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Encyclopedia of New York Causes of Action 2020: Elements & Defenses

  • ID: 4791086
  • Book
  • Region: United States
  • 458 Pages
  • ALM Media, LLC
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The Encyclopedia of New York Causes of Action: Elements and Defenses is a single volume annual paperback. It is a quick starting point for virtually any civil case containing New York civil actions, legal principles and defenses. The book compiles, outlines, and indexes theories of recovery under New York law. There is nothing like it available to NY practitioners. 

New with the 2020 edition is coverage of the provisional remedies requirements in NY courts, including topics such as attachment, order to show cause, preliminary injunctions, stays, and receiverships. For managing partners and litigation departments, this book brings associates up to speed quickly, while reducing training time and expense in preparing briefs and pleadings.

There is also an extensive common word index facilitating a direct review of the potential universe of causes of actions, principles and defenses, and tables of cases and statutes. When appropriate, the Cause of Action will reference authorities for defense, including statutes of limitation. The Encyclopedia of New York Causes of Action: Elements and Defenses, is a quick reference to unfamiliar subjects, a welcome resource for firms without an extensive law library.

This title is perfect for solo practitioners and small firms. It will save time analyzing client problems and preparing pleadings by pin-pointing the starting point of an action before employing more costly research. This is an inexpensive desk reference for virtually any case that walks in your door!

New this edition: Summary paragraphs at the beginning of each chapter give context, and practice tips.

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Chapter 1: Agency or Fiduciary Causes of Action
1-1 Agent Breaching Fiduciary Duty to Principal
1-2 Agent Negligent In Collecting Debt
1-3 Agent’s Liability for Principal’s Obligation
1-4 Agent’s Negligence Causing Harm to Others
1-5 Agent’s Personal Liability on Contract
1-6 Bailments
1-7 Caring for Collateral or Security
1-8 Charitable Organization Liable for Wrongdoing
1-9 Consignee Liability for Damaged Art
1-10 Co-Sureties Contributing on Debt Default
1-11 Escrow Agent Improperly Disbursing Funds
1-12 Faithless Servant Doctrine
1-13 Fiduciary Breaching Duty
1-14 Fiduciary Relationship
1-15 Fraudulent Concealment by Fiduciary
1-16 Obligor Aiding Agent Disloyalty to Principal
1-17 Warehouseman or Carrier Liability for Goods
1-18 Warehouseman or Carrier Lien on Goods
1-19 Warehouseman Elements

Chapter 2: Attorney and Legal Services Causes of Action
2-1 Attorney Malpractice
2-2 Attorney Increasing Inadequate Contingency Fee
2-3 Claim for Attorney’s Fees
2-4 Judiciary Law § 487 (Attorney Deceit)
2-5 Legal Fraud
2-6 Legal Malpractice In Criminal Cases

Chapter 3: Banking, Commercial Paper and Creditor Causes of Action
3-1 Bank Leaving Funds Transfer Incomplete
3-2 Bank Misconduct When Relying on Power of Attorney
3-3 Bank Mishandling Funds Transfer
3-4 Bankrupt’s Voiding of Preferential Transfer of Property
3-5 Bank’s Wrongful Dishonor of Negotiable Instrument
3-6 Bank’s Wrongful Payment of Negotiable Instrument
3-7 Bounced Check Causing Damage
3-8 Certified or Cashier’s Check Wrongfully Dishonored
3-9 Checking Account Funds Misappropriated by Fiduciary
3-10 Collecting Bank Late Objection to Negotiable Instrument
3-11 Collecting Bank Mishandling Negotiable Instrument
3-12 Credit Issuer Dishonoring or Repudiating
3-13 Debtor Lying to Creditor About Assets
3-14 Debtor’s Fraudulent Conveyance
3-15 Electronic Fund Transfer Privacy or Safety Violation
3-16 Enforcement of Security Interest Delegating Seller’s Performance
3-17 Fraudulent Negotiable Instrument Paid or Taken
3-18 Lessee’s Default on Lease of Goods
3-19 Lessor’s Breach of Implied Warranty on Goods
3-20 Lessor’s Breach of Express Warranty on Goods
3-21 Lessor’s Default on Lease of Goods
3-22 Letter of Credit Obligation Breached
3-23 Mistaken Payment on Draft Returned
3-24 Mortgage Contingency Loan Exacting Illegal Commission
3-25 Mortgage Exacting Illegal Points and Prepayments Fees
3-26 Mortgage Holder Breaching Escrow Obligations
3-27 Mortgagee Failing to Cancel Redeemed Mortgage
3-28 Negotiable Instrument
3-29 Negotiable Instrument Forged or Stolen
3-30 Negotiable Instrument Signed for Accommodation
3-31 Noncompliance With Secured Transactions Laws
3-32 Spouse Liable for Other Spouse’s Debt
3-33 Registration of Investment Security Transfer Denied
3-34 Summary Judgment in Lieu of Complaint (New York Civil Practice Law and Rules § 3213)

