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Carbon Dioxide Emission Management in Power Generation. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5185417
  • Book
  • April 2020
  • 344 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Provides an engaging and clearly structured source of information on the capture and storage of CO2

Designed to bridge the gap between the many disciplines involved in carbon dioxide emission management, this book provides a comprehensive yet easy-to-understand introduction to the subject of CO2 capture. Fit for graduate students, practicing process engineers, and others interested in the subject, it offers a clear understanding and overview of thermal power plants in particular and of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) in general.

Carbon Dioxide Emission Management in Power Generation starts with a discussion of the greenhouse effect, climate change, and CO2 emissions as the rationale for the concept of CCS. It then looks at the long-term storage of CO2. A chapter covering different fossil fuels, their usage, and properties comes next, followed by sections on: CO2 generation, usage and properties; power plant technologies; theory of gas separation; power plant efficiency calculations; and classification of CO2 capture methods. Other chapters examine: CO2 capture by gas absorption and other gas separation methods; removing carbon from the fuel; pre- and post-combustion CO2 capture in power cycles; and oxy-combustion CO2 capture in power cycles.

-Discusses both CO2 capture technologies as well as power generation technologies
-Bridges the gap between many different disciplines?from scientists, geologists and engineers, to economists
-One of the few books that covers all the different sciences involved in the capture and storage of CO2
-Introduces the topic and provides useful information to the academic as well as professional reader

Carbon Dioxide Emission Management in Power Generation is an excellent book for students who are interested in CO2 capture and storage, as well as for chemists in industry, environmental chemists, chemical engineers, geochemists, and geologists.
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Acknowledgements xiii

Nomenclature xv

Organisation and Use of Book xxiii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Greenhouse Effect 1

