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Cabin Safety Guide

  • ID: 4806528
  • Report
  • January 2019
  • Region: Global
  • The International Air Transport Association (IATA)

The Cabin Operations Safety Best Practices Guide is intended to give airlines the tools they need to create and update safety procedures and policies, using a global range of references and expert opinions.

Written and updated annually by a global team of cabin safety professionals, this guide includes standards and recommended practices from the publisher's Operational Safety Audit (IOSA), ICAO and other regulators, combined with extensive operational experience of member airlines. It suggests and gives guidance on the appropriate risk assessments to demonstrate the incorporation of Safety Management Systems (SMS) within cabin operations.

This latest revision (edition 5) provides updates to existing procedures and new guidance for;

  • Risk assessments relating to cabin layout and design;
  • Safety Performance Indicators and revised taxonomy;
  • Use of PEDs supplied by the operator;
  • Passenger awareness of lithium batteries;
  • Procedures to follow if trafficking in persons is suspected;
  • Crew protection during a layover.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

Section 1: Introduction
1.1 Foreword
1.2 Summary of changes
1.3 Definitions
1.4 Abbreviations
1.5 Cabin Operations Safety Best Practices Guide

Section 2: Cabin Safety
2.1 Cabin Safety Initiatives
2.1.1 Cabin Safety Extranet Site
2.1.2 Cabin Operations Safety Conference
2.1.3 Cabin Safety Guidelines
2.1.4 Health and Safety Guidelines
2.1.5 Cabin Safety Data and Analysis
2.1.6 Cabin Operations Safety Technical Group (COSTG)
2.1.7 Operational Safety Audit (IOSA)

Section 3: Safety Management
3.1 Safety Management System (SMS) in Cabin Operations
3.2 Safety Risk Management
3.2.1 Risk Assessments in Cabin Operations
3.2.2 Risk Assessments in Cabin Layout Design and Selection
3.2.3 Safety Performance Indicators (SPIs)
3.3 SMS Training
3.4 Safety Reporting
3.4.1 Characteristics of Effective Reports
3.4.2 Process Flow
3.4.3 Submission of Reports
3.4.4 Evaluation and Classification of a Report
3.4.5 Closure of Reports
3.4.6 The Value of Effective Cabin Safety Reports
3.5 Documentation
3.5.1 Document Control
3.5.2 IOSA Table 5.1 - Operations Manual Content Specifications

Section 4: Fatigue Risk Management
4.1 Definition of Fatigue
4.1.1 Transient Fatigue
4.1.2 Cumulative Fatigue
4.2 Fatigue Risk Management System (FRMS)
4.2.1 Stakeholders.
4.2.2 Components of a FRMS
4.2.3 Fatigue Management Guide for Airline Operators
4.2.4 FRMS Policy and Documentation
4.2.5 Fatigue Safety Action Group
4.2.6 Fatigue Risk Management Processes
4.2.7 FRMS Promotion Processes
4.2.8 FRMS Training for Operators
4.3 Cabin Crew Fatigue
4.3.1 Sleep
4.3.2 Contributory Factors
4.3.3 Symptoms and Effects of Fatigue
4.3.4 Fatigue Preventive Strategies
4.3.5 Personal Mitigation Strategies
4.3.6 IMSAFE
4.3.7 Flight Time, Flight Duty Periods and Rest Periods

Section 5: Cabin Crew
5.1 Number and Composition of Cabin Crew
5.1.1 Cabin Crew Safety Responsibilities
5.1.2 Senior Cabin Crewmember
5.1.3 Other Cabin Crew
5.2 Cabin Crew Qualifications
5.3 Cabin Crew Uniforms
5.4 Cabin Crew Medical Standards
5.4.1 Aeromedical Assessment
5.4.2 Alcohol, Drugs and Medication
5.5 Media and Social Media Policy
5.6 Human Factors
5.6.1 Human Factors Training
5.7 Crew Resource Management (CRM)
5.7.1 CRM Training
5.8 Threat and Error Management (TEM)
5.8.1 Threat and Error Management Framework
5.9 Cabin Crew Training
5.9.1 Training Records
5.9.2 Competency-based Training

