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Guidelines for Analysis and Description of Soil and Regolith Thin Sections. Edition No. 2. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA Books

  • ID: 5178996
  • Book
  • March 2021
  • 256 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

A revised guide to the study and of soil and regolith thin sections

A specialized system of terms and concepts must be used to accurately and effectively distinguish and name the microscopic features of soils and regoliths. With a comprehensive, consistent terminology at their disposal, researchers may compare, store and discuss new data easily and with less risk of error. The second edition of Guidelines for Analysis and Description of Soil and Regolith Thin Sections has been assembled to address this need, offering a practical system of analysis and description to those working with soil and regolith materials.    

This essential resource includes:

  • An introduction to micromorphology and its practice
  • Guidelines for the study of thin sections
  • Sections covering the various microscopic features of soils and regoliths
  • Illustrative graphics and colour micrographs
  • Suggested description schemes and data presentation tips

By providing an economical, navigable system for the study and documentation of soils and regoliths, Guidelines for Analysis and Description of Soil and Regolith Thin Sections, second edition, offers invaluable guidance for soil scientists, geologists, ecologists, archaeologists and all those concerned with micromorphology.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

About the second edition iii

Preface to the second edition v

Abbreviations xiii

1. Introduction 1

2. Definition and historical review 5

2.1. What is micromorphology? 5

2.2. Brief historical review 6

2.3. Steps of micromorphological analysis 9

2.3.1. Sampling 9

2.3.2. Preparation of thin sections 10

2.3.3. Analysis and description of thin sections 10

2.3.4. Interpretation and reporting 10

3. Aspects of thin section studies 11

3.1. From a two-dimensional observation to a three- dimensional reality 11

 3.1.1. Introduction 11

3.1.2. Transition from two to three dimensions 11

3.1.3. Wedging effects 17

3.1.4. Minimal visible size and magnification 17

3.1.5. Holmes effect 18

3.1.6. Orientation 18

 3.1.7. Optical Illusion 18

3.2. Microscopic techniques for thin section studies 19

3.2.1. Introduction 19

3.2.2. Optical techniques 19

3.2.2.1. Introduction 19

3.2.2.2. Circular polarized light 21

3.2.2.3. Dark-field illumination 21

3.2.2.4. Oblique incident light and dark ground incident light 23

3.2.2.5. Fluorescence microscopy 24

3.2.2.5.1. Introduction 24

3.2.2.5.2. Equipment 25

3.2.2.5.3. Application 27

3.2.2.6. Cathodoluminescence 29

3.2.2.6.1. Introduction 29

3.2.2.6.2. Equipment 29

3.2.2.6.3. Sample preparation 29

3.2.2.6.4. Application 30

3.2.3. Selective extractions 30

3.2.3.1. Introduction 30

3.2.3.2. Extraction of carbonates 31

3.2.3.3. Extraction of iron and manganese oxihydrates 32

3.2.3.4. Bleaching of humic substances 33

3.2.4. Staining and spot tests 33

3.2.4.1. Introduction 33

3.2.4.2. Differential Staining of Anhydrous AlkaliEarth Carbonates 34

3.2.4.3. Ferruginous components 34

3.2.4.4. Manganese oxides and hydroxides 36

3.2.4.5. Clay minerals 36

4. Elements of fabric 37

4.1. Introduction 37

4.2. Concepts of fabric 38

4.3. Elements of fabric 40

4.3.1. Introduction 40

4.3.2. Patterns 41

4.3.2.1. Introduction 41

4.3.2.2. Basic patterns 42

4.3.2.2.1. Basic distribution patterns 42

4.3.2.2.2. Basic orientation patterns 44

4.3.2.2.3. Orientation patterns of clay particles 45

4.3.2.3. Referred patterns 47

4.3.2.3.1. Referred distribution pattern 48

4.3.2.3.2. Referred orientation pattern 48

4.3.2.4. Related patterns 48

 4.3.2.4.1. General

4.3.2.4.2. The c/f related distribution pattern

4.3.3. Size 54

4.3.4. Sorting 56

4.3.5. Abundance 56

4.3.6. Shape 58

4.3.6.1. Introduction 58

4.3.6.2. Equidimensionality 59

4.3.6.3. Degree of roundness and sphericity 61

4.3.6.4. Surface roughness and smoothness 61

4.3.6.5. Boundary 62

4.3.7. Color 63

