IGBT is given full play under varied voltage class, like its exertion under 650~1200V in electric vehicle, 650V in home appliances and industrial fixing, either 650V or 1200V in new energy vehicle, and above 1700V in PV, industrial motors, high-speed railway, bullet trains, smart grid, etc.
Power semiconductors are exponentially utilized as automotive technologies are transferring to focus on new energy vehicle. Vehicle performance and costs are imposed directly by the technical level of motor control system as an essential part of the NEV industry chain. IGBT, the centerpiece of electronic control system, has the merits like high input impedance, high switching speed and low conduction loss and plays a vitally important role in the high-voltage system. IGBT module serving as high-voltage control switch component constitutes about 40% of motor controller costs. IGBT devices make up about 10% of NEV cost and share roughly 20% of charging pile costs.
In a new energy vehicle, IGBT is found in battery management system, motor control system, electric air-conditioning control system, charging system, positive temperature coefficient (PTC), etc., acting (in master inverter) to convert the direct current (DC) of high-voltage battery into the alternating current (AC) to drive three-phase motor, and (in onboard charger, or OBC) to join conversion of 220V AC into DC for charging the high-voltage battery. Also, IGBT gets widely used in DC/DC converter, PTC, electric air-conditioning compressor and other systems. In addition to its use in battery electric vehicle, IGBT is required in the high-voltage system independent of the low-voltage system in the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), so is the case (but used on a small scale) in the ICE cars partially packed with 48V hybrid system, such as the control module in BSG.
Concerning its use in electric vehicle, a high demanding on IGBT is asked by voltage level, power level, limiting condition, reliability, service life, costs, among others. It remains a big challenge.
IGBT packaging technologies concern chip surface interconnect, tape-up interconnect, and conductive terminals interconnect, securing high reliability and high power density, and the running of electric motor controllers under high temperature. IGBT module packaging is now studied mostly on parameter optimization of new interconnection materials and interconnection modes in a bid for better heat dissipation, smaller footprint and higher reliability.
Global IGBT modules market is ruled by giants like Infineon, Mitsubishi Electric, Fuji Electric, ON Semi, and Semikron. The Chinese player Starpower is in the eighth place globally.
Electric vehicle (EV+PHEV) IGBT market share is learnt from those vehicle sales data, after a survey by the publisher on the IGBT suppliers for EV and PHEV models on offer. Infineon stays far ahead of others, commanding 49.2%, followed by BYD 20.0% and StarPower 16.6%.
IGBT Industry Chain and Business Model
China has long been independent on importing IGBT chips and modules from abroad. It is since 2005 that a large number of overseas IGBT talents has come to China and devoted themselves to IGBT undertaking in China, where a sizable IGBT industry chain has already taken shape.
There are three IGBT business models, including Fabless, Packaging, and IDM (Integrated Device Manufacture).
Fabless refers to the company that is only specialized in chip circuit design and sales with production outsourced, such as StarPower Semiconductor, and Jiangsu CAS-IGBT Technology.
IDM refers to the company that involves in chip design, fabrication and packaging, such as BYD, Infineon, Mitsubishi, and Silan Microelectronics.
Packaging model is to purchase chips and then do encapsulation independently, such as Danfoss that is engrossed in packaging technologies. Bosch, Continental and Delphi also have IGBT packaging business.
Danfoss wins support from chip vendors like Infineon and ON Semi. In June 2020, Infineon inked a multi-year deal with Danfoss and would provide the latter with IGBT and diode chipset used for power modules of electric vehicle inverter. In July 2020, ON Semi announced it would provide Danfoss with high-power IGBT and diodes for the inverter drive module of electric vehicle.
Development Status Quo and Future Trend
IGBT has been much sought after amid the trend of vehicle electrification. The IGBT vendors like Infineon, ON Semi and Microsemi now has a supply cycle from 13 weeks to 30 weeks, with a tendency of prolonged delivery, in contrast to the normal IGBT supply periodicity lasting seven weeks to eight weeks, according to Future Electronics.cn.
The publisher studies the supply relations and prices of main automotive chips and founds it that StarPower’s IGBT product P6 is about half price of Infineon’ product of same sort.
Infineon’s automotive HybridPACK family falls into HP1-DC6 and HP-Drive packaging platforms, among which HP-Drive covers 80kW to 180kW applications. HP-Drive modules were in short supply in 2018, and the orders have a supply cycle of 39 weeks, and it will be first delivered to who first places an order. Due to supply inadequacies, NextEV paid RMB100 million in advance for ordering Infineon’s HP-Drive capacities in 2019.
