The industry chain of cobalt mainly includes cobalt ore mining and dressing (upstream), cobalt smelting and processing (midstream) and terminal utilization of cobalt (downstream). In the upstream, Congo (Kinshasa) accounts for nearly half of the global cobalt ore reserves and production; in the midstream, China contributes nearly half to global production capacity and production volume of cobalt salts, cobalt and cobalt powder; in the downstream, cobalt is applied in batteries, high-temperature alloys, cemented carbides, magnetic materials, etc.
By the end of 2018, global cobalt reserves totaled about 7 million tons, 3.30 million tons or 40% of which were in Congo (Kinshasa). Australia, Cuba. etc. accounted for 5% to 15% respectively while China only accounted for only about 1%. However, Chinese enterprises ranked first in the world in terms of production volume.
In 2018, the global production volume of cobalt was about 145,000 tons, increasing by nearly 20% YOY. The production volume of cobalt in Congo (Kinshasa) was about 106,000 tons, increasing by over 40% YOY. Cobalt production expanded rapidly in Congo (Kinshasa) mainly because Glencore's KCC project produced 11,000 tons of cobalt in 2018 after it resumed production and other major cobalt mines increased production in varying degrees. But as the cobalt produced by the KCC project in 2018 and 2019 contains excessive uranium, it cannot be put on the spot market at present. In 2018, the global production volume of refined cobalt reached 126,000 tons, increasing by about 9% YOY. In China, the production volume of refined cobalt exceeded 80,000 tons and the market demand exceeded 60,000 tons. Besides, cobalt demand also increased. However, global cobalt prices dropped sharply in 2018 because of oversupply.
In recent years, global cobalt production stay above 100,000 tons/year and cobalt demand is also small. Therefore, cobalt prices can be easily manipulated to soar or slump, which is different from copper, aluminum, lead, zinc and other bulk commodities.
According to the author, cobalt is mostly used in battery materials. It is estimated that in 2018, more than 50% of global cobalt consumption was attributable to the materials for 3C batteries, energy storage batteries, power batteries for new energy vehicles and other batteries. In recent years, China is the world's largest producer and seller of electric vehicles. In 2018, battery materials accounted for about 80% cobalt consumption in China.
If there is no major technological innovation, the cobalt demand from cemented carbides, high-temperature alloys, and magnetic materials will remain stable in the next few years. And battery materials will be the largest growth driver for the cobalt demand from 2019 to 2023.
It is expected that Li-ion batteries for electric vehicles will be the largest growth area for cobalt consumption in the battery sector. In recent years, the global production volume of electric vehicles has been growing fast at a growth rate far exceeding that of traditional vehicles. In 2018, the production volume of electric vehicles in China reached about 1.29 million units, increasing by 60% as compared to 2017. The demand for cobalt, an important raw material for electric vehicle batteries, will grow rapidly. Power batteries have taken up the largest proportion of the downstream applications of cobalt.
As the global new energy vehicle industry is developing rapidly, the global cobalt demand will also continue to rise. It is expected that from 2019 to 2023, the global production volume of new energy vehicles will grow at a CAGR of over 30%, the cobalt demand from ternary materials will grow at a CAGR of over 50% and the demand for energy storage lithium batteries will grow at a CAGR of nearly 50%. Meanwhile, ternary batteries will see an increase in penetration rate and their demand for cobalt will grow at a CAGR of 100%. The cobalt demand from 3C batteries and industrial batteries will maintain a CAGR of 2% to 3%. Overall, the CAGR of global cobalt demand will stay around 10% from 2019 to 2023.
- Development environment for the cobalt industry
- Supply of and demand for cobalt on global and Chinese markets
- Analysis of major downstream industries of cobalt
- Price trend of cobalt
- Major cobalt mining and smelting enterprises and downstream enterprises in China and the world
- Driving forces and market opportunities for the cobalt industry from 2019 to 2023