4.4. Variability within partial fabrics 63

4.5. Concepts used 64

5. Voids, aggregates, and microstructure 65

5.1. Introduction 65

5.2. Voids 66

5.2.1. Introduction 66

5.2.2. Types of voids 67

5.2.3. Size of poroids 70

5.2.4. Abundance of voids 70

5.2.5. Roughness and smoothness of void walls 70

5.2.6. Arrangement of voids 71

5.2.7. Accommodation of voids 71

5.2.8. Note 73

5.3. Aggregation 73

 5.3.1. Introduction 73

5.3.2. Peds 73

 5.3.3. Degree of ped separation and pedality 75

5.3.4. Size of peds 78

 5.3.5. Accommodation 78

5.3.6. Surface roughness 78

 5.3.7. Internal fabric 78

 5.3.8. Ped arrangement pattern 80

5.4. Types of microstructure 80

5.4.1. Introduction 80

5.4.2. Main types of microstructures 80

6. Mineral and organic constituents 83

6.1. Introduction 83

6.2. Coarse mineral components 83

6.2.1. Introduction 83

6.2.1.1. Importance of its description 83

6.2.1.2. Subdivision 86

6.2.1.3. Important properties 86

6.2.2. Single mineral grains 87

6.2.3. Compound mineral grains and rock fragments 95

6.2.4. Inorganic residues of biological origin 98

6.2.4.1. Introduction 98

6.2.4.2. Opaline components 98

6.2.4.3. Calcium oxalate crystals 100

6.2.4.4. Calcium carbonate constituents of biological origin 106

6.2.4.5. Bones and Other Skeletal Tissues 108

6.2.5 Anthropogenic elements 108

6.3. Description of fine mineral components 110

6.3.1. Importance of its description 110

6.3.2. Nature 110

6.3.2.1. Color 112

6.3.2.2. Limpidity 113

6.3.2.3. Interference colors 113

6.3.2.4. Other characteristics 113

6.3.3. Size 114

6.3.4. Shape 114

6.4. Description of organic components 114

6.4.1. Introduction 114

6.4.2. Animal residues 114

6.4.3. Plant residues 115

6.4.4. Alteration 120

6.4.4.1 Introduction 120

6.4.4.2 Alteration of plant tissues 120

7. Groundmass 123

7.1. Introduction and definition 123

7.2. Description 124

7.2.1. The limit between coarse and fine 124

7.2.2. The c/f related distribution 125

7.2.3. The coarse material, its composition and its fabric 126

7.2.4. The fine material (micromass) and its fabric 127

7.2.4.1. Introduction and definition 127

7.2.4.2. Types of b-fabric 129

7.2.4.3. Factors influencing the expression of b-fabrics 134

8. Pedofeatures 139

8.1. Introduction and definition 139

8.2. Subdivision of pedofeatures 140

8.2.1. Introduction 140

8.2.2. Matrix and intrusive pedofeatures 140

8.2.3. Morphological classification of pedofeatures as related to their fabric 144

8.3. Coatings, hypo-coatings and quasi-coatings 145

 8.3.1. Introduction 145

8.3.2. Definitions 145

8.3.3. Classification 146

8.3.4. Descriptive criteria 148

8.4. Infillings 158

8.4.1. Definition 158

8.4.2. Classification 159

8.4.3. Descriptive criteria 159

8.5. Crystals and crystal intergrowths 161

 8.5.1. Introduction 161

8.5.2. Definition 161

8.5.3. Classification 161

8.5.4. Descriptive criteria 163

8.6. Nodules 163

8.6.1. Introduction 163

8.6.2. Definition 164

8.6.3. Classification 165

 8.6.3.1. Internal Fabric 165

8.6.3.2. External Morphology 168

8.6.4. Descriptive criteria 170

8.7. Intercalations 170

 8.7.1. Introduction 170

8.7.2. Definition 170

8.7.3. Classification 170

8.7.4. Descriptive criteria 172

8.8. Excrements 172

 8.8.1. Introduction 172

8.8.2. Descriptive criteria for excrements of the mesofauna 173

8.8.2.1. Shape 173

8.8.2.2. Aging 174

8.8.2.3. Other criteria 175

 8.8.3. Descriptive criteria for excrements of larger animals 177

8.9. Compound Pedofeatures 178

8.10. Complex Pedofeatures 179

 8.11. Fragmented, Dissolved and Deformed Pedofeatures 181

9. Thin section description 185

9.1. Introduction 185

9.2. Observation 186

9.3. Artifacts 187

9.4. Description 187

 9.4.1. How to Start? 187

 9.4.2. Possible Description Schemes 191

 9.4.3 Examples 192

9.5. Presentation of data 193

10. References 197

Appendix 1: Materials, light, and the petrographic microscope

Appendix 2: Multilingual Translation of Micromorphological Terminology used in this Book

Index

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
Georges Stoops Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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