Allured by robust market demand, the IGBT vendors are raising capital to ramp up production.
In April 2019, ON Semi acquired the proprietorship of Global Foundries’ 300mm wafer fab at East Fishkill, New York, to expand production of MOSFET and IGBT chips.
In April 2020, Semikron made a capital increase of more than EUR8 million to ramp up production in China and introduced the state-of-the-art MiniSKiiP manufacturing line to meet the burgeoning market demand in China.
In April 2020, Shenzhen BYD Microelectronics Co., Ltd., an exclusively funded subsidiary of BYD, was successfully reshuffled. BYD Semiconductor fulfilled the series A funding of RMB1,900 million on May 26, 2020 and A+ fundraising of RMB800 million from the investors on June 15, 2020.
StarPower went public on the A-Share market in February 2020 and a total capital of RMB510 million raised via IPO is earmarked for the performance improvement of its existing IGBT module portfolio and for the research and development of new-generation IGBT chips with lower conducting voltage drop and lower switching loss. Since it debuted with an issued price at RMB12.7 on the A-Share, StarPower has skyrocketed by 1073% in 23 days after successive twenty-one “+10%”trading limits.
Technically, it is an effective approach to improve the charging power and efficiency and reduce energy consumption during the driving of electric vehicle as concerns addressing the bottleneck of EV battery capacity and extending the mileage endurance. The general automotive silicon-based power devices are thus possibly replaced by the third-generation semiconductor power devices represented by SiC that has such merits of high voltage resistance, low loss and high efficiency that breaks through the limitations of silicon and brings better conductivity and electrical properties. All players are aggressively making deployments in SiC.
Tesla is a trailblazer in the use of SiC MOSFET (offered by ST) in Model 3 inverter module, for which Infineon also later became the supplier of SiC power semiconductors. In May 2019, CREE became the exclusive SiC partner in Volkwagen’s FAST (Future Automotive Supply Tracks) project. In September 2019, CREE and Delphi announced to collaborate on automotive SiC devices.
In 2020, BYD HAN EV motor controller was first packed with the self-developed SiC MOSFET module, significantly improving motor performance.
Bosch is developing SiC products as well and will commence production in 2020.
The global SiC industry is a tripartite pattern, i.e., USA, Europe and Japan, among which the United States takes a lion’s share since 70% to 80% of world’s SiC capacities come from American companies like CREE, ON Semi, and II-VI. In Europe, there is a complete SiC industry chain from substrates, epitaxial, devices and applications, where the typical companies are ST, Infineon, etc.
Although SiC is a long-term trend, SiC MOSFET is hard to substitute for IGBT in the short run. SiC epitaxy production encounters the inconformity of material stress, resulting in epitaxy layer bonding surface stress beyond tensile limit amid wafer size enlargement, which damages crystal grating and lowers the good yield. SiC chips now have a low yield, and wafer sizes are still mainly 4 inches or 6 inches, which makes it hard to achieve cost efficiency of large-size wafers and the production costs rather high. Of the same kind, SiC MOSFET has the cost eight to twelve folds of Si IGBT. The automotive SiC solutions has the about $300 higher cost than traditional Si IGBT.
SiC devices are costly to date owing to substrates and wafer sizes. With the technical advances in future, the cost of substrates will be ever reduced, while the wafer size will be bigger and bigger, which will undoubtedly lower the price.
SiC single crystal substrate suppliers consist of CREE, Dow Corning, SiCrystal, II-VI, Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal, Norstel, etc. Epitaxial companies are represented by DowCorning, II-VI, Norstel, CREE, Rohm, Mitsubishi Electric, and Infineon. Devices providers include Infineon, CREE, Rohm, ST, etc.
As for single crystal substrates, Chinese vendors focus on 4 inches. 6-inch conductive SiC substrate and high-purity semi-insulating SiC substrate have been developed in China. SICC, TankeBlue Semiconductor, Hebei Synlight Crystal, and CISRI-Zhongke Energy Conservation and Technology all succeeded in developing 6-inch substrates, and CETC Beijing Electronic Equipment already developed 6-inch semi-insulating substrate. Additionally, the competitors including EpiWorld International, Tianyu Technology (TYSiC), and Chengdu Guomin Tiancheng Semiconductor are all competent for supply of 4-inch to 6-inch epitaxial wafer.