Chapter 4: Constitutional Causes of Action
4-1 Challenging Condemnation
4-2 Grand Jury Proceedings Unlawfully Disclosed
4-3 Inverse Condemnation
4-4 Privacy Invasion
4-5 State Constitutional Rights Violation
4-6 State Destruction of Private Property
4-7 State Taking Land Requiring Compensation
4-8 Taking
4-9 De Facto Taking
4-10 Regulatory Taking

Chapter 5: Contract or Quasi-Contract Causes of Action
5-1 Accounting
5-2 Account Stated
5-3 Anticipatory Breach of Contract
5-4 Breach of Contract Causing Damage
5-5 Breach of Implied Covenant of Good Faith and Fair Dealing
5-6 Buyer Recovering Specifically Identified Goods
5-7 Careless Contractual Work
5-8 Child’s Right to Rescind Contract
5-9 Confusing Language In Written Contract
5-10 Constructive Fraud In Contract
5-11 Consumer Contract Containing Unlawful Provision
5-12 Consumer Credit Billing Error
5-13 Consumer Goods Leased Under Unconscionable Circumstances
5-14 Consumer Loan Broker Acting Improperly
5-15 Contract
5-16 Contract Performance Interfered With by Outsider
5-17 Contract Rescission
5-18 Coverage for Causes Extending From Insured Risk
5-19 Duress Permitting Contract Rescission
5-20 Fraud by Others Outside Contract
5-21 Fraud Permitting Reformation or Rescission
5-22 Goods Sold and Delivered
5-23 Guaranty
5-24 Implied Contract
5-25 Insane Party Rescinding Contract
5-26 Insolvent Buyer Having Bought Goods
5-27 Insolvent Lessor Having Leased Goods
5-28 Insolvent Seller Having Sold Goods
5-29 Intentional Interference With Contractual Relationship
5-30 Intentional Interference With Prospective Economic Advantage
5-31 Limited Partnership Certificate Containing Falsehood
5-32 Malicious Interference With Contract Rights
5-33 Malicious Interference With Prospective Economic Advantage
5-34 Money Had and Received
5-35 Mutual Mistake In Contract
5-36 Obligation to Pay Services Sought for Other
5-37 Overpayment on Contract Recovered
5-38 Promise Causing Detrimental Reliance
5-39 Promissory Estoppel
5-40 Quantum Meruit
5-41 Quasi-Contract
5-42 Recoupment for Contract Breach Harming Outsider
5-43 Reliance on Another’s Conduct (Estoppel)
5-44 Rescission and Cancellation of Written Instruments (Fraud)
5-45 Rescission and Cancellation of Written Instruments (Misrepresentations)
5-46 Sale of Goods Breached by Buyer
5-47 Sale of Goods Breached by Seller
5-48 Sale of Personal Property
5-49 Statute of Frauds
5-50 Substantial Performance of Contract Allowing Recovery
5-51 Third-Party Beneficiary
5-52 Unconscionability Permitting Contract Rescission
5-52:1 Substantive Unconscionability
5-52:2 Procedural Unconscionability
5-53 Unilateral Mistake In Contract
5-54 Unjust Enrichment
5-55 Warranty on Goods Breached by Seller

