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Spectrum - Adaptive Wireless Communications: Technologies, Applications and Markets

  • ID: 5021543
  • Report
  • March 2020
  • Region: Global
  • 156 Pages
  • PracTel Inc


  • 6harmonics
  • ATDI
  • Elbit
  • Green Hills
  • Lockheed Martin
  • Octasic
  • MORE

Wireless communications are under stress due to the rapid growth of traffic volume and the limited available spectrum. This tendency necessitates rational utilization of these frequencies spectrum, which became the most expensive component in wireless networking. Meanwhile, multiple industry studies show that the available licensed frequency spectrum is extremely underutilized. The relatively low utilization of the licensed spectrum suggests that spectrum scarcity, as perceived today, is largely due to inefficient fixed frequency allocations rather than any physical shortage of spectrum.

The report analyzes modern communications technologies based on Cognitive Radio/Software Defined Radio (CR/SDR) that allow adaptive use of the spectrum in accordance with instantaneous space/time coordinates. The CR technology is heavily dependent upon the SDR technology as a radio needs to be configurable according to the prevailing spectrum environment.

Current technologies for dynamic spectrum access largely rely on database-managed approaches. Standards are also emerging that incorporate cognitive elements, where devices can adapt their operating parameters in conjunction with a centralized database. Autonomous cognitive capabilities through sensing techniques at the device level would, where feasible, offer far greater flexibility for future sharing, These emerging techniques could be used within a number of bands across the radio spectrum to deliver different types of wireless service and could play a role in making more efficient use of spectrum by improving channel throughput within shared operating environments.

Related to CR/SDR standards and markets are subjects of this report research. As an example, one of the first commercial CR/SDR applications - TV White Space (TVWS) communications - is being discussed. The survey of multiple vendors’ portfolios was conducted.

1. The CR/SDR technologies, applications, the industry and market analyses have been performed to show roots of TVWS communications.
2. TVWS communications origin, properties, regulations, standards, and the industry have been analyzed.

The report concludes that the development of CR/SDR for WS and particular TVWS communications opens a door to utilization previously unused windows of wireless spectrum saving valuable resources and contributing to growth of the economy.

This report, in particular, provides:


  • An overview of the regulatory climate for CR/SDR in major developed countries.
  • The analysis of the CR/SDR standardization process
  • An overview of CR/SDR technologies specifics
  • The analysis of CR/SDR applications, including military, Public Safety Communications, and commercial
  • The analysis of market drivers from the perspective of various industries and users groups
  • Analyses of CR/SDR global market trends
  • Market intelligence on SDR based solutions in the commercial, government, and military industry segments.
  • Market geographical specifics
  • An estimate of major market components
  • Information on key suppliers of CR/SDR products and their profiles.


  • Overview of TVWS developmental cycles
  • Analysis of the regulatory climate: FCC, Ofcom, other
  • Use cases
  • Standardization: IEEE, ETSI, ECMA, IETF
  • Survey of the industry
  • Marketing considerations

Though the focus of the report is public safety applications, the majority of findings relate to a wider spectrum of use cases (communications and localization) in the indoor environments for multiple commercial applications.

The report is written for a wide audience of researches, engineers, and managers that are involved in the development and utilization of cognitive radios and related technologies.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown


  • 6harmonics
  • ATDI
  • Elbit
  • Green Hills
  • Lockheed Martin
  • Octasic
  • MORE

1. Introduction
1.1 Traffic Growth: M2M/IoT and 5G Era
1.2 Price of Spectrum
1.3 Methods
1.4 Working Together
1.5 Scope
1.6 Research Methodology
1.7 Target Audience

2. Synergy: Software-Defined and Cognitive Radios
2.1 General
2.2 Purpose
2.3 Definitions (WIF, FCC, ITU)
2.3.1 SDR Multi-tiers: SDR
2.3.2 Cognitive Radio Details
2.4 Regulations
2.4.1 FCC Equipment Type Process Application Guide First Approval
2.4.2 ITU
2.4.3 Ofcom
2.5 Standardization Organizations Efforts
2.5.1 ITU-R
2.5.2 ETSI Major Points
2.5.3 3GPP
2.5.4 IEEE
2.5.5 NASA
2.6 Design Issues
2.7 Properties
2.7.1 Layers
2.7.2 Features: Details Versatility
2.7.3 Issues
2.8 SDR Implementations
2.9 Applications
2.9.1 Commercial
2.9.2 CR/SDR in Military SCA ESSOR: European Secure SOFtware Defined Radio
2.9.3 Public Safety Communications (PSC)
2.10 SDR/CR: Benefits
2.11 Impact - CR
2.11.1 Geographical Differences
2.12 Market
2.12.1 Landscape Factors
2.12.2 Cost
2.12.3 Different Perspective
2.12.4 Market Drivers-Summary
2.12.5 Market Forecast Model Assumptions Estimate Segments Geography Components
2.13 Industry

  • AirNet Communications (SDR Base Stations)
  • AirSpan (BS)
  • Airbus DS
  • BAE Systems
  • Carlson Wireless (Platform)
  • General Dynamics (SDR)
  • Datron World Communications (SDR)
  • DeepSig
  • Digital Receiver Technology (Radio Modules)
  • Elbit
  • Ettus Research-NI (Platform)
  • Etherstack (Software)
  • Ericsson (BS)
  • Green Hills (Software)
  • Huawei (Platform)
  • Intel (Platform)
  • L3Harris (SDR)
  • Lockheed Martin (SDR)
  • Motorola Solutions (BS)
  • Nokia (Base Station)
  • Northrup Grumman
  • Nutaq (DSP and FPGA development solutions)
  • Objective Interface Systems (Software)
  • Octasic (SDR)
  • Redline Communications (Platform)
  • Rockwell Collins (Radios)
  • Saankhya Labs (Chipset)
  • Spectrum Signal Processing (Platforms)
  • Thales (Radio)
  • TI (Chips)
  • Xilinx (Chips, SDR Development Kit)