Section 6: Communication
6.1 Authority Definitions
6.2 Chain of Command
6.3 Common Language
6.4 Signals and Commands
6.5 Read-Back Instructions
6.6 Cooperation and Coordination

Section 7: Operator Policies
7.1 In-flight Entertainment (IFE) Systems
7.2 Personal Transportation Devices
7.2.1 Operators’ Experience and Risk Assessment of PTDs
7.2.2 Recommendations regarding PTDs
7.3 Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs)
7.3.1 Transmitting and Non-transmitting Electronic Devices
7.3.2 Aircraft Fitted With On-Board Connectivity
7.3.3 Use of Portable Electronic Devices on Board
7.3.4 Risk Assessment & Management - PEDs
7.3.5 Permitted, Restricted and Prohibited Portable Electronic Devices
7.3.6 Medical Portable Electronic Devices
7.3.7 Monitoring PED Use in the Cabin
7.3.8 Passenger Awareness of PED Policy
7.3.9 Low-Visibility Operations
7.3.10 Suspected Electromagnetic Interference Report
7.3.11 Publication of PED policy
7.3.12 Cabin Crew Training
7.3.13 PEDs Supplied By the Operator
7.4 Non-certified Comfort Devices
7.4.1 Risk Assessment - Non-certified Comfort Devices
7.4.2 Decision Tool - Comfort Devices
7.5 Onboard Smoking Policy
7.5.1 Electronic Cigarettes and Vaping Devices
7.6 Carry-On Baggage
7.6.1 Contents of Carry-on Baggage
7.6.2 Risk Assessment - Carry-on Baggage
7.6.3 Carry-on Baggage Allowance
7.6.4 Identification of Carry-on Baggage
7.6.5 Excess Carry-on Baggage
7.6.6 Passenger Awareness of Carry-on Baggage
7.6.7 Responsibilities
7.6.8 Oversized, Fragile and Special Articles
7.7 Smart luggage
7.7.1 Smart Luggage with Integrated Lithium Batteries
7.7.2 Smart Luggage with Integrated Active Devices
7.7.3 Quick Reference
7.7.4 Recommendations for Operators
7.7.5 Smart luggage firefighting procedures
7.7.6 Safety Risk Assessment - Smart Luggage
7.8 Lithium Batteries
7.8.1 Permitted carriage of Electronic Devices Containing Lithium Batteries
7.8.2 Damaged or Faulty Lithium Batteries
7.8.3 Carriage without Prior Approval of the Operator
7.8.4 Carriage with Prior Approval of the Operator
7.8.5 Risk Assessment - Lithium Batteries
7.8.6 Passenger Awareness of Lithium Batteries
7.9 Pets in the Passenger Cabin
7.10 Expectant Mothers
7.11 Passengers of Size
7.12 Non-discrimination

Section 8: Carriage of Special Category Passengers
8.1 Deportees, Prisoners, Persons in Custody and under Administrative Control
8.1.1 Determination of requirement for an escort
8.1.2 Procedures for carriage without an escort
8.1.3 Procedures for carriage with an escort
8.1.4 General guidance for the transport of persons in lawful custody, persons under arrest, or convicted criminals under escort
8.2 Unaccompanied Minors
8.2.1 Risk Assessment - Unaccompanied Minors
8.2.2 Tracking of Unaccompanied Minors
8.2.3 Care of Unaccompanied Minors on board
8.3 Passengers with children
8.4 Passengers with infants
8.4.1 Infants reaching two years of age within the validity of tthe icket
8.4.2 Bassinets and infant floatation equipment
8.5 Child and infant restraints
8.5.1 Infant Restraint
8.5.2 Child Restraint
8.5.3 Policies and Procedures
8.5.4 Permitted Locations in the Cabin
8.5.5 Awareness of Policy
8.6 Passengers with Reduced Mobility
8.6.1 Categories and Codes
8.6.2 Boarding and Disembarking
8.6.3 Maximum Number and Requirement for Assistants
8.6.4 Evacuation Procedure
8.6.5 Seating
8.6.6 Accessible Lavatories
8.7 Individual Safety Briefings
8.8 Incapacitated Passengers
8.8.1 Medical Clearance
8.8.2 Refusal or Removal of Incapacitated Passengers
8.8.3 Disembarkation of Incapacitated Passengers
8.8.4 Transit of Incapacitated Passengers
8.8.5 Group Travel
8.8.6 Medical Information Form
8.8.7 Frequent Traveler’s Medical Card
8.9 Medical Equipment
8.9.1 Wheelchairs
8.9.2 Oxygen
8.9.3 Stretchers
8.9.4 Loading of Special Equipment
8.9.5 Mobility Aids
8.10 Service Animals
8.10.1 Emotional Support or Psychiatric Service Animals