1. Overview and Technology Trends of IGBT Industry
1.1 Definition and Classification of IGBT
1.2 Single Tube Structure of IGBT
1.3 IGBT Module Structure
1.4 Operating Principle of IGBT
1.5 Features and Prices of IGBT Modules and Single Tube
1.6 IGBT Module Packaging
1.7 Future Trend of IGBT Packaging Technology
1.8 Applied Fields and Scenarios of IGBT
1.9 Automotive Applications of IGBT
1.10 Applied Scenarios of Automotive IGBT
1.11 Evolution of Power Semiconductor Technology
1.12 Development History of IGBT Technology
1.13 Development Trend of IGBT Technology
1.14 Development of Power Semiconductor Materials
1.15 Features and Advantages of SiC Materials
2. China’s Automotive IGBT Market and Industry Chain
2.1 Chinese Passenger Car Market Size
2.2 Chinese New Energy Vehicle Market Size, 2016-2025E
2.3 New Energy Vehicle Charging Pile Ownership in China, 2017-2025E
2.4 Domestic Electric Vehicle Cost Structure and % of IGBT
2.5 Chinese IGBT Market Size, 2012-2019
2.6 IGBT Supply and Forecast of Infineon and Renesas
2.7 Chinese Automotive IGBT Market Size, 2019-2025E
2.8 Competitive Landscape in IGBT Market
2.9 Competition among IGBT Module Suppliers of Chinese BEV Models, 2019
2.10 Competition among IGBT Module Suppliers of Chinese PHEV Models, 2019
2.11 Competition Pattern of Chinese IGBT Automotive Market
2.12 Automotive IGBT Prices in China (by Supplier)
2.13 Composition of IGBT Industry Chain
2.14 Analysis on IGBT Industry Chain
2.15 IGBT Industry Chain: International Enterprises
2.16 IGBT Industry Chain: Main Product Models of International Enterprises
2.17 IGBT Industry Chain: Chinese Companies
2.18 IGBT Industry Chain: Overview of Main Chinese Participants
3. Next-generation SiC and GaN Power Devices
3.1 Comparison of Next-generation New Material Power Semiconductor Technologies
3.2 SiC Devices Will Replace Silicon-based IGBT
3.3 Development Trend of Power Semiconductor Devices in the Next 5-10 Years
3.4 Technical Performance and Applied Scenarios of SiC and GaN Power Devices
3.5 Much Lower Switching Loss of SiC Power Devices than IGBT
3.6 Global SiC Power Device Market Size and Competition between Key Vendors
3.7 Global SiC Power Semiconductor Market Size (by Application and Product)
3.8 Advantages and Applicable Fields of SiC and GaN
3.9 Enterprises in Global GaN Power Device Industry Chain
4. Global IGBT Companies
4.1.2 Operation in 2019
4.1.3 Business Layout
4.1.4 IGBT Market Share
4.1.5 Automotive Electronic Product System
4.1.6 IGBT Iterations
4.1.7 Seventh-generation IGBT Product
4.1.8 Automotive IGBT Product System
4.1.9 Features of Automotive IGBT Modules
4.1.10 Automotive IGBT Single Tube System
4.1.11 Automotive IGBT Module System
4.1.12 Automotive Power Module Portfolio
4.1.17 Distribution of Main Customers
4.1.18 Dynamic of Power Semiconductors
4.2.2 Global Operations
4.2.3 Power Semiconductor Product System
4.2.4 IGBT Product System
4.2.5 Automotive Power Semiconductors
4.2.6 Seventh-generation IGBT Product
4.2.7 SiC Technology
4.2.8 Dynamic of Power Semiconductors
4.3 Fuji Electric
4.3.2 Operation in 2019
4.3.3 Main Product System
4.3.4 IGBT Modules and Discretes
4.3.5 Application of IGBT Modules and Power Semiconductors
4.3.6 Evolution of IGBT and Chip Technologies
4.3.7 Seventh-generation IGBT Product Planning
4.3.15 Technical Direction and Planning
4.4 Mitsubishi Electric
4.4.2 Operation in 2019
4.4.3 Operations in the World and China
4.4.4 Product System
4.4.5 Power Semiconductor Product System and Main Products
4.4.6 Power Semiconductor Application
4.4.7 Seventh-generation IGBT T/T1 Series
