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Petroleum Geoscience. Edition No. 2

  • ID: 5178929
  • Book
  • February 2021
  • 432 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Petroleum Geoscience, 2nd edition is a comprehensive introduction to the application of geology and geophysics to the search for and production of oil and gas. The aim this updated second edition remains the same - to provide a comprehensive grounding in the geological sciences as applied to exploration for and production of oil and gas.  

Uniquely, this book is structured to reflect the sequential and cyclical processes of exploration, appraisal, development and production. Chapters dedicated to each of these aspects are further illustrated by new case histories drawn from the authors' experiences. Petroleum Geoscience, 2nd edition has a global and 'geo-temporal' backdrop, drawing examples and case histories from around the world and from petroleum systems ranging in age from late-Pre-Cambrian to Pliocene. 

In order to show how geoscience is integrated at all levels within the industry, the authors stress throughout the links between geology and geophysics on the one hand, and drilling, reservoir engineering, petrophysics, petroleum engineering, facilities design, and health, safety and the environment on the other. 

Discovery and production of petroleum underpinned global development throughout the twentieth century but times are changing.  Combustion of fossil fuels and release of greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide, is driving climate change.  The skills and knowledge of the petroleum geoscientist also find application in carbon storage in and heat recovery (geothermal energy) from the Earth.  This second edition addresses such technologies in the newly added Chapter 7. 

The target readership is mainly final year undergraduates and postgraduates in the earth sciences together with little-experienced technical staff within the petroleum industry. The book draws on a large variety of examples from many basins around the world and as a consequence should appeal to those interested in petroleum geoscience, whether they be in Aberdeen or Abu Dhabi, Houston or Ho Chi Min. 

