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Lithium-Ion Battery High Energy Anode Innovation & Patent Review

  • ID: 4843077
  • Report
  • October 2019
  • Region: Global
  • 158 Pages
  • b-science.net LLC
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Silicon Suboxides and Si-C Composites Allow for Increased Li-ion Battery Energy Density

FEATURED COMPANIES

  • 3M
  • Datong Xincheng
  • Hefei Guoxuan
  • LG Chemical
  • OneD Material
  • Shenzhen Sinuo
  • MORE

This review discusses options that are evaluated by key lithium-ion industry players to synthesize high energy negative electrode materials and corresponding electrodes according to a machine learning-supported analysis of global patent filings.

Reasons to Buy

  • Comprehension of the high energy negative electrode decision tree allows for the identification of promising future R&D directions that have not yet been explored.
  • The review supports battery makers and automotive players in defining their roadmap, i. e. which anode materials can be used for mass applications at which energy density and with which timeline.

Key Highlights

The review highlights how innovation leaders combine many different process steps to obtain high performing materials and batteries. Many other players can learn based on this review which crucial parts of the innovation puzzle they have been considering to an insufficient extent thus far.

The authors of this review have prior ‘hands-on’ R&D and commercial experience in the Li-ion battery materials industry.

Scope

  • 255,769 battery patent documents published across the globe between January 2017 and April 2019 have been screened using a machine learning approach (commercial relevance in the context of Li-ion battery anodes).
  • The resulting ranking includes 296 companies.
  • Patent portfolios by 34 key companies are discussed in detail and have been assembled into 17 decision trees that illustrate 106 different technical choices made by high energy material and Li-ion battery manufacturers.
  • 3-5 key patents by another 51 companies are listed.

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FEATURED COMPANIES

  • 3M
  • Datong Xincheng
  • Hefei Guoxuan
  • LG Chemical
  • OneD Material
  • Shenzhen Sinuo
  • MORE
  1. Executive Summary
  2. About the Authors
  3. Introduction
  4. Focus of this Review
  5. Li-Ion Battery Cell Components
  6. Replacement of Graphite with Higher Energy Materials
  7. Decision Tree for High Energy Negative Electrodes
  8. Chemical Composition (Core)
  9. SiOX (0 < X < 2) - Synthetic Processes
  10. SiOX (0 < X < 2) - Coatings
  11. Lithiation of SiOX (0 < X < 2)
  12. Functionalization of Carbon-Coated SiOX (0 < X < 2)
  13. SiOX (0 < X < 2) Composites
  14. Nano-Si - Synthetic Processes
  15. Nano-Si - Coatings
  16. Coating of Carbon with Si
  17. Si-C Composites - Synthetic Processes
  18. Si-C Composites - Precursors
  19. Si-C Composites - Binders/Dispersants
  20. Si Alloys - Elemental Composition/Coatings
  21. Carbon Additives for Negative Electrodes
  22. Binders for Negative Electrodes
  23. High Energy Electrode Designs & Fabrication Methods
  24. Predictions
  25. Machine Learning-Based Identification of Commercially Relevant Patents
  26. Anode Material Suppliers
  27. Shin-Etsu - Japan
  28. Shanshan - China
  29. Hitachi/Maxell - Japan
  30. Datong Xincheng - China
  31. Kuraray - Japan
  32. BTR - China
  33. Mitsubishi Chemical - Japan
  34. Umicore - Belgium
  35. Showa Denko - Japan
  36. Wacker - Germany
  37. XFH - China
  38. Dongguan Kaijin - China
  39. Global Graphene Group / Nanotek Instruments / Angstron Materials / Angstron Energy / Honeycomb Battery / Taiwan Graphene Company - USA/Taiwan
  40. Nanograf/SiNode/JNC - USA/Japan
  41. Posco - Korea
  42. Hunan Shinzoom/Hunan Xingcheng/Hunan Zhongke - China
  43. Shenzhen Sinuo - China
  44. 3M - USA
  45. BASF/enerG2/Toda Kogyo/Sion Power - Germany/USA/Japan
  46. IMERYS Graphite & Carbon - France/Switzerland
  47. Nexeon - Great Britain
  48. Sila Nanotechnologies - USA
  49. Paraclete (Kratos) - USA
  50. SJ Advanced Materials - Korea
  51. Elkem - Norway
  52. OneD Material - USA
  53. LeydenJar - Netherlands
  54. Lithium-Ion Battery Producers/Developers & Automotive Suppliers
  55. Toyota - Japan
  56. LG Chemical - Korea
  57. Hefei Guoxuan - China
  58. Samsung - Korea
  59. Panasonic/Sanyo - Japan
  60. Contemporary Amperex Technology Limited (CATL) - China
  61. BYD - China
  62. StoreDot - Israel
  63. Amprius - USA/China
  64. Enevate - USA
  65. Enovix - USA
  66. Deep Dive - Graphene in Li-Ion Battery Anode Materials
  67. Additional Patent Filings with Commercial Relevance
  68. Patent Analysis Methodology & Validation
  69. List of Abbreviations
  70. Disclaimer