2.14 Example: CR/SDR Commercial Application: White Spaces Communications
2.14.1 General
2.14.2 Definition: TVWS
2.14.3 Roots
2.14.4 FCC Activity Decision Devices Clarifications Sensing Specifics Protection Frequencies TVWS Database (U.S.) Related FCC Decisions Recent Developments
2.14.5 Industry Activity - Microsoft and Other
2.14.6 Japanese WSC
2.14.7 Global WSC Development
2.14.8 Ecosystem and Use Cases
2.14.9 WS Communications Standardization WS Alliance Wi-FAR First TVWS Chipset WSAConnect Wireless Innovation Forum (WIF) Cognitive Radio: WS-related IEEE Standards IEEE 802.11af - 2013 General: Expectations - Wi-Fi on Steroids Differences Benefits Specifics Building Blocks PHY Summary IEEE 802.22 - 2011 General WG 802.22 and FCC Overview Physical Layer - Major Characteristics Cognitive Functions and MAC IEEE 802.22.1 IEEE 802.22.2 IEEE 802.22a-2014 802.22b-2015 P802.22.3 Summary-IEEE802.22 IEEE 802.19 WG IEEE 802.19.1-2014 IEEE 802.19.1-2018 IEEE 802.15.4m-2014 IEEE SCC 41 - DySpan SCC - WS Related IEEE 1900.4 1900.7 CogNeA and ECMA Activity CogNeA ECMA-392-2011 IETF-PAWS ETSI Weightless Protocol Weightless Communications SIG Weightless-W Changes
2.15 Industry

  • 6harmonics
  • Adaptrum
  • ATDI
  • Aviacomm
  • Carlson Wireless
  • KTS Wireless
  • Redline Communications
  • Shared Spectrum Company
  • Sinecom
  • Saankhya Labs

2.16 Market

3. Conclusions

Attachment I: Survey: WS-related Patents (2017-2020)
Attachment II: Detection and Incumbent Protection - TVWS
Attachment III: Survey: CR-related Patents (2017-2020)
Attachment IV: Survey: 802.11af-related Patents (2017-2020)
Attachment V: Survey: 802.22-related Patents (2017-2020)

List of Figures
Figure 1: Global: Mobile Data Traffic Growth (Petabytes/Month)
Figure 2: Estimate: Average Mobile Subscriber Use of Data (GB/Month)
Figure 3: Estimate: Number of M2M Connections - Global (Bil.)
Figure 4: Layers
Figure 5: Conceptual View - SDR/CR
Figure 6: Reconfigurable BS
Figure 7: ETSI SDR: Functional Architecture
Figure 8: SDR and OSI Reference Model
Figure 9: CR - Cell Network
Figure 10: PSC Specifics
Figure 11: Global Sales: SDR-based Equipment ($B)
Figure 12: SDR/CR Market Segments
Figure 13: CR/SDR Market Geography (2019)
Figure 14: Components (2019)
Figure 15: Spectrum Usage Measurements (from NSF Spectrum Occupancy Measurements
Figure 16: TVWS Channels: U.S.
Figure 17: UK TVWS- Spectrum
Figure 18: Device Interoperability Specification Items
Figure 19: Comparison - WRANs
Figure 20: Architecture: 802.19.1
Figure 21: TVWS Market Structure

List of Tables
Table 1: SDR Tiers
Table 2: CR Features
Table 3: U.S. - PSC Users
Table 4: SDR Market Drivers
Table 5: TV Channels: WS Frequencies Allowed by FCC
Table 6: TV Channels and Fixed TVBDs: U.S.
Table 7: Database Status (2014)
Table 8: IEEE WS-related Standards: Examples
Table 9: Use Cases - 802.22b
Table 10: Major Characteristics: IEEE 802.22
Table 11: Iceni Characteristics

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown


  • 6harmonics
  • Adaptrum
  • Airbus DS
  • AirNet Communications
  • AirSpan
  • ATDI
  • Aviacomm
  • BAE Systems
  • Carlson Wireless
  • Datron World Communications
  • DeepSig
  • Digital Receiver Technology
  • Elbit
  • Ericsson
  • Etherstack
  • Ettus Research-NI
  • General Dynamics
  • Green Hills
  • Huawei
  • Intel
  • KTS Wireless
  • L3Harris
  • Lockheed Martin
  • Motorola Solutions
  • Nokia
  • Northrup Grumman
  • Nutaq
  • Objective Interface Systems
  • Octasic
  • Redline Communications
  • Rockwell Collins
  • Saankhya Labs
  • Shared Spectrum Company
  • Sinecom
  • Spectrum Signal Processing
  • Thales
  • TI
  • Xilinx
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

Considerable research was done using the Internet. Information from various Web sites was studied and analyzed; evaluation of publicly available marketing and technical publications was conducted.

Telephone conversations and interviews were held with industry analysts, technical experts and executives. In addition to these interviews and primary research, secondary sources were used to develop a more complete mosaic of the market landscape, including industry and trade publications, conferences and seminars.

The overriding objective throughout the work has been to provide valid and relevant information. This has led to a continual review and update of the information content.