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2D Monoelements. Properties and Applications. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5179022
  • Book
  • February 2021
  • 352 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

2D Monoelements: Properties and Applications explores the challenges, research progress and future developments of the basic idea of two-dimensional monoelements, classifications, and application in field-effect transistors for sensing and biosensing.

The thematic topics include investigations such as:

  • Recent advances in phosphorene
  • The diverse properties of two-dimensional antimonene, of graphene and its derivatives
  • The molecular docking simulation study used to analyze the binding mechanisms of graphene oxide as a cancer drug carrier
  • Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-derived carbon (graphene and carbon nanotubes) and MOF-carbon composite materials, with a special emphasis on the use of these nanostructures for energy storage devices (supercapacitors)
  • Two-dimensional monoelements classification like graphene application in field-effect transistors for sensing and biosensing
  • Graphene-based ternary materials as a supercapacitor electrode
  • Rise of silicene and its applications in gas sensing
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

Preface xiii

1 Phosphorene: A 2D New Derivative of Black Phosphorous 1
Lalla Btissam Drissi, Siham Sadki and El Hassan Saidi

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Pristine 2D BP 3

1.2.1 Synthesis and Characterization 3

1.2.1.1 Top-Down Approaches 3

1.2.1.2 Bottom-Up Methods 4

1.2.1.3 Geometric Structure and Raman Spectroscopy 4

1.2.2 Physical Properties 5

1.2.2.1 Anisotropic Eectronic Behavior 5

1.2.2.2 Optical Properties 6

1.2.2.3 Elastic Parameters 8

1.2.3 Applications 9

1.2.3.1 Gas Sensors 9

1.2.3.2 Battery Applications 9

1.2.3.3 FETs 10

1.3 Phosphorene Oxides 10

1.3.1 Challenges: Degradation of Phosphorene 11

1.3.1.1 Light Exposure 11

1.3.1.2 Phosphorene vs Air 12

1.3.1.3 Functionalized Phosphorene 12

1.3.2 Half-Oxided Phosphorene 13

1.3.2.1 Electronic Structure 14

1.3.2.2 Optical Response 15

1.3.2.3 Strain Effect 16

1.3.3 Surface Oxidation on Phosphorene 18

1.3.3.1 Optoelectronic Features 18

1.3.3.2 Stress vs Strain 20

1.3.3.3 Thermal Conductivity 21

1.4 Conclusion 22

Acknowledgment 22

References 22

2 Antimonene: A Potential 2D Material 27
Shuai Liu, Tianle Zhang and Shengxue Yang

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Fundamental Characteristics 29

2.2.1 Structure 29

2.2.2 Electronic Band Structure 30

2.3 Experimental Preparation 30

2.3.1 Mechanical Exfoliation 30

2.3.2 Liquid Phase Exfoliation 32

2.3.3 Epitaxial Growth 35

2.3.4 Other Methods 40

2.4 Applications of Antimonene 40

2.4.1 Nonlinear Optics 40

2.4.2 Optoelectronic Device 42

2.4.3 Electrocatalysis 44

2.4.4 Energy Storage 45

2.4.5 Biomedicine 47

2.4.6 Magneto-Optic Storage 50

2.5 Conclusion and Outlook 50

References 52

3 Synthesis and Properties of Graphene-Based Materials 57
U. Naresh, N. Suresh Kumar, D. Baba Basha, Prasun Benerjee, K. Chandra Babu Naidu, R. Jeevan Kumar, Ramyakrishna Pothu and Rajender Boddula

3.1 Introduction 58

3.2 Applications 60

3.3 Structure 62

3.3.1 Graphene-Related Materials 63

3.3.2 Synthesis Techniques 64

3.3.3 Mechanical Exfoliation of Graphene Layers 64

3.3.4 Chemical Vapor Deposition of Graphene Layers 65

3.3.5 Hummer Method of Graphene 65

3.3.6 Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Graphene Layers 65

3.4 Physical Properties 66

3.4.1 Thermal Stability 66

3.4.2 Electronic Properties 67

3.5 Conclusions 68

References 69

4 Theoretical Study on Graphene Oxide as a Cancer Drug Carrier 73
Satya Narayan Sahu, Saraswati Soren, Shanta Chakrabarty and Rojalin Sahu

