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Micronutrients 2019: Products, Deficiencies, Consumption, Case Studies, Industry Analysis (Zinc, Boron, Manganese, Iron, Copper, Molybdenum, Nickel, Cobalt)

  • ID: 4790867
  • Report
  • 101 Pages
  • Fertecon Reports
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This report looks at the role of micronutrients in agriculture, the drivers of consumption and how consumption has evolved over the last five years. The content of each chapter is as follows:

Chapter 1: Introduction
This chapter gives background information relevant to understanding of micronutrients in the environment and in agriculture. Topics include soil and plant chemistry which provide context as to how micronutrients behave and why are they are important to crop growth and agriculture.

Chapter 2: Micronutrient products

Chapter Two outlines the range of products available as sources of micronutrients both widely-used basic industrial substances and more specialised substances used for specific applications.

Chapter 3: Micronutrient deficiencies
This chapter describes the nature of micronutrient deficiencies by element, the crops and regions in which they are found and how they are treated.

Chapter 4: Micronutrient consumption
The chapter on micronutrient consumption provides 2018 figures by region, country and crop. Where possible, segmentation is also provided by states within countries, substance type and application method. Discussions are also provided on drivers of growth in consumption for each country.

Chapter 5: Case study: Zn consumption in the USA
Chapter Five looks at the case of Zn and B consumption in the USA, focusing on its use in commodity crops in the USA Mid-west. Details are given on the drivers of consumption and how consumption has evolved.

Chapter 6: Industry analysis
This chapter looks at the micronutrient industry including companies, governance and technological trends.

Chapter 7: Case studies
The final chapter gives some background information on notable case studies of micronutrient provision and use worldwide.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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Executive Summary

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Fundamentals of soil science 
1.1.1. Soil classes 
1.2 Fundamentals of plant science nutrition 
1.2.1. Definition of plant nutrients 
1.2.2. Functions of micronutrients 
1.3 Sources and availability of nutrients in soils 
1.3.1. pH of soils 
1.3.2. Organic matter content 
1.3.3. Other soil characteristics 
1.3.4. Presence of other elements 
1.3.5. Climate 
1.4 Cycling of micronutrients 
1.5 Detecting deficiencies 
1.5.1. Soil testing 
1.6 Addressing deficiencies 
1.6.1. Use of micronutrient fertilisers 
1.6.2. Cultivar selection 
1.6.3. Intercropping 
1.6.4. Biofortification 
1.7 Adoption of micronutrients worldwide 

Chapter 2: Micronutrient products 
2.1 Straight products 
2.1.1. Salts 
2.1.2. Oxides 
2.1.3. Boron and molybdenum salts 
2.1.4. Formulated straight products 
2.2 NPK fertilisers with micronutrients 
2.3 Frits and slow release products 
2.4  Liquid mixes 

2.5 Chelated elements 
2.6 Products by element 
2.6.1. Zinc products 
2.6.2. Iron products 
2.6.3. Copper products 
2.6.4. Manganese products 
2.6.5. Boron products 
2.7 Application methods 
2.7.1. Soil application 
2.7.2. Foliar application 
2.7.3. Fertigation 
2.7.4. Seed treatment 

Chapter 3: Micronutrient deficiencies 
3.1 Zinc 
3.1.1. Maize 
3.1.2. Soybean 
3.1.3. Deficiencies worldwide 
3.2 Boron 
3.3 Manganese 
3.4 Iron 
3.5 Copper 
3.6 Molybdenum 
3.7 Nickel 
3.8 Cobalt 

Chapter 4: Micronutrient consumption 
4.1 Zinc 
4.1.1. Asia 
4.1.2. North America 
4.1.3. Latin America 
4.1.4. Europe 
4.1.5. Middle East and Africa 
4.2 Boron 
4.2.1. Asia 
4.2.2. North America 
4.2.3. Latin America 
4.2.4. Europe 
4.2.5. Middle East and Africa 
4.3 Manganese 
4.3.1. Asia-Pacific 
4.3.2. Latin America 
4.3.3. Europe 
4.3.4. The Middle East 
4.4 Iron 
4.4.1. Asia-Pacific 

4.4.2. Europe 
4.4.3. Middle East and Africa 
4.5 Copper
4.5.1. Asia-Pacific 
4.5.2. Latin America 
4.5.3. Middle East and Africa

Chapter 5: Case study: Consumption in the USA 
5.1.1. Zn consumption in the Mid-west 
5.1.2. B consumption in the Mid-West 
5.1.3. Zn consumption on the Pacific Coast 
5.1.4. B consumption on the Pacific Coast 

Chapter 6: Industry analysis 
6.1 Competitive landscape 
6.1.1. Substance manufacture 
6.1.2. Key industry players 
6.2 Governance 
6.3 Technological trends 
6.4 Factors impacting development

Chapter 7: Case studies
7.1 Australia 
7.2 Biofortification of cassava 

Chapter 8: Annex 

List of Figures

Figure 1: Time series of crop yields worldwide (tonnes per hectare)
Figure 2: Percentage drop in average concentration of trace elements in soils (USA, 1979 to 2013)
Figure 3: Effect of P on Zn uptake in maize (x-axis - P app., mg L-1; y-axis – chlorophyll content)
Figure 4: Diagram of micronutrient cycling
Figure 5: Segregation due to different particle size of materials (left); homogenous mixing (right) 
Figure 6: Action of dispersion agents on solid particles in suspension 
Figure 7: The law of minimum 
Figure 8: Global map of zinc deficiency 
Figure 9: Identifying zinc chlorosis in maize 
Figure 10: Historic Zn sulphate production, India (tonnes) 
Figure 11: Global distribution of boron deficiency 
Figure 12: Relationship between seed boron concentration and yield in blackgram 
Figure 13: Zn consumption, China (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 14: Zn consumption by crop, China 
Figure 15: Zn consumption by province, China 
Figure 16: Zn consumption, India (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 17: Zn consumption by crop, India 