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Preface

Acknowledgements

1.            Introduction

1.1.         The aim and format of the book

1.2.         Background

1.3.         What is in this book

1.4.         What is not in this book

1.5.         Key terms and concepts

1.5.1.     Petroleum

1.5.2.     The source

1.5.3.     The seal

1.5.4.     The trap

1.5.5.     The reservoir

1.5.6.     The timing of petroleum migration

1.5.7.     Porous rock and porosity

1.5.8.     Permeable rock and permeability

1.5.9.     Relative permeability

1.5.10.   Net to gross and net pay

1.5.11.   Water saturation

1.5.12.   Formation volume factor

1.5.13.   The gas to oil ratio

1.5.14.   Timescales

1.5.15.   The units used in this book

1.6.         The chemistry of petroleum

1.6.1.     Alkanes (paraffins)

1.6.2.     Naphthenes (cycloalkenes)

1.6.3.     Aromatics

1.6.4.     Asphaltenes

1.7.         Geoscience and the value chain

1.7.1.     Exploration (chapters 3 & 4)

1.7.2.     Appraisal (see chapter 5)

1.7.3.     Development (see chapter 6)

1.7.4.     Production (see chapter 6)

1.7.5.     Reserves additions and reserves growth (see chapter 6)

1.7.6.     Field abandonment and reactivation (see chapter 6)

1.7.7.     Gas storage (see chapter 7)

1.7.8.     Unconventional petroleum (see chapter 7)

1.8.         Geoscience activity

1.9.         Oil, gas, and geoscientists - a global resource!

2.            Tools

2.1.         Introduction

2.2.         Satellite images and other remote sensing data

2.2.1.     Introduction

2.2.2.     Satellite images

2.2.3.     Gravimetric data

2.2.4.     Magnetic data

2.2.5.     Electromagnetic surveys

2.3.         Seismic data

2.3.1.     Introduction

2.3.2.     The seismic method

2.3.3.     Seismic acquisition

2.3.4.     Seismic processing

2.3.5.     Seismic interpretation

2.4.         Wireline log data

2.4.1.     Introduction

2.4.2.     Rock tools

2.4.3.     Seismic enhancement

2.4.4.     Porosity and permeability tools

2.4.5.     Fluid tools

2.4.6.     Pressure tool

2.5.         Core and cuttings

2.5.1.     Introduction

2.5.2.     Conventional core analysis (porosity and permeability)

2.5.3.     Core logging

2.5.4.     Petrography

2.5.5.     Geochemistry

2.5.6.     Biostratigraphy

2.6.         Fluid samples from wells

2.6.1.     Introduction

2.6.2.     The sampling of fluids

2.6.3.     Petroleum

2.6.4.     Water

2.7.         Outcrop data

2.7.1.     Introduction

2.7.2.     Maps

2.7.3.     Reservoir analogs

2.7.4.     Rock sampling and analysis

2.8.         Seepage of petroleum

3.            Frontier exploration

3.1.         Introduction

3.2.         Acquisition of acreage

3.2.1.     Early access to acreage

3.2.2.     The licensing process

3.2.3.     License areas

3.2.4.     Farm-ins, farm-outs, and other deals

3.3.         Direct petroleum indicators

3.3.1.     Introduction

3.3.2.     Petroleum leakage and seepage

3.3.3.     The identification of petroleum on seismic data

3.4.         Basin types

3.4.1.     Introduction

3.4.2.     Extensional basins, generated by divergent plate motion

3.4.3.     Basins generated during convergent plate motion

3.4.4.     Strike-slip basins

3.5.         Basin histories

3.5.1.     Introduction

3.5.2.     Subsidence

3.5.3.     Sediment supply

3.5.4.     Burial history

3.5.5.     Thermal history

3.5.6.     Uplift

3.5.7.     Pressure history

3.5.8.     Integrated basin modelling

3.6.         Stratigraphy

3.6.1.     Introduction

3.6.2.     Chronostratigraphy

3.6.3.     Biostratigraphy

3.6.4.     Lithostratigraphy

3.6.5.     Seismic stratigraphy

3.6.6.     Sequence stratigraphy

3.6.7.     Chemostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy

3.6.8.     Stratigraphic tests

3.7.         Source rock

3.7.1.     Introduction

3.7.2.     The origin of petroleum from living organisms

3.7.3.     Kerogen

3.7.4.     Maturation of source rocks: kerogen to oil to gas

Case histories

3.8.         Jubilee Field, Ghana, West Africa

3.8.1.     Introduction

3.8.2.     Basin setting

3.8.3.     Pre-drill assessment

3.8.4.     Jubilee field

3.8.5.     Implications for West African and South American margins

3.9.         Johan Sverdrup Oilfield, Norwegian North Sea

3.9.1.     Introduction

3.9.2.     Location

3.9.3.     Early exploration history

3.9.4.     Renewed interest

3.9.5.     Major discovery

3.9.6.     Petroleum geology

3.9.7.     Learning

4.            Exploration and exploitation

4.1.         Introduction

4.2.         The seal

4.2.1.     Introduction

4.2.2.     The membrane seal

4.2.3.     The hydraulic seal

4.2.4.     Faults

4.2.5.     Trap fill

4.2.6.     The pressure seal

4.3.         The reservoir

4.3.1.     Introduction

4.3.2.     Intrinsic properties

4.3.3.     Reservoir lithologies

4.3.4.     The reservoir: sandstone depositional systems

4.3.5.     The reservoir: limestone and dolomite

4.3.6.     Fractured reservoirs

4.4.         Migration

4.4.1.     Introduction

4.4.2.     Primary migration

4.4.3.     Secondary migration

4.4.4.     Tertiary migration

4.5.         The trap

4.5.1.     Introduction

4.5.2.     Migration and trap formation

4.5.3.     Structural traps

4.5.4.     Stratigraphic traps

4.5.5.     Hydrodynamic traps

4.6.         Play and play fairway

4.6.1.     Play

4.6.2.     Play fairway

