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Pandemic Outbreaks in the Past Decade: A Research Overview

  • ID: 5067728
  • Report
  • June 2020
  • Region: Global
  • 76 Pages
  • BCC Research

The Report Includes:

  • An overview of the pandemic outbreaks occurred over the last decade (2010-2020)
  • Discussion of several serious epidemiological outbreaks, their socio-economic impact, R&D efforts, treatment and diagnostics, clinical trial landscape, and regulatory and reimbursement landscape
  • Data corresponding to the number of confirmed cases and reported deaths (globally and country-wise) due to various pandemics, including novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), SARS, MERS, HIV/AIDS, H1N1, Ebola virus, etc.
  • Correlation of coronavirus (Covid-19) outbreak to previous epidemiological outbreaks in terms of policies and measures of prevention and control, and the lessons learned thereafter
  • Insight into key scientific breakthroughs and pipeline products targeting infectious disease treatments, including the novel coronavirus disease and its antibody-based clinical program (antibody to MERS-CoV infection)

Pandemics are outbreaks of disease that become widespread by the transmission of human-to-human infection. Throughout recent history, disease outbreaks and pandemics include Spanish flu, Hong Kong flu, SARS, H7N9, Ebola, and Zika. The main features of a pandemic include broad geographic spread, disease movement, novelty, intensity, high attack rates, and explosivity, limited population immunity, infectiousness, and contagiousness. Pandemics adversely have affected the health of the global population and destabilized the world’s economies, social infrastructures, and both geopolitical and natural environments.

Human history has experienced major pandemics such as smallpox, cholera, plague, dengue, AIDS, influenza, extreme acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), West Nile disease, and tuberculosis. Influenza pandemics are sporadic yet frequent phenomena. Since the 1500s, influenza pandemics have occurred about three times a century, or about every 10 to 50 years. Three influenza pandemics occurred in the 20th century: 1918 influenza pandemic (“Spanish flu”), 1957-1958 pandemic (“Asian flu”), and the 1968 pandemic (“Hong Kong flu”). Each pandemic harmed human life and economic growth. For example, the 1918 influenza pandemic killed more than 20 million people worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) cites that pandemic as the deadliest in world history.

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Chapter 1 Introduction

  • Study Goals and Objectives
  • Reasons for Doing This Study
  • Scope of Report
  • Information Sources
  • Methodology
  • Analyst's Credentials
  • Related Reports

Chapter 2 Introduction to Pandemics

  • Pathogenic Microbes and Infectious Diseases: 1973-2019
  • Factors Contributing to the Emergence of Infectious Diseases
  • Human Demographics and Behavior
  • Technology
  • The Role of Needles
  • Economic Development and Land Use
  • International Travel
  • Microbial Adaptation
  • Antibiotic Development
  • Classifying Viral Outbreaks, Epidemics, and Pandemics
  • Current and Potential Epidemics with Pandemic Potential
  • Current and Potential Pandemics
  • Current Technologies for Addressing Potential Pandemic Threats
  • Biological Weapons for Terrorism
  • The Next Pandemic
  • Types of Zoonotic Viruses
  • A Brief History of Global Pandemics
  • Bubonic Plague (1300 to the Present)
  • Cholera (1916-1966)
  • The Spanish Influenza Pandemic (1918)
  • Asian Flu Pandemic (1957-1958)
  • HIV/AIDS Pandemic (1980 to the Present)
  • Influenza A-H1N1 (2009 to the Present)
  • Malaria (2700 BC to the Present)
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) (2002-2003)
  • Tuberculosis (4000 BC to the Present)
  • Treatments for Infectious Diseases
  • Prevention
  • Vaccination
  • Pharmaceutical Treatments

Chapter 3 H1N1 Influenza (Swine Influenza)

  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Types of Influenza Viruses
  • Influenza Virus A
  • Influenza Virus B
  • Influenza Virus C
  • Diagnosis and Evaluation
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Phylogenetic Analysis
  • Treatment and Management
  • Prevention of Swine to Human Viral Transmission
  • Prevention of Human-to-Human Transmission
  • Vaccines
  • Antiviral Treatments
  • The WHO and Containment for Pandemic Influenza
  • International Influenza Vaccine Stockpile Orders
  • Pre-pandemic Vaccination
  • Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA)
  • Antiviral Resistance
  • Recreated Viruses
  • Immaterialized Market Risk
  • Media Coverage and Vaccinations
  • Pandemic Preparedness Plans
  • United States
  • Japan
  • China
  • Brazil
  • United Kingdom

Chapter 4 Ebola Virus Disease

  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment/Management
  • Supportive Care
  • Therapeutics
  • Vaccines and Prevention

