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Lichen-Derived Products. Extraction and Applications. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5178993
  • Book
  • October 2020
  • 304 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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The purpose of this book is to provide reference material that includes current developments along with a future outlook on the topic. It is divided into two sections; "Morphological Overview and Extraction Prospects" and "Trends and Applications". Part I contains four chapters that provide an overview and systematically discuss the physical morphology, suitability and extraction aspects of lichens and their secondary metabolites. Part II includes eight chapters that give in-depth insights on recent and valuable applications of lichen and their obtained products in several applied sectors, including ethnopharmacology, therapeutics, paper and dye, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, herbal industries, etc.

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Preface xiii

Part 1: Morphological Overview and Extraction Prospects 1

1 An Overview on Lichen’s Morphology, Chemistry of Derived Products, and Current Scenario 3
Mohd Yusuf

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 The Lichen’s Body: Thallus Morphology 4

1.2.1 Foliose 9

1.2.2 Fruiticose 9

1.2.3 Squamulose Lichens 9

1.2.4 Crustose 9

1.2.5 Placodioid/Crustose-Placodioid/Squamulose-Placodioid 9

1.2.6 Leprose 10

1.2.7 Filamentous Lichens 10

1.2.8 Without any Definite Shape or Lichens Without any Visible Thallus 10

1.3 Chemistry of Lichen-Derived Products 10

1.4 Current Scenario of Lichens and Derived Products Thereof 18

1.5 Conclusion and Future Outlook 23

References 24

2 Comparative Perspectives on Extraction Methods for Organic Metabolites and Pollutants from Lichens 27
Patricia Forbes, Leandri van der Wat and Johanna Strumpher

2.1 Introduction 28

2.1.1 Organic Lichen-Derived Compounds 29

2.1.1.1 Organic Air Pollutants 29

2.1.1.2 Lichen Metabolites 29

2.2 Sample Preparation and Solvent Extraction 44

2.3 Extraction of Organic Air Pollutants 45

2.3.1 Soxhlet Extraction 45

2.3.2 Ultrasonic Extraction 46

2.3.3 Microwave-Assisted Extraction 50

2.3.4 QuEChERS 51

2.3.5 Other Extraction Methods 52

2.4 Extraction of Lichen Metabolites 53

2.4.1 Traditional Approaches 54

2.4.1.1 Boiling Extraction 54

2.4.1.2 Shaking 54

2.4.1.3 Ammonia Extraction 54

2.4.2 Alternative Extraction Approaches for Lichen Metabolites 54

2.4.2.1 Soxhlet Extraction 54

2.4.2.2 Ultrasonic Extraction 55

2.4.2.3 Microwave-Assisted Extraction 55

2.4.2.4 QuEChERS 55

2.4.2.5 Solid Phase Microextraction 56

2.4.2.6 Other Extraction Methods 56

2.5 Extract Cleanup 57

2.6 Analysis of Lichen Extracts 59

2.6.1 GC 59

2.6.2 LC 60

2.6.3 Other Analytical Methods 61

2.7 Conclusion 63

References 65

3 Review on Advanced Methods for Extraction and Identification of Nature-Derived Bioactive and Economic Products 75
Sudarshana Deepa Vijaykumar