1.2 Atmospheric CO2 3

1.3 Natural Accumulations and Emissions of CO2 4

1.4 Man-made Emissions of CO2 7

1.5 Climate Change 9

1.6 Fossil Fuel Resources 9

1.7 Definition and Rationale of CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) 10

1.8 Magnitude of CCS 12

1.9 Public Acceptance of CCS 13

1.10 Show-stoppers for CCS Deployment? 15

1.11 History of CCS 16

2 Long-Term Storage of CO2 19

2.1 Storage Time and Volume 19

2.2 Underground Storage 20

2.2.1 Aquifer 20

2.2.2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) with CO2 22

2.2.3 Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) 28

2.2.4 Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery (ECBM) 29

2.3 Ocean Storage 29

2.4 Mineral Carbonation 30

2.5 Industrial Use – Products 31

2.6 Requirements for CO2 Purity and Transportation 32

2.7 CO2 Compression and Conditioning 35

2.8 Transportation Hazards of CO2 38

2.9 Monitoring of CO2 Storage 39

3 Fuels 41

3.1 Coal 41

3.2 Liquid Fuels 46

3.2.1 Diesel 46

3.2.2 Methanol 48

3.2.3 Ethanol 48

3.2.4 Kerosene 49

3.2.5 Ammonia 49

3.3 Gaseous Fuels 49

3.4 Fuel Usage 51

4 CO2 Generation, Usage, and Properties 53

4.1 Short on CO2 53

4.2 CO2 Chemistry and Energy Conversion 53

4.3 Combustion 57

4.4 Analogy Between CO2 Capture and Desulfurisation 58

4.5 Industrial Processes 60

4.5.1 Ammonia Production 60

4.5.2 Cement Production 60

4.5.3 Aluminium Production 61

4.6 How Do We Use CO2? 61

4.6.1 Chemicals and Petroleum 62

4.6.2 Metals 62

4.6.3 Manufacturing and Construction 62

4.6.4 Food and Beverages 62

4.6.5 Greenhouses 63

4.6.6 Health Care 63

4.6.7 Environmental 63

4.6.8 Electronics 63

4.6.9 Refrigerant 64

4.6.10 CO2 Laser 64

4.6.11 Miscellaneous 64

4.7 CO2 and Humans 65

4.8 Properties of CO2 67

4.8.1 Density and Compressibility 69

4.8.2 Specific Heat Capacity 70

4.8.3 Ratio of Specific Heats 71

4.8.4 Thermal Conductivity 72

4.8.5 Viscosity 73

4.8.6 Solubility in Water 74

5 Power Plant Technologies 77

5.1 Coal-Fired Power Plants 77

5.1.1 Steam Cycle in a Coal Power Plant 77

5.1.2 Pulverised Coal Combustion (PCC) 80

5.1.3 Circulating Fluidised Bed Combustion (CFBC) 82

5.1.4 Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion (PFBC) 84

5.1.5 Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) 86

5.1.5.1 Process Design 86

5.1.5.2 IGCC Availability 87

5.1.5.3 IGCC Efficiency 88

5.2 Gas Turbine Power Plants 88

5.2.1 Gas Turbines 88

5.2.2 Classification of Gas Turbines 93

5.2.3 Gas Turbines and Fuel Quality 94

5.2.4 Gas Turbine Performance Model 95

5.2.4.1 Compressor 97

5.2.4.2 Air Filter 97

5.2.4.3 Turbine 98

5.2.5 Part-load Performance of a Gas Turbine in a Combined Cycle 98

5.2.6 Diluted Hydrogen as Gas Turbine Fuel 99

5.3 Combined Cycles 105

5.3.1 Combined Gas Turbine and Steam Turbine Cycles 105

5.3.2 Cycle Configurations 106

5.4 Heat Recovery Steam Generators 109

5.4.1 Introduction 109

5.4.2 Properties of Water/Steam 110

5.4.3 Dew Point of Flue Gas – Possible Corrosion 110

5.4.4 TQ Diagram for Steam Generation 111

5.5 Steam Cycle Cooling Systems 113

5.5.1 Direct Water Cooling of the Condenser (A) 113

5.5.2 Water Cooling with Wet Cooling Tower (B) 115

5.5.3 Air-Cooled Condenser (C) 116

5.5.4 Water-cooling with Dry Cooling Tower (D) 116

5.6 Internal Combustion Engines 118

5.7 Flue Gas Cleaning Technologies in Power Plants 118

5.7.1 Particle Removal from Flue Gas 119

5.7.2 Flue Gas Desulfurisation (FGD) 119

5.7.2.1 Wet Scrubbers 120

5.7.2.2 Spray Dry Scrubbers 120

5.7.2.3 Sorbent Injection Processes 121

5.7.2.4 Dry Scrubbers 121

5.7.2.5 Seawater Scrubbing 121

5.7.3 NOx Reduction 121

5.7.3.1 Dry Low NOx Burners 122

5.7.3.2 Fuel Staging 122

5.7.3.3 Reburning 122

5.7.3.4 Flue Gas Recirculation 122

5.7.3.5 Water and Steam Injection 122

5.7.3.6 Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) 123

5.7.3.7 Selective Non-catalytic Reduction (SNCR) 123

5.7.3.8 Mercury Control 124

6 Theory of Gas Separation 125

6.1 Gas Separation in CO2 Capture 125

6.2 Theory of Compression and Expansion 126

6.2.1 Closed Systems 126

6.2.2 Open Flow Systems 127

6.2.3 Isothermal Compression 130

6.2.4 Compression and Expansion with Irreversibilities 130

6.3 Theory of Separation 131

6.4 Minimum Work Requirement for Separation – Examples 135

7 Power Plant Efficiency Calculations 141

7.1 General Definition of Efficiency 141

7.2 Definition of the Term ‘Efficiency’ 142

7.3 Fuel Energy 142

7.4 Efficiency Calculations 146

7.5 Heat Rate Versus Efficiency 148

7.6 Additional Consumption of Fuel for CO2 Capture 149

