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Caves. Processes, Development, and Management. Edition No. 2

  • ID: 5185426
  • Book
  • April 2021
  • 400 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
People have been interested in caves for a very long time. Our distant ancestors used them for shelter, as sources of water, and as places in which to conduct essential rituals. They adorned their walls with quite sophisticated artwork depicting both their existential and spiritual concerns. Caves feature in our mythology, they are used as places of worship in many cultures, and they are used throughout the world as places in which to store prized foodstuffs and wine. For at least two hundred years they have attracted scientists, artists, photographers, and recreational cavers. This book aims examines how caves form, the light they shed on past environments and climates, and the values, both environmental and cultural, that they provide to humanity.   This second edition of Caves: Processes, Development, and Management is a welcome revision of the author’s earlier treatment released over twenty years ago. It has been updated, significantly expanded, and largely rewritten. The intervening years have seen a dramatic increase in karst and cave research globally, with significant advances in our understanding of fundamental processes, in our ability to extract proxy climatic and environmental data from cave deposits, and in our understanding of the breadth of cave values and as a result the complexity of their management needs. This new edition adopts a broad international perspective in the research examples used and the cited literature, and has actively sought out material from the tropical world and the southern continents, thus avoiding the European and North American bias frequently found in speleological publications.  Caves: Processes, Development, and Management, Second Edition, is organised into four sections. In the first section, contemporary processes of cave formation are examined. The second section of the book deals with past processes and their physical manifestation. In the third section, the use of caves by various organisms from bacteria to humans is explored. The final section of the book reviews our changing approaches to cave management and to catchment management on karst terrains. The book will be of use to anyone who is interested in caves and karst, or who wants to understand about cave formation, development, values and management.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

