Energy Transition: Europe in the Global Context
  • Dolf Gielen & Luis Janeiro

1. Introduction
2. Renewables deployment in the EU: A decade in the balance
2.1 Renewable electricity: cornerstone of the European energy transition
2.2 Renewable heat: room for acceleration of the transition
2.3 Renewables in transport: renewed commitment through electrification
3. Prospects of renewables to 2030
3.1 Impacts of accelerating renewables
3.2 Implications of the new 2030 targets
4. Renewables and long-term decarbonization
4.1 EU decarbonisation milestones
4.2 Long-term European and global decarbonisation challenges
4.2.1 Power sector
4.2.2 End use-sectors
4.2.3 The decarbonization gap - innovation needs
5. Moving forward: European global leadership in renewables
6. References


Chapter 8

  • An Introductory Overview on Institutional Change
  • Susanne Nies

1. The rise of EU energy policy over seven decades
2. What institutions?
3. The democratization of energy in Europe and the expansion
of interest groups and institutions, as well as start-ups
4. European Commission, EP, Council
5. Regulatory institutions and their architecture
6. Transmission and distribution system operators and their European faces
7. Informal forae: Florence Forum, Madrid Forum, Dublin Forum
8. The Regional and the Local
9. Cooperation beyond membership
10. Standardization architecture- CEN CENELEC
11. The EU as part of the global energy and climate architecture: incubating phase four of a climate-driven institutional setting?
12. Looking forward and recommendations for Policymakers

Chapter 9

  • The EU, the UK and Energy: not much Shared Ambition post-Brexit
  • Sir Philip Lowe

1. Continuing uncertainty over future UK-EU relations…
2. but so far a consensus that Brexit will only have a limited impact at least in the short term
3. The Withdrawal agreement contains further guidance on the impact on the energy sector
4. UK-EU energy cooperation post-Brexit
5. The way forward

Chapter 10

  • Regionalisation and Regional Cooperation in the European Electricity Markets
  • Klaus-Dieter Borchardt & Maria Eugenia Leoz Martin-Casallo

1. Introduction
2. The regional approach prior to the Clean energy for All Europeans Package
2.1 From the First Electricity Directive to the Third Energy Package
2.2 Third Energy Package and regionalisation in the context of electricity network codes
2.3 Regionalisation and regional cooperation in other legislative and non-legislative initiatives
3. The regional approach in the Clean energy Package
3.1 Energy Union Framework Strategy
3.2 Proposed measures enhancing regionalisation and regional cooperation in the electricity sector
3.3 Proposals on Regional Operational Centers as a tool to enhance regional TSO cooperation
3.4 Negotiation of the proposals on ROCs
3.4.1 The Council’s General Approach
3.4.2 The European Parliament Report
3.4.3 The political Agreement of the European Co-Legislators
4. The way forward: key questions yet to be addressed

Chapter 11

  • The ACER Experience
  • Alberto Pototschnig

1. An Agency from scratch: the establishment of the Agency and its purpose
2. Shaping the Internal energy Market: the Agency’s tasks and responsibilities under the Third energy Package and the Infrastructure Package
3. REMIT: venturing into uncharted waters
4. A unique governance: four bodies and decision-making
4.1 The Agency’s four bodies
4.2 Decision-making in the Agency
4.3 Independence and neutrality
5. The three main challenges: resources, resources and resources
6. An evaluation of the Agency’s activities
7. The future of the Agency: the “Clean energy for All Europeans” Package
7.1 The role of the Agency in the development of TCMs and, in general, in solving disputes between NR As
7.2 The role of the Agency in the regulatory oversight of EU entities
7.3 The internal decision-making process in the Agency