3.1 Introduction 75

3.2 Accelerated Solvent Extraction 76

3.2.1 Effect of Solubility and Mass Transfer 77

3.2.2 Lowering the Surface Equilibrium 77

3.3 Ultrasound/Ultrasonic Extraction 78

3.4 Microwave Extraction 79

3.4.1 Solvent Composition 81

3.4.2 Solvent Volume 81

3.4.3 Temperature 81

3.4.4 Extraction Time 82

3.4.5 Biomass Characteristics and Water Content 82

3.5 Ultrasound-Microwave Mixed 82

3.6 High Hydrostatic Pressure Extraction 83

3.7 Enzyme Supported Extraction 85

3.7.1 The Types and Characteristics of Enzyme 85

3.7.2 The Breakdown of Cell Walls by Enzyme 86

3.8 Pulsed Electric Field Extraction 87

3.9 Supercritical Fluid Extraction 89

3.9.1 Supercritical Fluid (SCF) 90

3.9.2 Properties of SCF 90

3.10 Modern Identification Methods Based on Spectroscopy Approach 91

3.10.1 Mass Spectroscopy (MS) 91

3.10.2 NMR Spectroscopy 92

3.10.3 UV-Visible Spectroscopy 92

3.10.4 Infrared Spectroscopy 93

3.11 Conclusion 94

References 94

4 Lichens and Lichenology: Historical and Economic Prospects 101
Munesh Sharma and Aash Mohammad

4.1 Historical Prospects of Lichens 101

4.2 Lichens and Symbiosis 103

4.3 Economic Prospects 104

4.3.1 Food Relation 104

4.3.1.1 As Food 104

4.3.1.2 As Fodder 105

4.3.1.3 As Natural Food Flavoring Agent 106

4.3.2 Paper and Textiles Relation 106

4.3.2.1 Litmus Dye Paper 106

4.3.2.2 As Textile Dyes 107

4.3.3 In Perfumery 108

4.3.4 In Medicine and Medical Formulations 110

4.3.5 Age Determination of Substrates/Rocks/Plants or Lichenometric Dating 114

4.3.6 Environmental Benefits/Biomonitoring 115

4.4 Future Outlook and Conclusion 115

References 115

Part 2: Trends and Applications 119

5 Biomedical Aspects of Lichen-Derived Products: Roadmap to Alternative Sources for Synthetic Drugs 121
Anjali Gupta, Pooja Agarwal, Kavita Khatana and Shafat Ahmad Khan

5.1 Introduction 121

5.2 Biological Activities 122

5.2.1 Anticancer Activity 122

5.2.2 Antimicrobial Activity 129

5.2.3 Antiviral Activity 130

5.2.4 Antioxidant Activity 131

5.2.5 Immunomodulator Activity 133

5.2.6 Insecticidal Activity 134

5.3 Conclusion 135

References 136

6 Lichens as Sources of Antibacterial Active Compounds 141
Es-sadeqy Youness, Taha Chouati, Noura Aoussar, Imane Zalegh, Rajaa Ait Mhand, Naima Rhallabi and Fouad Mellouki

6.1 Introduction 142

6.2 Antibacterial Activity of Crude Extracts of Lichens 143

6.3 Antibacterial Activity of Lichenic Acids 153

6.4 Antibacterial Activity of Crude Extracts of Lichens and of Their Bioactive Compounds 159

6.5 Interactions Between Lichen’s Secondary Metabolites and Standard Antibiotics 167

6.6 Future Visions 171

6.7 Conclusion 172

References 172

7 Lichens: Natural Alternatives in Textiles Finishing 179
Amrita Kaushik and Pavan Prakash Giri

7.1 Introduction 179

7.2 Lichens as Dyes 180

7.3 Coloring Components From Lichens 181

7.4 Dye Extraction From Lichens 184

7.5 Advantages and Limitations of Lichens Extracted Dyes 184

7.6 Conclusion and Future Scope of Lichen Dyes 185

References 185

8 A Review on Trends and Opportunity in Edible Lichens 189
Mohd Yusuf

8.1 Introduction 189

8.2 Feed and Fodder 191

8.2.1 Cetraria islandica 191

8.2.2 Roccella montagnei 192

8.2.3 Cladonia rangiferina 193

8.2.4 Bryoria fremontii 193

8.2.5 Parmelia perlata 194

8.2.6 Umbilicaria Species 194

8.2.7 Usnea florida 195

8.3 Lichens as Food Additives 195

8.3.1 Lichen-Based Tea 195

8.3.2 Lichens as Spice 196

8.3.3 Food Coloring Aspects 196

8.4 Lichens as Snuffing Agents 197

8.5 Conclusion and Future Outlook 197

References 198

9 Biotechnological Applications of Lichens 203
Md. Aftab Alam, Rizwana Khatoon, Shamsul Huda, Niyaz Ahmad and Pramod Kumar Sharma