Chapter 6: Corporate and Partnership Causes of Action
6-1 Association and Membership Liability
6-2 Association Membership Wrongfully Interfered With
6-3 Avoiding the Corporate Liability Shield or Piercing the Corporate Veil
6-4 Business Judgment Rule
6-5 Business Partner Breaching Fiduciary Duty to Co-Partner
6-6 Corporate Officer Participating In Tort
6-7 Cost of Defending Against Derivative Suit
6-8 Demand Futility
6-9 Director’s Liability to Shareholders
6-10 Dissolution for Deadlock
6-11 Dissolution of Limited Liability Company
6-12 Dissolution for Oppression
6-13 Improperly Buying Securities During Corporate Takeover
6-14 Member Liability In Joint Enterprise
6-15 Minority Shareholder Freeze-Out
6-16 Partner Breaching Duty to Co-Partner
6-17 Partnership Liability for Debts
6-18 Partnership Liability for Injury
6-19 Principal/Promoter Liability for Post-Incorporation Debt
6-20 Principal’s/Promoter’s Bad Faith Liability for Real Estate Broker’s Commission
6-21 Redeeming Shares In Company Merger Or Sale
6-22 Right of Inspection
6-23 Sales Commission Due From Principal
6-24 Successor Corporation Liable for Predecessor 
6-25 Usurpation of Corporate Opportunity

Chapter 7: Damage-Related Causes of Action
7-1 Breach of Contract Lost Profits Damages
7-2 Contribution
7-3 Economic Loss Rule
7-4 Indemnification From Person Ordering Tort
7-5 Interest Awarded on Damages
7-6 Punitive Damages Due From Tortfeasor
7-7 Recovery or Contribution From Tortfeasor
7-8 Tortious Conduct Lost Profits Damages

Chapter 8: Employer-Employee Causes of Action
8-1 Competition With Employer or Principal
8-1:1 Claim for Employee Breach of Fiduciary Duty
8-1:2 Claim for Misappropriation and Unfair Competition
8-2 Contractual Covenant Not to Compete Violated
8-3 Employer Breach of Employee Manual
8-4 Employer Improperly Handling Employee Wages
8-5 Employer Liability for Employee Act
8-6 Employer Retaliation Against Employee
8-7 Hostile Work Environment - Sexual Harassment
8-8 Negligent Hiring
8-9 New York City Human Rights Law
8-10 New York Labor Law § 193
8-11 New York State Human Rights Law
8-12 Quid Pro Quo Sexual Harassment
8-13 Sex Discrimination In Wage Payment
8-14 Work Environment Harassment
8-15 Work, Labor and Services (Quantum Meruit)
8-16 Wrongful Discharge In Violation of Company Policy

Chapter 9: Equitable Causes of Action
9-1 Equitable Estoppel
9-2 Equitable Fraud
9-3 Equitable Subrogation
9-4 Estoppel by Deed
9-5 Estoppel in Pais
9-6 Incorporation (or Corporation) By Estoppel
9-7 Implied Indemnification
9-8 Impounding Property to Pay Debt
9-9 Impress a Trust
9-10 Reformation of Written Instruments
9-11 Restitution Despite Contract Breach
9-12 Resulting Trust
9-13 Specific Performance