4.4.8 Features of Seventh-generation IGBT T/T1 Series
4.4.9 Future Development Priorities and Goals of Semiconductor Business
4.4.10 Development Direction in the Automotive Field
4.4.11 Differentiation Strategy
4.5 ON Semiconductor
4.5.2 Operation in 2019 and Automotive Business Layout
4.5.3 Power Semiconductor Product System
4.5.4 Automotive Power Semiconductor and SiC Layout
4.5.8 Dynamic of Power Semiconductors
4.6.2 Operation in 2019
4.6.3 Global R&D Layout
4.6.4 Product System
4.6.5 IGBT Products and Application
4.6.6 Dynamic of Power Semiconductors
4.7.2 Operation in 2019
4.7.3 Automotive Power Module Application System
4.7.4 Power Semiconductor Planning
4.7.5 SiC-MOSFET Product Planning
4.7.6 IGBT Products and Application
4.7.7 New-type IGBT Product
4.7.8 Next-generation SiC MOSFET Product
4.8.2 Operation in 2019
4.8.3 Goals of Power Modules
4.8.4 Power Module Development
4.8.5 Development History of Power Module Business
4.8.6 Advantages of IGBT Power Modules
4.8.14 Automotive SiC Modules
4.8.15 Power Semiconductors and Technologies
4.8.16 Latest Dynamics
4.9.2 Operation in 2019
4.9.3 Automotive Semiconductor Product System
4.9.4 Automotive MOSFET Product Series and Application
4.9.5 Automotive MOSFET Packaging Trend
4.9.6 IGBT Product Series and Application
4.9.7 Development History of IGBT
4.9.8 Power Device R & D Plan
4.10.2 Operation in 2019
4.10.3 Automotive Industry Solutions and IGBT Product System
4.10.4 IGBT Products and Application
4.10.5 Application of IGBT for xEV Inverter Reference Solutions
4.10.6 IGBT Features and Its Use in Inverters
4.10.7 Eighth-generation IGBT
4.11.2 Operation in 2019
4.11.3 IGBT Product System and Features
4.11.4 IGBT Modules and Application
4.11.5 IGBT Module Portfolio
4.12.2 Global Operations
4.12.3 Automotive Semiconductor System
4.12.4 Automotive MOSFET
4.12.5 SiC MOSFET
4.13.2 IGBT Power Modules
4.13.3 Advanced Technology and Advantages of IGBT Power Module
4.13.4 Features of SiC-IGBT Technology
4.13.5 Automotive IGBT Modules
4.13.6 Dynamic of Power Semiconductors
4.14.2 Semiconductor Product System
4.14.3 IGBT Product System and Main Products
4.14.4 Automotive MOSFET Product System
5. Chinese IGBT Companies
5.1 BYD Semiconductor
5.1.2 New Energy Sales Volume and Electronic Control System Installations
5.1.3 Products and Business
5.1.4 IGBT 4.0
5.1.5 IGBT Development Plan
5.2.2 Product System Application Solution
5.2.3 Main IGBT Products
5.2.4 New Energy Vehicle IGBT Solution
5.2.5 IGBT Development History
5.2.6 Revenue and Customers
5.2.7 Latest Dynamics
5.3 Zhuzhou CRRC Times Electric
5.3.2 Core Technologies and Power Semiconductor Products
5.3.3 IGBT Product Application
5.3.4 Evolution of IGBT Technology
5.3.5 Automotive IGBT
5.4 Jiangsu MacMic Science & Technology
5.4.2 Main Products and Application
5.4.3 Solutions for Electric Vehicle
5.4.4 Solutions for Charging Pile
5.5.2 Main IBGT Products and Application
5.5.3 Electric Vehicle Application Solution and Main Products
5.5.4 Automotive IGBT
5.6 Jilin Sino-Microelectronics
5.6.2 Product Line and Advantages
5.6.3 IGBT Products
5.6.4 Main IGBT Products
5.6.5 Latest Dynamic
5.7.2 IGBT Products and Application
5.7.3 Power Semiconductors and Wafer Technology Roadmap and Planning
5.8 Hangzhou Silan Microelectronics
5.8.2 Product System and Main Power Semiconductor Modules
5.8.3 Automotive IGBT Modules
5.8.4 Strategic Planning
- Fuji Electric
- Mitsubishi Electric
- ON Semiconductor
- BYD Semiconductor
- Zhuzhou CRRC Times Electric
- Jiangsu MacMic Science & Technology
- Jilin Sino-Microelectronics
- Hangzhou Silan Microelectronics