7.7 Relating Work Requirement for CO2 Capture and Efficiency 150

7.8 Terms Related to CO2 Accounting 153

8 Classification of CO2 Capture Methods 159

8.1 Following the CO2 Path 159

8.2 Principles for Combining Power Plants and CO2 Capture 162

8.2.1 Post-combustion CO2 Capture 163

8.2.2 Pre-combustion CO2 Capture 163

8.2.3 Oxy-combustion CO2 Capture 163

8.3 Dilution of CO2 163

9 CO2 Capture by Gas Absorption 167

9.1 Theory of Absorption 167

9.2 Absorption Process 170

9.3 Solvents for Absorption 173

9.3.1 Chemical – Organic 174

9.3.2 Chemical – Inorganic 178

9.3.3 Physical Solvents 181

9.3.4 Ionic Liquids 183

9.4 Solvent Contaminants 185

9.5 Solvent Loading 187

9.6 Energy Use in Absorption Processes 187

10 CO2 Capture by Other Gas Separation Methods 189

10.1 Membranes 189

10.1.1 General Information About Membranes 189

10.1.2 Inorganic Membranes for H2, O2, and CO2 Separation 191

10.1.2.1 Dense Pd-Based Membranes for Hydrogen Separation 192

10.1.2.2 Dense Electrolytes and Mixed Conducting Membranes 192

10.1.2.3 Microporous Membranes for Hydrogen or CO2 Separation 195

10.1.3 Polymeric Membranes for CO2 Separation 196

10.1.3.1 Dense Polymeric Membranes 196

10.1.3.2 Polymeric Membranes with Fixed-site-carrier (FSC) 197

10.1.3.3 Polymeric Membranes Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM) 197

10.1.4 Membrane Absorber 197

10.1.5 Flux Through Membranes 199

10.1.6 Challenges Facing Membrane Technology 200

10.2 Adsorption 201

10.2.1 General About Adsorption 201

10.2.2 Adsorbent Material 202

10.2.3 Adsorption–Desorption 205

10.3 Calcium Looping 206

10.4 Anti-sublimation 207

10.5 Distillation 208

10.6 CO2 Hydrate Formation 209

10.7 Electrochemical Separation Processes 209

11 Removing Carbon from the Fuel – Pre-combustion CO2 Capture 211

11.1 Principle 211

11.2 Hydrogenator and Desulfuriser 212

11.3 Pre-reforming 212

11.4 Reformers 214

11.4.1 Steam Reforming (SR) 215

11.4.2 Partial Oxidation Reforming (POX) 215

11.4.3 Autothermal Reforming (ATR) 216

11.4.4 Combined Reforming 217

11.5 Gasification Theory and Principles 218

11.6 Gasifiers 221

11.6.1 Sasol–Lurgi Dry-ash Gasifier 223

11.6.2 BGL Gasifier 223

11.6.3 High-temperature Winkler (HTW) 225

11.6.4 General Electric Gasifier 226

11.6.5 Shell Gasifier 226

11.6.6 ConocoPhillips E-Gas Gasifier 227

11.6.7 Siemens SFG Gasifier 227

11.6.8 Selection of Gasifiers 227

11.7 Syngas Quenching 229

11.8 Syngas Coolers 230

11.9 COS Hydrolysis 230

11.10 Water - Gas Shift (WGS) 231

11.11 Integrated Pre-combustion Approaches 233

11.11.1 Membrane-Enhanced Water–gas Shift 233

11.11.2 Sorption-Enhanced Water-gas Shift 234

11.11.3 Membrane-Enhanced Reforming 235

11.11.4 Sorption-Enhanced Reforming 238

12 Pre-combustion CO2 Capture in Power Cycles 239

12.1 Classification 239

12.2 IGCC with CO2 Capture 239

12.2.1 Process Design 239

12.2.2 IGCC with CO2 Capture – Efficiency 242

12.3 IRCC – Integrated Reforming Combined Cycle 243

13 Post-combustion CO2 Capture in Power Cycles 247

13.1 Classification 247

13.2 Power Plant with Absorption of CO2 from the Flue Gas 249

13.3 Post-combustion Efficiency Penalty – Absorption 251

13.4 Steam Turbine Steam Extraction 251

13.5 Flue Gas Pressure Drop 253

13.6 Post-combustion CO2 Capture at Atmospheric Pressure with Flue Gas Recirculation (FGR) 255

13.7 Post-combustion CO2 Capture at Elevated Pressure 256

13.7.1 High-Pressure CO2 Absorption Cycle 256

13.7.2 Sargas Cycle 258

13.7.3 Combicap Cycle 259

14 Oxy-combustion CO2 Capture in Power Cycles 261

14.1 Classification 261

14.2 Air Separation for Production of Oxygen 264

14.2.1 Methods and Applications 264

14.2.2 Air Separation by Cryogenic Distillation 266

14.2.3 Mixed Conducting Membrane 271

14.2.4 Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) 272

14.3 Oxy-combustion with Coal 274

14.3.1 Pulverised Coal Oxy-combustion 274

14.3.2 Circulating Fluidised Bed Oxy-combustion 276

14.4 Oxy-combustion with Natural Gas 277

14.4.1 Water Cycle 277

14.4.2 S-Graz Cycle 278

14.4.3 MATIANT Cycle 279

14.4.4 Allam Cycle 279

14.4.5 SCOC-CC 279

14.4.6 AZEP – Advanced Zero Emission Power Plant 280

14.4.7 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) with CO2 Capture 280

14.4.8 Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) with Natural Gas 284

References 285

Glossary 307

Index 311

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Prof. Olav Bolland Norwegian University of Science & Technology.

Prof. Lars O. Nord
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