Chapter 12

  • The ENTSO-E Experience
  • Konstantin Staschus

1. Rationale for TSO cooperation
1.1 Advantages of interconnection
1.2 European TSO associations: Already a technical success story 1951-2009
2. The rationale for ENTSO-E
2.1 ENTSO-E foundation, tasks and structures: EU, regional and national
2.2 The establishment of ENTSO-E: The voluntary, early and eager part
2.3 Tasks and achievements
2.3.1 Network Codes: Rules which enable the energy transition
2.3.2 TYNDPs and Adequacy Forecasts: Grid planning and reliability warnings for the energy transition
2.3.3 Efficient, secure and future-proof
2.4 Context and benefits of the ENTSO-E tasks
2.5 ENTSO-E organisation and governance: Balance of formality and realism
2.6 Coordination of national, regional and European levels
2.7 Global comparisons and influence
2.8 Digitalisation and TSO/DSO cooperation
3. The Clean energy Package and beyond
4. Conclusion

Chapter 13

  • The Changing Role of DSOs and their New Role in the EU Agenda
  • Christian Buchel

1. The transformation of DSOs: from unbundling to the neutral market facilitator
2. Digital technology as a key factor for smart DSOs and the French case of Enedis
3. The framework needed to allow European DSOs to serve the energy transition

Chapter 14

  • The Energy Community - Ready for the Clean Energy Transition?
  • Dirk Buschle

1. The energy Community - mission accomplished?
1.1 Creating and integrating energy markets
1.2 Security of supply and the export of European energy law
1.3 Sustainability
2. Governance challenges
2.1 Enforcement
2.2 Reciprocity
2.3 New governance challenges
3. The energy Community and the clean energy transition
4. Conclusion and recommendations for policy-makers


Chapter 15

  • A Climate and Energy Union for the Future of Europe: What comes after the « Clean Planet for All » EU strategy?
  • Sami Andoura & Philipp Offenberg

1. As the impacts of climate change are becoming more visible, citizens do not tolerate inaction anymore
2. Climate change is about to become a socially dividing issue
3. The world needs a robust global governance on climate change
4. Asia is becoming the global centre of clean tech investment and innovation
5. Europe needs to shift from moral to technological leadership
6. Europe needs to think more strategically when it comes to investments and access to resources
7. Can Europe use the energy transition to catch up on the digital revolution?
8. Europe needs to prepare for the new risks coming with the new energy world
9. Conclusion

Chapter 16

  • EU electricity market: the good, the bad and the ugly
  • Konrad Purchala

1. The good
1.1 No barriers to electricity trade among all European countries
1.2 Coordinated price formation under European-wide market coupling mechanism
2. The bad
2.1 More market integration and more transmission investments, but cross-zonal capacities remain low
2.2 Zonal market model leads to decoupled market and system operations
2.3 Technically infeasible market outcome requiring large-scale redispatching measures
2.4 The zonal market does not facilitate correct incentives for efficient behavior
2.5 Insufficient price signals to facilitate generation adequacy
3. The ugly
3.1 Course correction is very difficult, if possible at all
4. Clean energy Package: the swan song of the zonal market?
5. The new power system requires new market solutions!

Chapter 17

  • The European Electricity Market Integration Process
  • Christophe Gence-Creux

1. Introduction
2. Main achievements in the European electricity market
3. Completion of European market integration and need for paradigm shift in European TSO mindset
4. … which might be put into question due to political interferences

Chapter 18

  • Vulnerable Customers and Energy Poverty
  • Marina Cubedo Vicén

1. Understanding energy poverty and its causes
2. energy poverty in Europe
3. How to address energy poverty: measures and the creation of the EU energy Poverty Observatory
4. References


Chapter 19

  • What Future for Gas and Gas Infrastructure in the European Energy Transition?
  • Christian Schülke

1. Introduction
2. The role of gas and the gas infrastructure up to 2030
3. What can be the role of gas and the gas infrastructure in a 2050 decarbonisation perspective?
4. The way forward
5. References

Chapter 20

  • Russia - EU Relations and the Energy Transition
  • Kirsten Westphal

1. Introduction
2. Quantifying EU-Russia energy Trade
3. In retrospective: The development of institutionalized
EU-Russian energy relations
3.1 The first phase till 2000
3.2 The EU-Russia Energy Dialogue
3.3 EU’s Energy Union and EU-Russian Energy Relations
in times of geopolitical crises since 2014
4. Conclusions and recommendations