List of Figures
Figure 1: Li-ion battery cell components
Figure 2: decision tree – chemical composition (core)
Figure 3: decision tree – SiOX (0 < X < 2) (synthetic processes)
Figure 4: decision tree – SiOX (0 < X < 2) (coatings)
Figure 5: decision tree – lithiation of SiOX (0 < X < 2)
Figure 6: decision tree – functionalization of carbon-coated SiOX (0 < X < 2)
Figure 7: decision tree – SiOX (0 < X < 2) composites
Figure 8: decision tree – nano-Si (synthetic processes)
Figure 9: decision tree – nano-Si (coatings)
Figure 10: decision tree – coating of carbon with Si
Figure 11: decision tree – Si-C composites (synthetic processes)
Figure 12: decision tree – Si-C composites (precursors)
Figure 13: decision tree – Si-C composites (binders/dispersants)
Figure 14: decision tree – Si-C composites (coatings)
Figure 15: decision tree – Si alloys (elemental compositions/coatings)
Figure 16: decision tree – electrode formulation (carbon additives)
Figure 17: decision tree – electrode formulation (binders)
Figure 18: decision tree – electrode designs/fabrication methods
Figure 19: projected manufacturing process for Shin-Etsu high capacity anode materials (1st part)
Figure 20: projected manufacturing process for Shin-Etsu high capacity anode materials (2nd part)
Figure 21: illustration of Si and SiO2 nano-domains in SiOX (X = 1) particles
Figure 22: electrochemical bulk-reforming apparatus
Figure 23: projected manufacturing process for Shanshan Si-C composites
Figure 24: electrochemical data for Si-graphene-porous carbon compound (Shanshan)
Figure 25: SEM and electrochemical characterization of Si-C composite (Shanshan)
Figure 26: electrochemical cycling of graphene@SiO@Si compound (Shanshan)
Figure 27: projected manufacturing process option for Hitachi Chemical
Figure 28: projected manufacturing process option for BTR
Figure 29: cycling stability of silicon-containing material (BTR)
Figure 30: cycling stability of SiO-containing material (BTR)
Figure 31: projected manufacturing process option for Showa Denko
Figure 32: projected manufacturing process options for Wacker
Figure 33: projected manufacturing process option for XFH
Figure 34: half cell cycling stability of graphene/elastomer-wrapped Si nanowires and Sn particles by Nanotek Instruments
Figure 35: Si nanowire functionalized Si particles by Nanotek Instuments
Figure 36: projected manufacturing process for graphene-Si active material by Nanotek Instruments
Figure 37: projected manufacturing process option for high energy anode materials by SiNode (Nanograf)
Figure 38: electrochemical cycling of Si-C composite (SiNode/Nanograf)
Figure 39: projected manufacturing process option for Shinzoom
Figure 40: projected manufacturing process options for FeSiC anode materials by 3M
Figure 41: projected manufacturing process option for enerG2
Figure 42: pore size distribution and electrochemical data of ball milled Si (IMERYS)
Figure 43: electrochemical cycling of polymer-coated Si particles (Nexeon)
Figure 44: projected manufacturing process options for Sila Nanotechnologies
Figure 45: gradient Si-C composite (Sila Nanotechnologies)
Figure 46: projected manufacturing process options for Paraclete (Kratos)
Figure 47: 1st cycle plot of pre-lithiated Si-based active material (Paraclete)
Figure 48: projected manufacturing process option for OneD Material
Figure 49: CVD furnace design (OneD Material)
Figure 50: SEM image by ECN of silicon nanowires with void space in between
Figure 51: bowl-shaped SiO2 particles (LG Chemical)
Figure 52: electrochemical cycling of SiO-based active material (CATL)
Figure 53: electrochemical cycling of SiO-C composite (BYD)
Figure 54: projected manufacturing process option for StoreDot
Figure 55: C-Si-B anode material structure (StoreDot)
Figure 56: design of S-shaped operating voltage window (StoreDot)
Figure 57: SEM images of Si nanowires (top) and mixed Si/Cu nanowires (bottom) (Amprius)
Figure 58: projected manufacturing process option for Enevate
Figure 59: 3-dimensional cell structure by Enovix
Figure 60: projected manufacturing process options for Enovix
Figure 61: Li-ion diffusion in ordered (graphene) and disordered carbon coatings
Figure 62: a) projected CVD-based graphene coating process by Samsung with academic partners; b) Figure from patent filed by Samsung that explains the benefits of the graphene coating
Figure 63: a) TEM image of graphene coating by Samsung; b) Raman spectrum that illustrates D, G and 2G bands, which support that the coating consists of few-layer graphene
Figure 64: Figure a) and Table b) illustrate cycling stability and initial charge losses in half cells for graphene-coated Si nanoparticles by Samsung
Figure 65: a) cycling stability of graphene/PVA-polymer coated Si nanoparticles; b) electrochemical cycling results (Nanograf)
Figure 66: projected manufacturing process for graphene coated porous Si by Shanshan
Figure 67: SEM picture of porous graphene coated Si material by Shanshan
Figure 68: a) schematic representation and b) TEM image of core-shell active material by Samsung
Figure 69: projected manufacturing process for graphene-coated Si-graphene composite by Samsung
Figure 70: combination of graphene-coated Si-graphene composites by Samsung with artificial graphite in negative electrodes
Figure 71: a) schematic representation and b) SEM image of three layer active material by Shinzoom
Figure 72: projected manufacturing process for three-layer composite by Shinzoom
Figure 73: a) projected process to generate graphene-coated Si-CNT composite material by LG Chemical; b) corresponding SEM image; c) cycling stability in half cells