Chapter 10: Family and Matrimonial Causes of Action
10-1 Adoption
10-2 Annulment
10-3 Custody and Visitation
10-3:1 Custody
10-3:2 Visitation Rights of Sibling
10-3:3 Visitation of Grandparents
10-3:4 Enforcement of Visitation
10-3:5 Enforcement of Visitation - Temporary Order
10-3:6 Parental Alienation
10-4 Divorce
10-4:1 No-Fault Divorce
10-4:2 Fault Divorce
10-4:3 Abandonment
10-4:4 Adultery
10-4:5 Cruel and Inhuman Treatment
10-4:6  Imprisonment
10-4:7 Living Apart Pursuant to Separation Agreement
10-4:8 Living Apart Pursuant to Separation Decree
10-5 Guardianship
10-5:1  Guardianship of Minor
10-5:2 Guardianship of Mentally Retarded/Developmentally Disabled
10-5:3 Guardianship of Adult
10-5:4 Waste of Assets
10-6 Separation From Bed and Board
10-7 Paternity
10-8 Matrimonial Emergency Applications
10-8:1 Automatic Orders
10-8:2 General Requirements for Matrimonial Motions
10-8:3 Temporary Maintenance
10-8:4 Temporary Child Support
10-8:5 Temporary Custody
10-8:6 Relocation
10-8:7 Orders of Protection
10-8:8 Restraint of Assets
10-8:9 Exclusive Use and Occupancy
10-8:10 Counsel and Expert Fees
Chapter 11: Insurance Causes of Action
11-1 Insurance Policy
11-2 Insurance Broker Liability
11-3 Insurance Broker Malpractice
11-4 Insurance Carrier Defrauded or Exploited
11-5 Insurance Carrier Supplying Defense of Suit
11-6 Insurance Carrier’s Bad Faith
11-7 Insurance Claim Wrongfully Delayed or Denied
11-8 Insurance Policy Rescission
11-9 Insurance Policy Terminated Without Notice to Insured
11-10 Insurer Wrongfully Disclosing Confidential Information
11-11 Life or Health Insurance Obtained by Fraud
11-12 New York State Disclaimer Statute
11-13 Disclaimer for Lack of Cooperation
11-14 New York State Prompt Pay Law
11-15 No-Fault Claim
11-16 Subrogation

Chapter 12: Judicial Causes of Action
12-1 Abuse of Process
12-2 Capias Ad Respondendum
12-3 Concealment or Destruction of Evidence (Spoliation of Evidence)
12-4 Concert of Action
12-5 Contempt
12-6 Court Sanctions for Delay
12-7 Malicious Abuse of Legal Process (Malicious Prosecution)
12-8 Notary Public Officer Liable for Negligent Acknowledgment

Chapter 13: Real Property Causes of Action
13-1 Land-Related Causes of Action
13-1:1 Abnormal Dangers on Land
13-1:2 Adverse Possession of Property
13-1:3 Broker’s Liability for Injury at Open House
13-1:4 Buyer In Breach Liable for Real Estate Broker’s Commission
13-1:5 Buyer Recovering Costs Due to Title Defect
13-1:6 Co-tenant’s Share of Profits and Expenses
13-1:7 Covenant in Deed Violated
13-1:8 Customer Injured Off Leased Premises
13-1:9 Discharge of Mortgage
13-1:10 Easement After Property Divided
13-1:11 Easement by Implication
13-1:12 Easement by Necessity
13-1:13 Easement by Prescription
13-1:14 Ejectment (Ejectment for Wrongful Possession of Claim On Land)
13-1:15 Injury Off Owner’s Land
13-1:16 Injury on Owner’s Land
13-1:17 Landowner Excluding Patron for Discriminatory Reasons
13-1:18 Landowner’s Servant or Contractor Causing Injury
13-1:19 Private Nuisance
13-1:20 Public Nuisance 
13-1:21 Real Estate Broker’s Commission Due After Termination
13-1:22 Real Property Defect Concealed by Seller
13-1:23 Slander of Title
13-1:24 Warranty of Habitability by Home Seller
13-1:25 Waste
13-2 Landlord-Tenant Causes of Action
13-2:1 Constructive Eviction of Tenant
13-2:2 Eviction for Illegal Occupancy
13-2:3 Landlord Failing to Protect Tenant From Crime
13-2:4 Landlord’s Retaliatory Eviction of Tenant
13-2:5 Rent Implied by Tenant’s Occupation
13-2:6 Security Deposit Not Returned To Tenant
13-2:7 Subtenant Liable to Landlord for Rent
13-2:8 Tenant Equitable Relief for Renewal Options
13-2:9 Tenant Unlawfully Evicted
13-2:10 Warranty of Habitability
13-2:11 Yellowstone Injunctions
Chapter 14: Statutory Causes of Action
14-1 Champerty and Maintenance
14-2 Construction or Mechanics Lien Law
14-3 Consumer Fraud
14-4 Dram-Shop Act
14-5 Emergency Aid Not Given or Not Properly Given (Good Samaritan Law)
14-6 Fair Credit Reporting Act
14-7 Martin Act Claims
14-8 New York Arts and Cultural Affairs Law
14-9 New York Antitrust Statute - Donnelly Act
14-10 New York City Snow and Ice Claims
14-11 New York Equal Access to Justice Act
14-12 New York Franchise Law
14-13 New York Labor Law § 240
14-14 New York Labor Law § 241
14-15 Physician Violating Patient Confidentiality
14-16 Social Host Liability
14-17 Son of Sam Law
14-18 Theft of Personal Identifying Information/Identity Theft
14-19 Trademark and Trade Dress Dilution
14-20 Trademark and Trade Dress Infringement
14-21 Voluntary Rescuer Injured by Negligence of Other (Rescue Doctrine)
14-22 New York City Victims of Gender-Motivated Violence Protection Act
14-23 Medical, Dental or Podiatric Malpractice Based on Lack of Informed Consent