Chapter 21

  • The Cybersecurity Challenge
  • Sonya Twohig

1. Introduction
2. How to assess the problem
3. Case Study - Grids Under Attack
3.1 Case Study - Ukraine
3.2 Case Study - US the Trendsetter?
4. Risk Preparedness and the energy Transition
5. The Solution?
5.1 Roles and Responsibilities
5.2 Standards, Network Codes & Over-regulation
5.3 Investment, Incentivization, Prudency of Costs
5.4 In terms of what are two things a system operator can do now
6. Conclusion and recommendations


Chapter 22

  • Communicating the Energy Transition
  • Claire Camus

1. Definitions
2. Liberalisation: from ratepayers to ratepayers
3. The energy transition: from customer inertia to customer activism
4. Digitisation: a power system at finger tips?
5. Communication & power networks - from a nice-to-have to a must-have
6. What’s next?

Chapter 23

  • Digital Energy
  • Jesse Scott

1. What is digital energy?
2. How should EU decision-makers respond to the digital energy future?
2.1 Market liberalisation
2.2 Decarbonisation
3. Recommendations

Chapter 24

  • New Digital Grid Architectures and Platforms
  • Laurent Schmitt

1. The Current Grid transformation paradigm
2. Evolutions of Grid Systems and technologies at Gridedge
3. The new Smart City integration layer

Chapter 25

  • Thirteen Disruptive Innovations to accelerate New Business Models in the Energy Sector
  • Alicia Carrasco

1. Definition
2. The innovations
2.1 Demand response and a consumption side interest
2.2 Virtualization of metering and production of distributed energy
2.3 Massive amount of information
2.4 Digitalization…
2.5 Energy frameworks and political leadership
2.6 Private sector and people led clean energy investment
2.7 Diversification to decarbonize
2.8 Cities are shaping our future
2.9 Industry development
2.10 Evolution of stakeholders’ roles and functions
2.11 Agile innovation scene
2.12 Better technology performance at lower cost with data
flows adding valuable functions
2.13 IT layer
3. Conclusion

Chapter 26

  • Tomorrow
  • Olivier Corradi

1. Climate change is the most important problem of our time
2. The need for an ubiquitous carbon signal
3. How Tomorrow contributes to mitigating climate change

Chapter 27

  • How Innovation Can Accelerate the Energy Transition: Lessons Learnt at KIC InnoEnergy
  • Pierre Serkine & Diego Pavia

1. Innovation: an imperative for companies and countries, and the throttle for energy transition
2. The European cleantech innovation landscape: what role for the EU?
3. The 3 winning cards for value creation innovation: Lessons learnt by KIC Innoenergy since 2010
3.1 A brief description of KIC InnoEnergy and its track record since 2010
3.2 The first winning card: A multidimensional approach, not only TRL
3.3 The second winning card: A “one stop shop” for the innovator
3.4 The third winning card: A trusted innovation ecosystem
4. Conclusion

Chapter 28

  • Managing the New Realities of Decentralised Energy Resources
  • Frauke Thies

1. The imperative of smart energy management
2. Possible revenue streams for decentralised resources and services
2.1 On-site optimisation
2.2 Explicit market participation
2.3 Implicit market participation
3. Regulatory conditions to enable decentralised and innovative solutions
4. The European Clean energy Package: opening markets for new technologies and business models
4.1 The right for self-generation and community ownership of electricity
4.2 Market access for decentralised resources and service providers
4.3 Choice of dynamic retail prices
4.4 The procurement of flexibility at distribution level
4.5 Relevant data access
5. The challenge of effective price signals
5.1 Investment signals at wholesale level
5.2 Retail price signals
5.3 Reflection of network realities
6. The way forward? Recommendations for the new European legislative cycle

Chapter 29

  • The Power of Collaboration: the Case of the Renewable Grid Initiative
  • Antonella Battaglini, Andrzej Ceglarz & Theresa Schneider

1. Introduction: “If you want to go fast, go alone. If you want to go far, go together.”
2. How to collaborate: a learning process
3. New beginnings: changing perceptions
4. The art of staying relevant
5. References

Chapter 30

  • Training for the Energy Transition: Community Learning at Florence School of Regulation
  • Leonardo Meeus & Jean-Michel Glachant