Section 9: Safety Equipment and Systems
9.1 Preflight Checks
9.2 Usage of Equipment
9.3 Axes
9.4 Bassinets
9.5 Cabin Crew Stations
9.6 Cabin Crew High-visibility Outerwear
9.7 Doors and Exits
9.8 Emergency Lighting
9.9 Emergency Locator Transmitters
9.10 Hand-held Fire Extinguishers
9.11 Automatic Fire Extinguishers
9.12 Non-mandatory Firefighting Equipment
9.13 Fixed Oxygen Systems
9.14 Flashlights
9.15 Life Vests/Jackets and Floatation Devices
9.16 Megaphones
9.17 Passenger Address System
9.18 Passenger Safety Information Cards
9.18.1 Design and Location
9.19 Passenger Seats
9.20 Seatbelts
9.20.1“Y Fixing” Seatbelts
9.20.2 Airbag Seatbelts
9.20.3 Three-point Seatbelts
9.20.4 Extension Seatbelts
9.20.5 Cabin Crew Seat Harness
9.21 Portable Oxygen Bottles
9.22 Protective Breathing Equipment
9.23 Restraining Devices for Unruly Passengers
9.24 Safety Demonstration Kits
9.25 Slides, Slide/Rafts and Life Rafts
9.26 Emergency/Survival Equipment
9.27 Smoke Detectors

Section 10: Aircraft Door Safety
10.1 Risk Assessment - Door Procedures
10.2 Operation of Aircraft Doors
10.2.1 Door Operation Policy
10.2.2 Cabin Crew Door Operating Responsibilities
10.2.3 Departure - Door closing
10.2.4 Preparing Doors for Departure
10.2.5 Preparing Doors for Arrival
10.2.6 Arrival - Door Opening
10.2.7 Signals
10.3 Removal of Ground Equipment from Aircraft Cabin Doors
10.4 Inadvertent Slide Deployment
10.4.1 Communication and coordination
10.4.2 Stop Drop Review
10.4.3 Cross Check Procedures
10.4.4 Reopening Of Cabin Doors
10.4.5 Door operation with a door checker
10.4.6 Threat and Error Management in Slide Deployment
10.4.7 Establishment of memory aids
10.4.8 Door Armed Warning Systems

Section 11: Preflight
11.1 Crew Briefings
11.1.1 Journey Briefing between Flight Crew and Cabin Crew
11.1.2 Safety Briefing of Cabin Crew
11.1.3 Service Briefing of Cabin Crew
11.2 Aircraft Protection and Access Control of Restricted Areas
11.2.1 Cabin Inspectors
11.3 Security Search/Checks
11.3.1 Baggage Identification Check
11.4 Safety Equipment Check
11.5 Galley Checks
11.5.1 Reporting Defective Galley Equipment
11.6 Communication with Ground Staff
11.7 Passenger Information List (PIL)
11.8 Cabin Crew Positions for Boarding
11.9 Passenger Seating
11.9. Risk Assessment - Use of Crew Seats by Passengers
11.10 Passenger Count
11.10.1 Discrepancies
11.11 Fueling with Passengers Embarking, On Board or Disembarking
11.12 Ordinance Signs
11.12.1 No Smoking Sign
11.12.2 Fasten Seatbelt Sign
11.12.3 Portable Electronic Device Sign
11.13 Passenger Safety Briefing
11.13.1 Safety Announcements
11.13.2 Briefing of Passengers Seated Adjacent to Self-help Exits
11.14 Cabin Service on the Ground in the Event of a Delay
11.15 Deicing and Anti-icing