Chapter 15: Tort Causes of Action
15-1 Business Torts
15-1:1 Accountant Malpractice
15-1:2 Business Intentionally Interfered With by Outsider
15-1:3 Computer Malpractice
15-1:4 Unfair Competition
15-1:5 Professional or Tradesperson Malpractice
15-1:6 Usury
15-2 Defamation Torts
15-2:1 Defamatory Injury to Reputation
15-2:2 Injurious Falsehood
15-2:3 Libel and Slander
15-2:4 Product Disparagement
15-2:5 Negligent Misrepresentation Causing Harm
15-2:6 Right of Publicity
15-2:7 Words Negligently Spoken
15-3 Fraud Torts
15-3:1 Conversion
15-3:2 Deceit
15-3:3 Fraud and Deceit
15-4 Intellectual Property Torts
15-4:1 Artist’s Common Law Copyright Violated
15-4:2 Idea Misappropriation
15-4:3 Trade Secret Disclosed or Used Wrongfully
15-4:4 Trafficking Counterfeit Trade or Service Marks
15-5 Motor Vehicle/Boat Torts
15-5:1 Automobile Damaged at Parking Facility
15-5:2 Negligent Entrustment
15-6 Personal Injury Torts
15-6:1 Animal Attack Cause of Action
15-6:2 Assault
15-6:3 Battery
15-6:4 Dental Malpractice
15-6:5 Emotional Distress (Intentionally Inflicted)
15-6:6 Emotional Distress (Negligently Inflicted)
15-6:7 Exposing Another to Disease or Toxic Substances Negligently
15-6:8 Failure to Warn and Protect From a Violent Patient
15-6:9 False Arrest and Imprisonment
15-6:10 Future Earning Capacity Damaged by Tort
15-6:11 Future Injury From Present Tortious Personal Injury 
15-6:12 Future Medical Expenses Resulting From Tort
15-6:13 Intentional or Malicious Harm to Another (Prima Facie Tort)
15-6:14 Loss of Consortium
15-6:15 Lost Capacity In Living Resulting From Tort
15-6:16 Malpractice (or Malfeasance)
15-6:17 Medical Malpractice
15-6:18 Medical Provider Liability to Third Parties
15-6:19 Negligence
15-6:20 Negligently Caused Economic Loss
15-6:21 Right of Sepulcher
15-6:22 Skateboard and Hover Board Liability
15-6:23 Survivorship
15-6:24 Wrongful Birth
15-6:25 Wrongful Death
15-6:26 Wrongful Life
15-6:27 Foul Ball Liability
15-7 Personal Property Torts
15-7:1 Cruelty to Animals
15-7:2 Hotel Liability for Personalty Loss
15-7:3 Lost Property to Be Returned to True Owner
15-7:4 Property Disparagement
15-7:5 Property Tortiously Damaged
15-7:6 Recovery of a Chattel (Replevin)
15-7:7 Repossessing/Reclamation of Goods
15-7:8 Trespass
15-7:9 Trespass on Land
15-7:10 TreSpass to Personal Property/Chattel
15-7:11 Trover
15-8 Status Torts
15-8:1 Administrative Negligence
15-8:2 Aiding and Abetting the Commission of Tort
15-8:3 Alternative Liability
15-8:4 Bystander Emotional Distress
15-8:5 Car Renter Liable for Injury
15-8:6 Common Carrier Liability
15-8:7 Conspiracy
15-8:8 Conspiracy to Commit a Tort
15-8:9 Indivisible Harm Caused by Separate Tortfeasors
15-8:10 Municipal Liability
15-8:11 Negligent Advice Causing Damage
15-8:12 Negligent Entrustment
15-8:13 Opioid Crisis tort claims
15-8:14 Public Utility Liability
15-8:15 Respondeat Superior
15-8:16 Vicarious Liability
15-8:17 Witness to Injury Suffering Emotional Distress
Chapter 16: Trust and Estate Causes of Action
16-1 Breach of Fiduciary Duty by Trustee of Religious Corporation
16-2 Constructive Trust
16-3 Curtesy
16-4 Dower
16-5 Elective Share
16-6 Expected Gift Maliciously Interfered With by Other
16-7 Gifts Causa Mortis
16-8 Gifts Inter Vivos
16-9 Mismanagement of Trust Assets by Trustee
16-10 Presumption of Death From Absence
16-11 Promise to Make a Will
16-12 Undue Influence Over Testator or Settlor
16-13 Wasting Another’s Property or Inheritance