1. Training challenges
1.1 Multi-disciplinary engineers, economists, and lawyers
1.2 New entrants and consumer representatives
1.3 Sector convergence
2. Online training formats
2.1 Sharing knowledge where it is created
2.2 Community learning
2.3 Evolving across the spectrum
3. Training partnerships
3.1 Partnerships to produce knowledge
3.2 Partnerships to share knowledge and organize community learning

Chapter 31

  • Facts and Statistics on the Energy Transition
  • Tom Howes

1. Historical picture of the energy sector in the EU
2. Transition 1
2.1 Market liberalisation
2.2 Transition of market coupling and security of supply
3. Transition 2
3.1 A sustainable energy mix
3.2 Transition in the electricity sector
4. Keeping the transition affordable
5. Cementing the direction of travel - market design and (45)-32-32.5
6. Climate neutrality by 2050

Chapter 32

  • A Forest of Scenarios - the Long-term Evolution of the European Energy System
  • Simeon Hagspiel & Jean-Baptiste Paquel

1. Introduction
2. From storylines to decision making
2.1 Scenarios, serving a purpose
2.2 How to use and trust scenarios?
3. Scenario building process
3.1 The art of building scenarios
3.1.1 Definition of scope and granularity
3.1.2 Definition of methodology and assumptions
3.1.3 Implementation
3.1.4 Analysis
3.2 Storyline
3.3 Technical limitations
4. Arboretum: scenarios for the European Energy Transition
4.1 Institutional scenarios
4.2 Other notable European scenarios
5. Conclusion
6. References

Chapter 33

  • Lessons from 70 Years of European Energy Policy Transition
  • Helmut Schmitt von Sydow

1. Transition from war and fratricide to solidarity and peacekeeping
2. The coal transition
3. Transition to dialogue - from Florence to Montecatini
4. The internal market transition
5. Three packages reflecting subsidiarity and proportionality
6. The normative force of facts
7. The transition from top down to bottom up
8. The Echternach way of transition

The authors

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Edited by:

  • Susanne Nies,
  • Strategy & Communications Manager ENTSO-E

Preface by:

  • Jacques Delors
  • Former President of the European Commission


  • Sami Andoura - European Commission
  • Antonella Battaglini - RGI
  • Klaus-Dieter Borchardt - European Commission
  • Christian Buchel - ENEDIS
  • Dirk Buschle - Energy Community
  • Claire Camus - ENTSO-E
  • Alicia Carrasco - OlivoEnergy
  • Andrzej Ceglarz - Renewables Grid Initiative
  • Olivier Corradi - Tomorrow
  • Marina Cubedo Vicén - ENTSO-E
  • Jos Delbeke - European Commission
  • Jacques Delors
  • Gustav Fredriksson - ETH Zürich
  • Christophe Gence-Creux - ACER
  • Dolf Gielen - IRENA
  • Jean-Michel Glachant - FSR
  • Simeon Hagspiel - ENTSO-E
  • Tom Howes - European Commission
  • Luis Janeiro - IRENA
  • Pascal Lamy - Jacques Delors Institute
  • Maria Eugenia Leoz Martin-Casallo - European Commission
  • Philip Lowe - former European Commission
  • Leonardo Meeus - Florence School of Regulation
  • Susanne Nies
  • Philipp Offenberg - European Commission
  • Jean Baptiste Paquel - ENTSO-E
  • Diego Pavia - InnoEnergy
  • Thomas Pellerin-Carlin - Jacques Delors Institute
  • Alberto Potoschnig - ACER
  • Konrad Purchala - PSE
  • Laurent Schmitt - ENTSO-E
  • Helmut Schmitt van Sydow - former European Commission
  • Theresa Schneider - Renewables Grid Initiative
  • Jesse Scott - Eurogas
  • Christian Schülke - Equinor
  • Pierre Serkine - InnoEnergy
  • Konstantin Staschus - Navigant
  • Frauke Thies - SmartEn
  • Sonya Twohig - ENTSO-E
  • Peter Vis - European Commission
  • Kirsten Westphal - SWP
  • Georg Zachmann - Bruegel
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