4.1 Introduction 74

4.2 Molecular Interaction of Biomolecules and Graphene Oxide 76

4.2.1 Molecular Interaction of DNA with Graphene Oxide 76

4.2.2 Molecular Interaction of Protein with Graphene Oxide 77

4.3 Computational Method 78

4.4 Results and Discussion 79

4.4.1 Binding Behavior Between Graphene Oxide With Cancer Drugs (5-Flourouracil, Ibuprofen, Camptothecine, and Doxorubicin) 79

4.5 Conclusion 83

References 83

5 High-Quality Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Produced from MOFs and Their Supercapacitor Application 87
Mandira Majumder, Ram B. Choudhary, Anukul K. Thakur, Rabah Boukherroub and Sabine Szunerits

5.1 Introduction 88

5.1.1 The Basics of Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) 91

5.2 Carbonization of MOFs 92

5.2.1 Conversion of MOFs Into Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) 93

5.2.2 MOFs Derived Graphene Like Carbon and Graphene-Based Composites 94

5.2.3 MOFs Precursors for the Preparation of Porous Carbon Nanostructures Other Than Graphene and CNTs 95

5.3 Effect of MOF Pyrolysis Temperature on Porosity and Pore Size Distribution 96

5.4 MOF Derived Carbon as Supercapacitor Electrodes 98

5.5 Conclusions and Perspectives 107

Acknowledgement 108

References 109

6 Application of Two-Dimensional Monoelements–Based Material in Field-Effect Transistor for Sensing and Biosensing 119
Tejaswini Sahoo, Jnana Ranjan Sahu, Jagannath Panda, Neeraj Kumari and Rojalin Sahu

6.1 Introduction 120

6.1.1 Classification of 2D Monoelement (Xenes) in the Periodic Table 121

6.1.2 Group III 121

6.1.2.1 Borophene 123

6.1.2.2 Gallenene 123

6.1.3 Group IV 126

6.1.3.1 Silicene 126

6.1.3.2 Germanene 126

6.1.3.3 Stanene 126

6.1.4 Group V 126

6.1.4.1 Phosphorene 126

6.1.4.2 Arsenene 127

6.1.4.3 Antimonene 127

6.1.4.4 Bismuthene 127

6.1.5 Group VI 127

6.1.5.1 Selenene 127

6.1.5.2 Tellurene 128

6.2 Field-Effect Transistor 128

6.2.1 Different Types of Recently Developed Field-Effect Transistors 129

6.2.1.1 Field-Effect Transistors Based on Silicon 129

6.2.1.2 Field-Effect Transistors Based on Carbon Nanotube 129

6.2.1.3 Organic Field-Effect Transistors 130

6.2.1.4 Field-Effect Transistors Based on Graphene 130

6.3 Application of 2D Monoelements in Field-Effect Transistor for Sensing and Biosensing 130

6.3.1 Biosensor 130

6.3.1.1 DNA Sensors 133

6.3.1.2 Protein Sensors 133

6.3.1.3 Glucose Sensor 134

6.3.1.4 Living Cell and Bacteria Sensors 134

6.3.2 Sensor 135

6.3.2.1 Gas Sensor 135

6.3.2.2 pH Sensor 136

6.3.2.3 Metal Ion and Other Chemical Sensors 137

6.4 Conclusions and Perspectives 138

References 139

7 Supercapacitor Electrodes Utilizing Graphene-Based Ternary Composite Materials 149
B. Saravanakumar, K. K. Purushothaman, S.Vadivel, A. Sakthivel, N. Karthikeyan and P. A. Periasamy