4.7.         Lead and prospect

4.7.1.     Introduction

4.7.2.     Lead, prospect and prospect evaluation

4.7.3.     The prospect inventory

4.7.4.     Well prognosis

4.7.5.     Failure analysis

4.8.         Yet to find

4.8.1.     Introduction

4.8.2.     Areal richness and prospect summation

4.8.3.     Pool size distribution

4.8.4.     Creaming curves and destruction of value

4.9.         Risk and uncertainty

4.9.1.     Introduction

4.9.2.     Risk

4.9.3.     Uncertainty

Case histories

4.10.      Thunder Horse Field, Gulf of Mexico, USA

4.10.1.   Introduction

4.10.2.   Geology

4.10.3.   Deep water, sub-salt exploration

4.10.4.   Discovery, appraisal and field start-up

4.11.      Clyde Field UK North Sea

4.11.1.   Introduction

4.11.2.   Great expectations

4.11.3.   Reality dawns

4.11.4.   A change of owner

5.            Appraisal

5.1.         Introduction

5.2.         The trap envelope

5.2.1.     Depth conversion

5.2.2.     Mapping surfaces and faults

5.2.3.     Spill points

5.3.         Fluid distribution and contacts

5.3.1.     Fluid contacts and transition zones

5.3.2.     Intra-field variations in petroleum composition

5.3.3.     Intra-field variations in water composition

5.4.         Field segmentation

5.4.1.     Introduction

5.4.2.     Barriers to lateral flow

5.4.3.     Barriers to vertical flow

5.4.4.     Identification of flow barriers

5.5.         Reservoir property distribution

5.5.1.     Introduction

5.5.2.     Lithofacies and lithotypes

5.5.3.     Reservoir body geometry

5.5.4.     Reservoir correlation

5.6.         Reservoir quality

5.6.1.     Introduction

5.6.2.     More intrinsic reservoir properties

5.6.3.     Controls on reservoir quality

5.6.4.     Compaction and cementation in sandstones

5.6.5.     Compaction and cementation kin limestones

5.7.         Reservoir description from seismic data

5.7.1.     Introduction

5.7.2.     Lithology description

5.7.3.     Porosity determination

5.7.4.     Lateral variations and reservoir heterogeneity

5.7.5.     Reservoir correlation

5.7.6.     Identification of fluid types and contacts

5.8.         Petroleum in place, reservoir models and reserves

5.8.1.     Introduction

5.8.2.     Petroleum in place

5.8.3.     Geologic models

5.8.4.     Reservoir models

5.8.5.     Reserves

Case histories

5.9.         Kadenwari Field, Pakistan

5.9.1.     Introduction

5.9.2.     Re-evaluation of seismic data over Kadenwari

5.10.      Pedernales Field, Venezuela

5.10.1.   Introduction

5.10.2.   Geology of the area

5.10.3.   History of exploration and production

5.10.4.   Field reactivation, 1990s

6.            Development and production

6.1.         Introduction

6.2.         Well planning and execution

6.2.1.     Facilities location and well numbers

6.2.2.     Well geometries

6.2.3.     Well types

6.2.4.     Drilling hazards

6.2.5.     Well completion and stimulation

6.2.6.     Formation damage

6.2.7.     Well logging and testing

6.3.         Reservoir management

6.3.1.     Reservoir description from production data

6.3.2.     Reservoir visualisation

6.3.3.     Time lapse seismic

6.3.4.     Managing decline and abandonment

6.4.         Reserves revisions, additions and field reactivation

6.4.1.     Introduction

6.4.2.     Reserves revisions

6.4.3.     Reserves additions

6.4.4.     Field rehabilitation and reactivation

Case Histories

6.5.         Thistle Field, North Sea – improving late field life oil production

6.5.1.     Introduction

6.5.2.     Field production profiles

6.5.3.     Water cut and ultimate oil recovery

6.5.4.     Voidage replacement, pressure maintenance and sweep

6.5.5.     Conclusions

6.6.         Ardmore field, UKCS

6.6.1.     Introduction

6.6.2.     Location and history

6.6.3.     Structure, and stratigraphy

6.6.4.     Reservoirs

6.6.5.     Source

6.6.6.     STOIIP & reserves

6.6.7.     Ardmore development and production

6.6.8.     Conclusions

6.6.9.     Postscript

7.            Unconventional petroleum, gas storage, carbon storage & secondary products

7.1.         Introduction

7.2.         Unconventional gas

7.2.1.     Tight gas reservoirs

7.2.2.     Shale gas

7.2.3.     Low saturation gas

7.2.4.     Shallow gas

7.2.5.     Basin centre gas

7.2.6.     Gas hydrates

7.2.7.     Coal bed methane

7.2.8.     Coal mine methane

7.3.         Unconventional oil

7.3.1.     Heavy oil and tar sand

7.3.2.     Shale oil & oil shale

7.4.         Underground coal gasification

7.5.         Gas storage

7.6.         Carbon storage

7.7.         Heat, helium & other secondary products

7.7.1.     Heat recovery

7.7.2.     Lithium and other solutes

7.7.3.     Helium

Case histories

7.8.         Dunlin Field, UK North Sea, opportunities for power generation from unconventional gas and/or co-produced water

7.8.1.     Introduction

7.8.2.     Deep (shale) gas

7.8.3.     Shallow gas

7.8.4.     Co-produced hot water

7.9.         Clipper South Field, UK North Sea, development of a tight gas field

7.9.1.     Introduction

7.9.2.     Re-evaluation of the field

7.9.3.     Analysis of well test data

References

Index

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Jon G. Gluyas Acorn Oil & Gas Ltd & University of Durham.

Richard E. Swarbrick University of Durham.
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