9.1 Introduction 204

9.2 Biotechnological Applications of Lichens 205

9.2.1 Antioxidant Activity 205

9.2.2 Antimicrobial Activity 205

9.2.3 As Bioindicators 206

9.2.4 Anticancer Activity 207

9.2.5 Anti-Insecticidal Activity 210

9.2.6 Enzyme Inhibition Activity 210

9.2.7 Antidiabetic Activity 211

9.3 Conclusion and Future Dimension 212

References 213

10 Potential of Lichen’s Extract as Natural Photosensitizer for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 221
Asim Mansha, Sana, Muhammad Usman, Sadia Asim and Matloob Ahmvad

10.1 Introduction 221

10.2 DSSC Operations and Components 224

10.2.1 Operating Principle 224

10.3 Constituents 225

10.3.1 Working Electrode/Semi-Conductor Electrode 225

10.3.2 Electrolyte 226

10.3.2.1 Volatile Organic Solvent 226

10.3.2.2 Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Electrolytes (RTIL) 226

10.3.2.3 Polymer Electrolytes 227

10.3.2.4 Redox Couple 227

10.3.3 Counter Electrode 228

10.4 Natural Dye Sensitizers 229

10.4.1 Chlorophylls 229

10.4.2 Anthocyanins 230

10.4.3 Anthocyanidins 231

10.4.4 Flavonoids 232

10.4.5 Carotenoids 232

10.5 Photoelectrochemical Parameters 234

10.6 Preparation of Dye Solution and Electrodes 239

10.6.1 Preparation of Working Electrode 239

10.6.2 Preparation of CE 240

10.6.3 Preparation of Dye Solution 240

10.7 Conclusion and Future Outlook 241

References 241

11 Lichen-Derived Products as Sustainable Source of Natural Dyes 245
Shahid Adeel, Aqsa Majeed, Fazal-ur-Rehman, Muhammad Azeem, Naeem Iqbal and Nimra Amin

11.1 Introduction 245

11.2 Classification of Lichen 246

11.3 Natural Dyes 247

11.3.1 Classification of Natural Dyes 248

11.3.2 Pros and Cons of Natural Dyes 248

11.3.3 Environmental and Health Aspects of Natural Dyes 249

11.3.4 Economic Aspects of Natural Dyes 250

11.4 Extraction Methods of Natural Dyes 250

11.5 Lichen as a Source of Natural Dye 251

11.5.1 Extraction Methods of Colorants From Lichen 251

11.5.2 Lichen as a Source of Purple Dye 252

11.5.3 Lichen as a Source of Red Dye 253

11.5.4 Lichen as a Source of Yellow Dye 254

11.5.5 Lichen as a Source of Blue Dye 255

11.5.6 Isolation Medium Dependant Colorants from Lichens 255

11.5.7 Future Prospectus of Lichen Dyeing 257

11.6 Conclusion 257

References 258

12 Biomedical Perspectives of Lichen-Derived Products 263
Muhammad Shahid, Arslan Rasool, Fozia Anjum and Muhammad Tjammal Rehman

12.1 Introduction 263

12.2 Coevolution of Lichens 264

12.3 Diversity Among Growth Forms of Lichens 265

12.4 Lichen Secondary Metabolites and Their Structures (Lichen Substances) 266

12.5 Biomedical and Biological Activities of Secondary Metabolites of Lichens 268

12.5.1 Antioxidant Activity 270

12.5.2 Cytotoxic Activity 270

12.5.3 Antiviral Activity 270

12.5.4 Antitumor Activity 271

12.5.5 Antidiabetic Activity of Lichens 271

12.5.6 Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity 272

12.6 Conclusion 272

References 272

Index 277

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Mohd Yusuf
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