7.1 Introduction 150

7.2 Charge Storage Mechanism of a Supercapacitor Device 151

7.2.1 Design of a Supercapacitor Electrode 154

7.3 Graphene and its Functionalized Forms 154

7.3.1 Graphene 154

7.3.2 Graphene Oxide 155

7.3.3 Reduced Graphene Oxide 155

7.4 Varieties of Graphene-Based Ternary Composite 155

7.4.1 Graphene-Conducting Polymer-Metal Oxide 156

7.4.1.1 Graphene-PEDOT-Metal Oxide 156

7.4.1.2 Graphene-PANI-Metal Oxide 157

7.4.1.3 Graphene-PPy-Metal Oxide 159

7.4.2 Graphene/Other Carbon/Conducting Polymer 159

7.4.3 Graphene/Other Carbon Material/Metal Oxide 160

7.4.4 Other Graphene-Based Ternary Materials 161

7.5 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 162

References 162

8 Graphene: An Insight Into Electrochemical Sensing Technology 169
Anantharaman Shivakumar and Honnur Krishna

8.1 Introduction 170

8.2 Electronic Band Structure of Graphene 172

8.3 Electrochemical Influence of the Graphene Due to Doping Effect 174

8.4 Exfoliation of Graphite: Chemistry Behind Scientific Approach 176

8.5 Electrochemical Reduction of Oxidized Graphene 184

8.6 Spectroscopic Study of Graphene 187

8.7 Biotechnical Functionalization of Graphene 188

8.8 Graphene Technology in Sensors 190

8.8.1 Glucose Sensors 190

8.8.2 DNA and Aptamer Sensors 192

8.8.3 Pollutant Sensors 197

8.8.4 Gas Sensors 200

8.8.5 Pharmaceutical Sensors and Antioxidant Sensors 201

8.9 Conclusion 208

Acknowledgements 210

References 210

9 Germanene 235
Mohd Imran Ahamed and Naushad Anwar

9.1 Introduction 236

9.2 Structural Arrangements 239

9.2.1 Elemental Structures 239

9.2.2 Decorated Structures 240

9.2.3 Composite Structures 243

9.3 Fundamental Properties of Germanene 243

9.3.1 Quantum Spin Hall (QSH) Effect 243

9.3.2 Mechanical Properties 245

9.3.3 Thermal Properties 246

9.3.4 Optical Properties 246

9.4 Applications of Germanene 248

9.4.1 Strain-Induced Self-Doping in Germanene 248

9.4.2 In Battery Applications 249

9.4.3 In Electronic Devices 250

9.4.4 Catalysis 250

9.4.5 Optoelectronic and Luminescence Applications 254

9.5 Conclusions 255

References 255

10 2D Graphene Nanostructures for Biomedical Applications 261
Kiran Rana, Rinky Ghosh and Neha Kanwar Rawat

10.1 Introduction 261

10.1.1 Synthesis Routes of Graphene 263

10.1.2 Graphene and its Derivatives 263

10.2 Applications of Graphene in Biomedicine 265

10.2.1 Tissue Engineering 265

10.2.1.1 Cartilage Tissue Engineering 266

10.2.2 Bone Tissue Engineering 269

10.2.2.1 Methods of Fracture Repair 269

10.2.2.2 Graphene Used in Bone Tissue Engineering 269

10.2.3 Gene Delivery 271

10.2.4 Cancer Therapy 272

10.2.5 Genotoxicity 273

10.2.6 2D Application of Graphene in Biosensing 274

10.2.7 Prosthetic Implants 275

10.3 Conclusion 277

References 278

11 Graphene and Graphene-Integrated Materials for Energy Device Applications 285
Santhosh, G. and Bhatt, Aarti S.

11.1 Introduction 285

11.1.1 Anode Materials for Electrodes 288

11.1.2 Cathode Materials for Electrodes 289

11.2 Graphene-Integrated Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries (LIBs) 290

11.2.1 The Working of LIBs 291

11.2.2 Graphene-Integrated Cathodes 293

11.2.2.1 Graphene/LiFePO4 as Cathode 293

11.2.2.2 Graphene/LiMn2O4 as Cathode 294

11.2.2.3 Graphene-Layered Cathode Material 295

11.2.3 Graphene-Integrated Anodes 296

11.2.3.1 Graphene/Li4Ti5O12 as Anode 297

11.2.3.2 Graphene/Si or Ge as Anode 298

11.2.3.3 Graphene/Metal Oxides as Anodes 299

11.2.3.4 Graphene/Sulfides as Anodes 302

11.3 Graphene-Integrated Nanocomposites for Supercapacitors (SCs) 303

11.3.1 Working Mechanism of Supercapacitors 304

11.3.1.1 Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC) 304

11.3.1.2 Pseudo-Capacitors 304

11.3.1.3 Hybrid Supercapacitors 304

11.3.2 Graphene-Integrated Supercapacitors (GSCs) 305

11.3.2.1 Graphene/Organic Material Nanocomposites 306

11.3.2.2 Graphene/Conducting Polymer Nanocomposites 307

11.3.2.3 Graphene/Metal Oxide Nanocomposites 310

11.4 Conclusion 314

References 316

Index 329

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
Rajender Boddula National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST, Beijing).

Mohd Imran Ahamed Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

Abdullah M. Asiri King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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