Chapter 17: Defenses
17-1 Absolute or Qualified Privilege
17-1:1 Absolute Privilege
17-1:2 Qualified Privilege
17-2 Accord and Satisfaction
17-3 Act of God Doctrine
17-4 Adverse Possession
17-5 Assumption of Risk
17-6 Collateral Estoppel
17-7 Economic Interest Defense
17-8 Emergency Doctrine
17-9 Emergency Vehicle Driver Defense
17-10 “Empty Chair”
17-11 Equitable Estoppel
17-12 Force Majeure
17-13 Frustration of Purpose Doctrine
17-14 General Release
17-15 Impossibility of Performance
17-16 In Pari Delicto
17-17 Judicial or Litigation Privilege
17-18 Laches
17-19 Lack of Insurance Coverage
17-20 Lack of Standing
17-21 New York City Pet Law
17-22 Novation
17-23 Res Adjudicata
17-24 Stale Rent
17-25 Statute of Limitations
17-26 Statute of Repose
17-27 Storm In Progress
17-28 Wagoner Rule
17-29 Waiver

Chapter 18: Provisional Remedies
18-1 Attachment
18-2 Order to Show Cause
18-3 Preliminary Injunctions
18-4 Provisional Remedies In the Appellate Division, First Department
18-4:1 Stays Under New York Civil Practice Law and Rules § 5519(C) or Temporary Restraining Orders/Preliminary Injunctions Under New York Civil Practice Law and Rules § 5518
18-4:2 Review of Ex Parte Orders Under New York Civil Practice Law and Rules § 5704(a)
18-5 Receivership Appointments
18-5:1  “Necessity” Receiver
18-5:2  Receiver Under “Receiver Clause”
18-5:3 Temporary Receivership
18-6 Restraining Notice
18-7 Seizure of Chattel Under New York Civil Practice Law and Rules § 7102 Before Judgment
18-8 Stay of Arbitration
18-9 Stay/Vacatur of Judgment or Order
18-10 “Yellowstone” Injunction

Table of Statutes
Table of Cases
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Ernest Edward Badway is a litigation partner at Fox Rothschild LLP, where he co-chairs the Securities Industry Group, and previously co-chaired the White Collar Compliance and Defense Group. His practice areas include securities litigation and regulatory matters, internal investigations, white-collar criminal defense, commercial litigation and corporate law specializing in private placements, initial public offerings and the creation of broker-dealers, investment advisors and hedge funds. He is admitted to practice law in New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts and the District of Columbia as well as the United States Supreme Court, the United States Courts of Appeals for the Second and Third Circuits and the United States District Courts for New Jersey, Massachusetts, the Northern, Southern and Eastern Districts of New York, and the District of Columbia. He received his J.D. in 1992 from Duke University School of Law, and received a Master’s degree in History as well as a Bachelor of Arts degree in History and Economics, magna cum laude with distinction in History, from Boston University’s Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and College of Liberal Arts
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