Preface and Acknowledgements

Figure Permissions

Plate Permissions

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Some Basic Propositions

1.2 Now the Details...

Chapter 2: Caves and Karst

2.1 What is a Cave?

2.2 What is Karst?

2.3 Caves as Systems

2.4 Caves as Geomorphic Systems

2.5 Caves as Biological Systems

2.6 Where are the Deepest and Longest Caves?

Chapter 3: Cave Hydrology

3.1 Basic Concepts in Karst Drainage Systems

3.2 Porosity and Permeability

3.2.1 Diffuse flow

3.2.2 Fissure flow

3.2.3 Conduit flow

3.2.4 Understanding the karst drainage system

3.3 Zonation of the Karst Drainage System

3.4 Defining the Catchment of a Cave

3.5 Analysis of Karst Drainage Systems

3.5.1 Water tracing techniques

3.5.2 Spring hydrograph analysis

3.5.3 Spring chemograph analysis

3.6 Structure and Function of Karst Drainage Systems

3.6.1 Storage and transfers in the karst system

3.6.2 The role of extreme events

3.7 Karst Hydrology of the Mammoth Cave Plateau, Kentucky

Chapter 4: Processes of Rock Dissolution

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Karst Rocks

4.2.1 Limestone

4.2.2 Dolomite

4.2.3 Evaporite rocks – Gypsum and Halite

4.2.4 Sandstone

4.2.5 Granite

4.3 Processes of Dissolution of Karst Rocks

4.3.1 The solution of limestone in meteoric waters

4.3.2 Soil and vegetation in the limestone solution process

4.3.3 The zoning of solution in the unsaturated zone

4.3.4 Limestone solution in seawater

4.4 Hydrothermal Solution of Limestone

4.5 Solution of Evaporites

4.6 Solution of Silicates in Meteoric Waters

4.7 Caves in Quaternary Limestone in Southern Australia

Chapter 5: Speleogenesis

5.1 Classifying Cave Systems

5.2 Controls of Rock Structure on Cave Development

5.2.1 Role of lithology

5.2.2 Role of joints, fractures, and faults

5.2.3  Cave breakdown and evaporite weathering

5.3 Meteoric Speleogenesis, Unconfined and Confined

5.3.1 Formation of caves in plan

5.3.2 Formation of caves in length and depth

5.3.3 The formation of maze caves

5.4 Tectonic and Eustatic Controls on Cave Development

5.5 Deep Shafts of the World

5.6 Hypogene Speleogenesis

5.6.1 Solutional mesoforms as indicators of hypogene origin

5.6.2 Condensation and corrosion in passage enlargement

5.7 Flank Margin Speleogenesis

5.8 Caves Formed in Gypsum

5.9 Lava Tubes, Weathering Caves, and Pseudokarst

5.9.1 The formation of lava tubes

5.9.2 Weathering caves and pseudokarst

5.10 Life History and Antiquity of Caves

5.11 Geological Control and the World's Longest Cave

Chapter 6: Cave Interior Deposits

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Carbonates

6.3 Controls over Carbonate Mineralogy

6.4 Other Cave Deposits Formed by Carbonate Minerals

6.5 Growth Rates of Speleothems

6.6 Important Non-Carbonate Minerals

6.7 Evaporites (Sulphates and Halides)

6.8 Phosphates and Nitrates

6.9 Oxides, Silicates, and Hydroxides

6.10 Ice in Caves

6.11 Other Minerals

6.12 Cave Deposits of the Nullarbor Plain, Australia

Chapter 7: Cave Sediments

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Clastic Sediment Types

7.3 Processes of Sedimentation

7.3.1 Gravity-fall processes

7.3.2 Waterlain clastic sediments

7.3.3 Cave and rockshelter entrance deposits

7.4 Sediment Transport and Particle Size

7.5 Diagenesis of Cave Sediments

7.6 Stratigraphy and its Interpretation

7.7 Provenance Studies

7.8 Cave Sediments and Environmental History at Zhoukoudian, China

Chapter 8: Dating Cave Deposits

8.1 The Importance of Dating Cave Deposits

8.2 Dating Techniques and the Quaternary Timescale

8.3 Palaeomagnetism

8.4 Uranium Series; Uranium-Thorium, Uranium-Lead

8.5 Radiocarbon

8.6 Other Dating Methods: Cosmogenic Radionuclides, and Tephrochronology

8.7 Timing Glacial and Interglacial Events in New Zealand

Chapter 9: Cave Deposits and Past Climates

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Oxygen Isotope Analysis

9.3 The Last Glacial-Interglacial Temperature Record

9.4 Carbon Isotopes and Environmental Changes

9.5 Cyclone History in the Indo-Pacific Region

9.6 Other Proxy Records (Trace Elements, Annual Laminae, Pollen, Lipid Biomarkers)

9.7 The Long Environmental History of the Nullarbor Plain, Australia

9.8 Some Speculations on the Future

Chapter 10: Cave Ecology

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Classification of Cave Life and its Function

10.3 Adaptations and Modifications to Life in Darkness

10.4 Life Zones within Caves

10.5 The Cave as a Habitat

10.6 Energy Flows in Cave Ecosystems

10.7 Cave Microbiology

10.8 Origin and Dispersal of Cave-Dwelling Animals

10.9 Threats to Cave Fauna

10.10 Conservation of Biological Diversity in Caves

10.11 Caves and Ecosystem Services

10.12 White Nose Syndrome

10.13 Unravelling the Secrets of the Carrai Bat Cave

Chapter 11: Cave Archaeology

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Prehistoric uses of caves

11.3 Cave faunas and hominids

11.4 Cave art in context

11.5 Depositional environments in caves

11.6 Cave deposits and biological conservation

11.7 Taphonomy of cave deposits

11.8 Archaeology of Liang Bua Cave, Flores (the Hobbit Cave)

Chapter 12: Historic Uses of Caves

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Caves as Shelter

12.3 Caves as Sacred Spaces

12.4 Caves as Sources of Raw Materials

12.5 Cave Tourism

12.6 Cave Dwellings in Turkey

Chapter 13: Cave Management

13.1 Introduction - Caves as Contested Spaces

13.2 Interpretation and Guide Training

13.3 Cave Lighting

13.4 Some Engineering Issues in Caves

13.5 Impacts of Visitors and Infrastructure on Show Caves

13.6 Radon Risk in Caves

13.7 Cave Cleaning and its Impacts

13.8 Impacts of Recreational Caving on Caves

13.9 Cave Rescue

13.10 Cave Inventories and Alternative Management Concepts

13.11 Rehabilitation and Restoration of Caves

13.12 Cave Classification and Management

13.13 Policy Approaches to Cave and Karst Protection

13.14 Management of the Gunung Mulu World Heritage Area, Sarawak, Malaysia

Chapter 14: Catchment Management in Karst

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Basic Concepts in Karst Management

14.3 Defining Karst Catchments

14.4 Vegetation and Caves

14.5 Accelerated Soil Loss in Karst

14.6 Agricultural Impacts

14.6.1 Rocky desertification

14.6.2 Infilling of dolines

14.6.3 Altered drainage

14.6.4 Groundwater lowering

14.6.5 Fertiliser and herbicides

14.6.6 Pesticides

14.6.7 Microbial contamination of groundwater

14.6.8 Golf courses on karst

14.7 Fire Management in Karst

14.8 Conservation Issues in Karst

14.9 Assessing Vulnerability in Karst Management

14.9.1 Karst Disturbance Index

14.9.2 Karst Groundwater Vulnerability

14.10 Data Availability

14.10.1 Understanding disputes over cave and karst resources

14.11 The IUCN Guidelines for Cave and Karst Protection

Chapter 15: Documentation of Caves

15.1 Cave Use Classification

15.2 Geoheritage Assessment

15.3 Cave Mapping

15.4 Cave Photography

15.5 3D Scanning of Caves

15.5.1 Processing

15.5.2 Use in scientific studies

15.5.3 Drones

15.6 Mapping World Heritage Caves in Gunung Mulu National Park, Malaysia

Further Reading

Electronic Media Sources

Glossary

Index

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
David Gillieson University of New South Wales.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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