List of Tables
Table 1: precursors for Si-C composites
Table 2: number of commercially relevant Li-ion battery anode patent families
Table 3: number of commercially relevant patent families related to lithium metal containing batteries
Table 4: optimization of Si/SiO2 nanostructure based on 29Si-MAS NMR measurements (Shin-Etsu)
Table 5: optimization of Si domain size (Shin-Etsu)
Table 6: electrochemical performance of silicon-based anode (Shanshan)
Table 7: electrochemical performance of etched silicon-based anode material (XFH)
Table 8: electrochemical data for FeSiLi alloys (3M)
Table 9: electrochemical cycling data for milled Si/C (Nexeon)
Table 10: electrochemical data for Si-C composite materials (Amprius)
Table 11: a) material properties and b) electrochemical properties of graphene-coated Si-graphene composites by Samsung

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  • 3M
  • Amprius
  • BASF
  • BTR
  • BYD
  • CATL
  • Datong Xincheng
  • Dongguan Kaijin
  • Elkem
  • enerG2
  • Enevate
  • Enovix
  • Hefei Guoxuan
  • Hitachi Chemical
  • IMERYS
  • JNC
  • Kuraray
  • LeydenJAr
  • LG Chemical
  • Maxell
  • Mitsubishi Chemical
  • Nanograf
  • Nanotek Instruments
  • Nexeon
  • OneD Material
  • Panasonic
  • Paraclete
  • Posco
  • Samsung
  • Shanshan
  • Shenzhen Sinuo
  • Shin-Etsu
  • Shinzoom
  • Showa Denko
  • Sila Nanotechnologies
  • SJ Advanced Materials
  • StoreDot
  • Toyota
  • Umicore
  • Wacker
  • XFH
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