Section 12: Departure
12.1 Preparation for Aircraft Movement
12.2 Preparation of Doors for Departure
12.3 Cabin Secure Check
12.4 Cabin Crew Seated for Departure
12.5 Takeoff Signal
12.6 Silent Review
12.7 Sterile Flight Deck
12.8 Entering and Leaving the Flight Deck

Section 13: In Flight
13.1 Cabin Services
13.1.1 Service of Hot Beverages
13.2 Monitoring the Cabin
13.3 Galley Safety
13.3.1 Use of Galley Equipment
13.3.2 Liquid Spillage from Galley Rubbish Bins and Drains
13.3.3 Use of Dry Ice
13.3.4 Circuit Breakers
13.4 Service to Flight Crew
13.5 Service of Alcohol
13.5.1 Cabin Crew Response to Signs of Intoxication
13.6 Turbulence
13.6.1 Risk Assessment - Turbulence
13.6.2 Levels of Turbulence
13.6.3 Causes of turbulence
13.6.4 Proactive Fasten Seat Belt Policy
13.6.5 Communication
13.6.6 Anticipated turbulence
13.6.7 Unanticipated turbulence
13.6.8 Cabin Crew Response
13.6.9 Turbulence reporting
13.7 Dangerous Goods

Section 14: Descent and Landing
14.1 Descent
14.2 Passenger Briefing Prior to Landing
14.3 Return of Coats, Jackets and Other Clothing
14.4 Pre-landing Cabin Secure Checks
14.5 Descent and Landing Signals
14.6 Cabin Crew Seated for Landing and Arrival

Section 15: Arrival
15.1 Preparation of Doors for Arrival
15.2 Door Opening
15.3 Passenger Disembarkation
15.4 Post disembarkation

Section 16: Abnormal and Emergency Procedures
16.1 Management of Emergencies
16.1.1 Levels of Stress
16.1.2 Landing Categories
16.1.3 Unplanned and Planned Emergencies
16.1.4 Urgent Communication
16.1.5 Managing Filming During Emergencies
16.2 Crewmember Incapacitation
16.2.1 Flight Crew Incapacitation
16.2.2 Suggested Cabin Crew Incapacitation Drill
16.3 Cabin Pressurization
16.3.1 Non-pressurization
16.3.2 Depressurization
16.3.3 Hypoxia
16.3.4 Guidance for Depressurization Procedures
16.3.5 Suggested Cabin Crew Depressurization Drill
16.4 Rapid Deplaning
16.4.1 Suggested Cabin Crew Rapid Deplaning Drill
16.5 Emergency Evacuations
16.5.1 Initiating Evacuation
16.5.2 Unplanned Emergency Evacuation
16.5.3 Planned Emergency Evacuation
16.5.4 The Brace Position
16.5.5 Suggested Cabin Crew Drill - Emergency Evacuation
16.5.6 Carry-on Baggage during an Evacuation
16.5.7 The Effect of Smoke and Fire during Evacuation
16.5.8 Slide Evacuation with Infants and Young Children
16.5.9 Passenger Commands during an Emergency
16.5.10 Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting Signals
16.5.11 Evacuation of Cabin Crew
16.5.12 Post-evacuation
16.5.13 Ditching
16.6 Fire
16.6.1 Prevention and Early Detection
16.6.2 Smoke and Burning Odors
16.6.3 Hidden Fires
16.6.4 Fighting a Fire
16.6.5 Lithium Battery Fires
16.7 Cabin Fume Events
16.8 Escaped Animals in the Cabin
16.8.1 Prevention
16.8.2 Indicators
16.8.3 Assessment
16.8.4 Potential Hazards and Suggested Containment Method
16.8.5 Suggested Cabin Crew Drill - Escaped Wildlife Inflight