Chapter 5 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Geographical Distribution
  • Sources of Infection
  • Risk Factors and Transmission
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Features
  • Diagnosis
  • Molecular Diagnostics
  • Serological Assays
  • Treatment and Management
  • Antiviral Agents
  • Convalescent Plasma
  • Antibiotic Therapy
  • Intensive Care Management
  • New Treatments
  • Prevention
  • Advances in Vaccine Development
  • Priorities: MERS Research, Surveillance, Management, and Control
  • Establishing a One Health Global Consortium
  • Priority Studies at the Animal-Human-Environmental Interface
  • Priority Studies in Human Populations
  • Priority Studies for Vaccines, Therapeutics, and Rapid Diagnostics

Chapter 6 Coronavirus Disease 2019 (SARS-CoV-2)

  • Symptoms of COVID-19
  • COVID-19 Progression
  • Incubation Period
  • Epidemiology
  • Case Fatality Rate (CFR)
  • Global Confirmed Cases and Confirmed Deaths Due to COVID-19
  • COVID-19 Research and Development
  • Diagnostics and Medtech
  • The Need to Reinvent Ventilators
  • Clinical Trials on COVID-19

Chapter 7 Lessons Learned from History

  • Maintaining Essential Healthcare Services
  • Access to Prevention, Safety Measures, Testing and Treatment
  • Quarantine and Isolation
  • International Efforts to Strengthen the Global Outbreak Response System
  • Africa Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations
  • European Medical Corps
  • Regional Disease Surveillance Systems Enhancement Program
  • The WHO Global Health Emergency Workforce
  • The WHO R&D Blueprint
  • World Bank Pandemic Emergency Financing Facility

Chapter 8 Appendix

  • Acronyms

List of Tables
Table 1: Pathogenic Bacteria, Parasites and Viruses, 1973-2019
Table 2: History of Antibiotic Discovery and Approval, 1935-2013
Table 3: CDC: Six Phases of Classification of Viral Pandemics
Table 4: Technologies for Addressing Potential Pandemic Threats
Table 5: Diseases That Have Been or Can Be Weaponized
Table 6: Commercial Products of H1N1 Influenzas Diagnostics
Table 7: Neuraminidase Inhibitor Resistance Testing Results on Samples Collected Since October 1, 2017
Table 8: Essential and Desirable Elements of the WHO Influenza Pandemic Preparedness Plan
Table 9: Japan’s Action Plan for Influenza Pandemic Preparedness
Table 10: China’s Influenza Pandemic Warning Levels
Table 11: Brazil’s Influenza Pandemic Warning Levels and Action
Table 12: Ebola Outbreaks Between 1976 and 2014
Table 13: Clinical Features of Ebola Virus Disease, by Stage
Table 14: Overview of Investigational Therapeutics Evaluated in Clinical Trials on Ebola Virus Disease During the 2013-2016 West African Outbreak
Table 15: Key Vaccines with Accelerated Clinical Development During the 2013-2016 Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak
Table 16: Molecular Diagnostic Tests for MERS-CoV Diagnosis, Single Assays
Table 17: Molecular Diagnostic Tests for MERS-CoV Diagnosis, Multiplex Assays
Table 18: Serology Tests for MERS-CoV Diagnosis
Table 19: Potential Therapies for MERS-CoV Infection
Table 20: Vaccines in the Pipeline for the Prevention of MERS-CoV Infection
Table 21: COVID-19 Symptoms by Percentage of Patients
Table 22: Case Fatality Rate of COVID-19, by Region, March 2020
Table 23: Case Fatality Rate of COVID-19, by Selected Country
Table 24: COVID-19: Confirmed Cases and Deaths, by Country, May 14, 2020
Table 25: COVID-19 Therapeutic Interventions in Development, by Biopharmaceutical Companies in Collaboration
Table 26: COVID-19 Therapeutics in Development, by Biopharmaceutical Company
Table 27: COVID-19 Vaccines in Development, by Biopharmaceutical Companies in Collaboration
Table 28: COVID-19 Vaccines in Development, by Biopharmaceutical Company
Table 29: Modifiable Breathing Devices Eligible for EUAs, by Company
Table 30: Number of Clinical Trials on COVID-19, by Phase
Table 31: Number of Clinical Trials on COVID-19, by Intervention
Table 32: Clinical Trials on COVID-19, by Country
Table 33: High-Level Initiatives Established Since the Ebola Crisis
Table 34: List of Acronyms

List of Figures
Figure 1: Number of Approved WHO Influenza Centers, by WHO Dedignated Region
Figure 2: Targeted Pre-pandemic Influenza Vaccine Stockpiles Based on Population Demand for Selected Countries
Figure 3: Geographical Distribution of Reported Human Infections of MERS-CoV
Figure 4: Infographic Comparison of CFR and Cases of the Three Major Beta Coronaviruses: MERS, SARS, and COVID-19
Figure 5: Distribution of Clinical Trials on COVID-19, by Phase
Figure 6: Distribution of Clinical Trials on COVID-19, by Intervention
Figure 7: Distribution of Clinical Trials on COVID-19, by Country
Figure 8: The Role of High-Level Initiatives in Enhancing the Three Main Phases of Global Outbreak Preparedness

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  • The World Health Organization (WHO)
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