- Threats and challenges to the cobalt industry from 2019 to 2023
- Prospect of global and China's cobalt industries from 2019 to 2023
1 Basic Concepts of the Cobalt Industry
1.1 Definition and Classification
1.2 Development of the Cobalt Industry
1.2.1 Development of Global Cobalt Industry
1.2.2 Development of China's Cobalt Industry
1.3 Functions and Applications of Cobalt
1.4.1 Parameters and Assumptions
1.4.2 Data Sources
1.4.3 About the Author
2 Development Environment for Global and China's Cobalt Industries
2.1 Economic Environment
2.1.1 Global Economy
2.1.2 China's Economy
2.1.3 Development of Global and China's New Energy Vehicle Industries
2.2 Policy Environment
2.3 Resource Environment
2.4 Development Environment for China's Non-ferrous Metal Industry
2.5 Major Downstream Applications of Cobalt
2.5.1 Li-ion Power Batteries (New Energy Vehicles)
2.5.2 Magnetic Materials
3 Analysis on Global and China's Cobalt Industries
3.1 Analysis on Cobalt Supply
3.1.1 Cobalt Supply in the World, 2014-2018
3.1.2 Cobalt Supply in China
3.2 Analysis on Cobalt Demand
3.2.1 Cobalt Demand in the World
3.2.2 Cobalt Demand in China
3.3 Analysis on Import and Export of Cobalt in China
3.3.1 Cobalt Import
3.3.2 Cobalt Export
3.4 Price Trend of Cobalt, 2016-2019
3.4.1 Price Trend of Cobalt on the Global Market
3.4.2 Price Trend of Cobalt on the Chinese Market
4 Analysis on Industry Chain of Cobalt
4.1 Composition of Industry Chain of Cobalt
4.2 Upstream Raw Materials
4.3 Cobalt Smelting
4.4 Downstream Industries
5 Analysis on Competition in the Cobalt Industry
5.1 Barriers to Entry in the Cobalt Industry
5.1.1 Fund Barrier
5.1.2 Technical Barrier
5.1.3 Policy Barrier
5.1.4 Raw Material Barrier
5.2 Competitive Landscape of the Cobalt Industry
5.2.1 Bargaining Power of Upstream Raw Material Suppliers
5.2.2 Bargaining Power of Downstream Customers
5.2.3 Competition in the Cobalt Industry
5.2.4 Potential Entrants to the Cobalt Industry
5.2.5 Substitutes for Cobalt
6 Major Cobalt Smelters in China and the World, 2018-2019
6.1 Major Cobalt Mining and Smelting Enterprises
6.1.1 Glencore PLC
6.1.2 Vale S.A.
6.1.3 Eurasian Resources Group
6.1.4 Zhejiang Huayou Cobalt Co., Ltd.
6.1.5 Nanjing Hanrui Cobalt Co., Ltd.
6.1.6 Jiangsu Cobalt Nickel Metal Co., Ltd.
6.1.7 China Molybdenum Co., Ltd.
6.1.8 Jinchuan Group Co., Ltd.
6.1.9 China Railway Resources Group Co., Ltd.
6.1.10 Ramu Nico Management (MCC) Limited
6.2 Downstream Material Producers
6.2.1 GEM Co., Ltd.
6.2.2 Ningbo Shanshan Co., Ltd.
6.2.3 Beijing Easpring Material Technology Co., Ltd.
6.2.4 Xiamen Tungsten Co., Ltd.
6.2.5 Zhejiang Huayou Cobalt Co., Ltd.
6.2.6 Hunan Brunp Recycling Technology Co., Ltd.
6.2.7 Hunan Changyuan Lico Co., Ltd.
6.2.8 Ningbo Jinhe New Materials Co., Ltd.
6.2.9 Hunan Shenghua Technology Co., Ltd.
6.2.10 BTR New Energy Materials Inc.
7 Prospect of Global and China's Cobalt Industries, 2019-2023
7.1 Factors Influencing Development of the Cobalt Industry
7.1.1 Driving Forces and Market Opportunities
7.1.2 Threats and Challenges
7.2 Forecast on Cobalt Supply, 2019-2023
7.3 Forecast on Cobalt Demand, 2019-2023
7.4 Trends of the Cobalt Industry
List of Figures
- Chart Cobalt Reserves in Major Regions of the World in 2018
- Chart Policies on China's Cobalt Industry, 2015-2019
- Chart Completed Fixed-asset Investment in China's Non-ferrous Metals Mining and Dressing Industry, 2014-2018
- Chart Global Production Volume of Cobalt Ores, 2014-2018
- Chart Global Production Volume of Refined Cobalt, 2014-2018
- Chart Production Volume and Inventories of Cobalt in Major Cobalt Producing Countries
- Chart Production Volume of Refined Cobalt in China, 2014-2018
- Chart Production Volume of Cobalt Concentrates in China, 2014-2018
- Chart Production Volume of Cobalt Ores in China, 2014-2018
- Chart Consumption Volume of Cobalt in China and the World, 2014-2018
- Chart Monthly Import Volume of Cobalt Ores and Concentrates in China, 2016-2019
- Chart Import Volume of Cobalt Ores and Concentrates in China, 2014-2018
- Chart Import Value of Cobalt Ores and Concentrates in China, 2014-2018
- Chart Average Monthly Import Price of Cobalt Powder in China, 2016-2019
- Chart Monthly Import Price of Refined Cobalt in China, 2016-2019
- Chart Monthly Import Price of Cobaltosic Oxide in China, 2016-2019
- Chart Monthly Import Price of Cobalt Hydroxide in China, 2016-2019
- Chart Monthly Import Price of Cobaltates in China, 2016-2019
- Chart Monthly Import Price of Cobalt Chloride, 2016-2019
- Chart Price of Cobalt Oxide in China, 2016-2019
- Chart Price of Electrolytic Cobalt in China, 2016-2019
- Chart Composition of Industry Chain of Cobalt
- Chart Global Distribution of Cobalt Reserves
- Chart Cobalt Resources Obtained by Chinese Enterprises from Congo (Kinshasa)
- Chart Global Consumption Volume of Lithium Batteries, 2014-2018
- Chart Operation Performance of Zhejiang Huayou Cobalt Co., Ltd., 2014-2018
- Chart Operation Performance of Nanjing Hanrui Cobalt Co., Ltd., 2014-2018
- Chart Forecast on Global Production Volume of Cobalt Ores, 2019-2023
- Chart Forecast on Consumption Volume of Cobalt in China and the World, 2019-2023
- Beijing Easpring Material Technology Co., Ltd.
- BTR New Energy Materials Inc.
- China Molybdenum Co., Ltd.
- China Railway Resources Group Co., Ltd.
- Eurasian Resources Group
- GEM Co., Ltd.
- Glencore PLC
- Hunan Brunp Recycling Technology Co., Ltd.
- Hunan Changyuan Lico Co., Ltd.
- Hunan Shenghua Technology Co., Ltd.
- Jiangsu Cobalt Nickel Metal Co., Ltd.
- Jinchuan Group Co., Ltd.
- Nanjing Hanrui Cobalt Co., Ltd.
- Ningbo Jinhe New Materials Co., Ltd.
- Ningbo Shanshan Co., Ltd.
- Ramu Nico Management (MCC) Limited
- Vale S.A.
- Xiamen Tungsten Co., Ltd.
- Zhejiang Huayou Cobalt Co., Ltd.
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