Figure 18: Split of Zn consumption by substance, India 
Figure 19: Split of Zn consumption by application method, India 
Figure 20: Zn consumption, Australia (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 21: Change in planted area and yield of wheat Australia (2008-2016) 
Figure 22: Geographic overlap between CEC and wheat growing in south-eastern Australia 
Figure 23: Split of increase in Zn use in Canada by crop, 2007-2017 
Figure 24: Zn consumption, Brazil (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 25: Zn consumption by crop, Brazil 
Figure 26: Zn exports from Brazil by crop
Figure 27: Proportion of Zn usage in France by crop
Figure 28: Inputs of zinc into UK soils (2007) 
Figure 29: Split of Zn usage by crop, Iran 
Figure 30: Split of Zn usage by substance, South Africa (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 31: Split of zinc usage by crop category, Egypt
Figure 32: Rural labour indices (1995 – 2014) 
Figure 33: B consumption by crop, China 
Figure 34: B consumption, India (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 35: B consumption by crop, India 
Figure 36: B consumption, Australia (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 37: B consumption by crop, Australia 
Figure 38: B consumption, Indonesia (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 39: B consumption, Brazil (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 40: B consumption by crop, Brazil 
Figure 41: B consumption, Italy (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 42: B consumption by crop, Italy 
Figure 43: B consumption, France (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 44: B consumption by crop, France 
Figure 45: B consumption, UK (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 46: B consumption by crop, UK 
Figure 47: B consumption, South Africa (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 48: Split of B usage by crop, South Africa (2018) 
Figure 49: Split of Mn usage by crop, China (2018) 
Figure 50: Mn consumption, Australia (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 51: Split of Mn usage by crop, Australia (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 52: Mn consumption, Brazil (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 53: Split of Mn usage by crop, Brazil (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 54: Split of Mn usage by crop, Italy (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 55: Split of Mn usage by crop, France (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 56: Split of Fe usage by crop, China (2018) 
Figure 57: Fe consumption, India (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 58: Split of Fe usage by crop, India (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 59: Split of Fe usage by crop, France 
Figure 60: Split of Fe usage by crop, Italy 
Figure 61: Split of Fe usage by source, Turkey 
Figure 62: Cu consumption, Australia (2012 – 2018)

Figure 63: Cu consumption, Brazil (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 64: Split of Cu usage by crop, Brazil 
Figure 65: Zn consumption, USA (2012 – 2018) 
Figure 66: Index of percentage areas fertilised with Zn, USA (2000 - 2018) 
Figure 67: Soil pH and areas of commodity crops, USA (2018) 
Figure 68: Rate of decrease in available-Zn by state, USA (2018) 
Figure 69: Correlation between percentage areas of GM planting and herbicide applications, USA 
Figure 70: Cost-benefit time series of Zn applications, USA (2000 – 2018) 
Figure 71: Spikes in maize prices (Iowa) relative to fertiliser prices, USA (2000 – 2017) 
Figure 72: Split of B consumption by field crop, Mid-west 
Figure 73: The effect of gene expression on growth of cassava plants 
Figure 74: Stunting of plant growth due to zinc deficiency and correction, China
Figure 75: Return on investment in certain crops, Zn sulphate (China) 
List of Tables

Table 1: Soil classes 
Table 2: Micronutrient functions in plants 
Table 3: Form of micronutrients taken up by plants 
Table 4: Nutrient contents 
Table 5: Chelates used in micronutrient products 
Table 6: Substances used as sources of Zn as a micronutrient in agriculture 
Table 7: Substances used as sources of Fe as a micronutrient in agriculture 
Table 8: Substances used as sources of Cu as a micronutrient in agriculture 
Table 9: Manganese sulphate products 
Table 10: Boron products 
Table 11: Zinc deficiency symptoms by crop 
Table 12: Responsiveness of crops to zinc in field trials 
Table 13: Boron deficiency symptoms by crop 
Table 14: Mn deficiency symptoms by crop 
Table 15: Copper deficiency symptoms by crop
Table 16: Consumption of micronutrients by element and country, 2018
Table 17: Constraints to micronutrient use, Middle East and Africa
Table 18: B yield responses, China 
Table 19: B application rates, India 
Table 20: B application rates, Australia 
Table 21: Application of iron as a micronutrient for wine-making
Table 22: Zn consumption by crop and state, WC Mid-west (000 t)
Table 23: B consumption by crop and state, WC Mid-west (000 t)
Table 24: Sulphate salt manufacturers 
Table 25: Manufacturers of agricultural grade zinc sulphate serving agriculture 
Table 26: Manufacturers of B micronutrient substances 
Table 27: Manufacturers of Mn substances for use in agriculture 
Table 28: Manufacturers of Fe sulphate for use in agriculture

Table 29: Manufacturers of Cu sulphate for use in agriculture
Table 30: Manufacturers of chelate micronutrient substances
Table 31: Constraints to micronutrient use, Europe 
Table 32: Constraints to micronutrient use, Asia-Pacific
Table 33: Constraints to micronutrient use, Latin America
Table 34: Crop-element-country look-up table
Table 35: Consumption driver look-up table
Table 36: Details on companies formulating and distributing micronutrients, worldwide

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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