Section 17: Security
17.1 Security Management Systems Manual
17.2 Liquids, Aerosols and Gels (LAGs)
17.2.1 Medical and Special Dietary Requirements
17.2.2 LAGS Purchased as Duty Free
17.3 Powders
17.4 Reinforced Flight Deck Door
17.5 Unruly Passengers
17.5.1 Company Policy
17.5.2 Levels of Threat
17.5.3 Contributing factors
17.5.4 Preventative Measures
17.5.5 Identification of and Response to Unruly/Disruptive Passengers
17.5.6 Warning Cards
17.5.7 Restraining Devices
17.5.8 Post incident
17.5.9 Legal Aspects
17.5.10 Police Involvement
17.5.11 The Role of the Pilot-in-Command
17.5.12 Reporting of Incidents and Required Documentation for Prosecution
17.6 Trafficking in Persons
17.6.1 The Role of Aviation in the Fight Against Human Trafficking
17.7 Theft on Board
17.7.1 On the ground
17.7.2 In the Air
17.8 Crew Protection During Layovers
17.8.1 Civil Unrest, Major Incidents and Terrorist Attacks

Section 18: Health and Medical Care On Board
18.1 Cabin Insect Extermination (Disinsectization/Disinsecting)
18.1.1 Method 1: Preflight and top of descent combined
18.1.2 Method 2: Blocks Away
18.1.3 Method 3: Residual
18.1.4 Proof of Disinsecting/Disinsectization
18.1.5 Risk Assessment - Disinsectization
18.2 Medical Care Policy
18.3 Passive Screening of Passengers
18.4 Medical Event Process
18.5 Reporting of Medical Incidents
18.6 When to Cease Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
18.7 Handling of a Death on Board
18.8 Carriage of Medical Portable Electronic Devices (MPEDs)
18.8.1 Airway Pressure Devices
18.8.2 Portable Oxygen Concentrators
18.8.3 Acceptance and Use of MPEDs
18.9 Emergency Equipment and Supplies
18.9.1 First Aid Kits
18.9.2 Medical Kit
18.9.3 Universal Precaution Kits
18.9.4 Automatic External Defibrillators
18.9.5 Survival Equipment
18.10 Training
18.11 Cabin Crew Manual
18.12 Cabin Crew Protection
18.13 Crew Immunization
18.14 Carriage of Passengers with Communicable Diseases

Section 19: Food and Hygiene
19.1 Acceptance of Catering Supplies on Aircraft
19.2 Crew Service Briefings
19.3 Hygiene and Sanitation
19.3.1 Risks and Prevention
19.3.2 Personal Hygiene
19.3. Galley Equipment
19.3.4 Special Cleaning
19.4 Food Safety
19.4.1 Adequate Temperature
19.4.2 Keeping Food at the Correct Temperature
19.4.3 Heating Process
19.4.4 Insects and Foreign Objects
19.5 Suspected Food Poisoning
19.6 Allergen Management
19.7 Special Meals
19.8 Potable Water and Ice
19.8.1 Drinking-Water Quality Pool
19.9 Feedback from Passengers and Crew
19.10 Reporting of Service Delivery Irregularities

Section 20: References and Appendices
20.1 Phonetic Alphabet
20.2 References
20.2.1 Expanded use of PEDs
20.2.2 Electronic cigarettes
20.2.3 Evacuation
20.2.4 Lithium Batteries
20.3 Related Organizations

Appendix
Appendix A - Cabin Crew Checklist for Fires Involving Batteries and Portable Electronic Devices (PED)
Appendix B - Amplified Cabin Crew Checklist for Fires Involving Batteries and Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs)
Appendix C - Sample Fatigue Report Form for Cabin Crew
Appendix D - Sample Unruly Passenger Policy
Appendix E - Sample Airline Violation Warning
Appendix F - Sample Passenger Notification Card
Appendix G - Sample Unruly Passenger Incident Report
Appendix H - Sample Briefing to Authorities Cards

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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