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Green Energy. Solar Energy, Photovoltaics, and Smart Cities. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5185709
  • Book
  • April 2021
  • 640 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Like most industries around the world, the energy industry has also made, and continues to make, a long march toward “green” energy.  The science has come a long way since the 1970s, and renewable energy and other green technologies are becoming more and more common, replacing fossil fuels.  It is, however, still a struggle, both in terms of energy sources keeping up with demand, and the development of useful technologies in this area.

To maintain the supply for electrical energy, researchers, engineers and other professionals in industry are continuously exploring new eco-friendly energy technologies and power electronics, such as solar, wind, tidal, wave, bioenergy, and fuel cells. These technologies have changed the concepts of thermal, hydro and nuclear energy resources by the adaption of power electronics advancement and revolutionary development in lower manufacturing cost for semiconductors with long time reliability. The latest developments in renewable resources have proved their potential to boost the economy of any country.

Green energy technology has not only proved the concept of clean energy but also reduces the dependencies on fossil fuel for electricity generation through smart power electronics integration. Also, endless resources have more potential to cope with the requirements of smart building and smart city concepts.  A valuable reference for engineers, scientists, chemists, and students, this volume is applicable to many different fields, across many different industries, at all levels.  It is a must-have for any library.

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Preface xix

1 Fabrication and Manufacturing Process of Solar Cell: Part I 1
S. Dwivedi

1.1 Introduction 2

1.1.1 Introduction to Si-Based Fabrication Technology 2

1.1.2 Introduction to Si Wafer 4

1.1.3 Introduction to Diode Physics 5

1.1.3.1 Equilibrium Fermi Energy (EF) 10

1.2 Fabrication Technology of Diode 19

1.3 Energy Production by Equivalent Cell Circuitry 27

1.4 Conclusion 30

References 31

2 Fabrication and Manufacturing Process of Solar Cell: Part II 39
Prabhansu and Nayan Kumar

2.1 Introduction 39

2.2 Silicon Solar Cell Technologies 41

2.2.1 Crystalline Structured Silicon (c-Si) 41

2.2.2 Silicon-Based Thin-Film PV Cell 43

2.3 Homojunction Silicon Solar Cells 44

2.3.1 Classic Structure and Manufacture Process 44

2.3.2 Plans for High Productivity 45

2.4 Solar Si-Heterojunction Cell 46

2.5 Si Thin-Film PV Cells 48

2.5.1 PV Cell Development Based on p-I-n and n-I-p 49

2.5.2 Light-Based Trapping Methodologies 49

2.5.3 Approach to Tandem 51

2.5.4 Current Trends 51

2.6 Perovskite Solar Cells 52

2.6.1 Introduction 52

2.6.2 Specific Properties with Perovskites-Based Metaldhalide for Photovoltaics 53

2.6.3 Crystallization of Perovskite 55

2.6.4 Current Trends 56

2.7 Future Possibility and Difficulties 56

2.8 Conclusions 57

References 58

3 Fabrication and Manufacturing Process of Perovskite Solar Cell 67
Nandhakumar Eswaramoorthy and Kamatchi R

3.1 Introduction 67

3.2 Architectures of Perovskite Solar Cells 68

3.3 Working Principle of Perovskite Solar Cell 70

3.4 Components of Perovskite Solar Cell 73

3.4.1 Transparent Conducting Metal Oxide (TCO) Layer 73

3.4.2 Electron Transport Layer (ETL) 74

3.4.3 Perovskite Layer 74

3.4.4 Hole Transport Layer (HTL) 75

3.4.5 Electrodes 75

3.5 Fabrication of Perovskite Films 76

3.5.1 One-Step Method 77

3.5.2 Two-Step Method 77

3.5.3 Solid-State Method 78

3.5.4 Bifacial Stamping Method 78

3.5.5 Solvent-Solvent Extraction Method 78

3.5.6 Pulse Laser Deposition Method 78

3.5.7 Vapor Deposition Method 79

3.5.8 Solvent Engineering 79

3.5.9 Additive Engineering 79

3.6 Manufacturing Techniques of Perovskite Solar Cells 79

3.6.1 Solution-Based Manufacturing Technique 80

3.6.1.1 Spin Coating 80

3.6.1.2 Dip Coating 81

3.6.2 Roll-to-Roll (R2R) Process 82

3.6.2.1 Knife-Over-Roll Coating 82

3.6.2.2 Slot-Die Coating 83

3.6.2.3 Flexographic Printing 84

3.6.2.4 Gravure Printing 85

3.6.2.5 Screen Printing 85

3.6.2.6 Inkjet Printing 86

3.6.2.7 Spray Coating 87

3.6.2.8 Brush Painting 88

3.6.2.9 Doctor Blade Coating 88

3.7 Encapsulation 89

3.8 Conclusions 90

References 90

4 Parameter Estimation of Solar Cells: A State-of-the-Art Review with Metaheuristic Approaches and Future Recommendations 103
Shilpy Goyal, Parag Nijhawan and Souvik Ganguli

4.1 Introduction 104

4.2 Related Works 106

4.3 Problem Formulation 107

4.3.1 Single-Diode Model (SDM) 113

4.3.2 Double-Diode Model (DDM) 115

4.3.3 Three-Diode Model (TDM) 117

4.4 Salient Simulations and Discussions for Future Work 121

4.5 Conclusions 134

References 134

5 Power Electronics and Solar Panel: Solar Panel Design and Implementation 139
Nayan Kumar, Tapas Kumar Saha and Jayati Dey

5.1 Chapter Overview 139

5.2 Challenges in Solar Power 141

5.3 Solar PV Cell Design and Implementation 141

5.3.1 Solar PV Cell Basics 145

5.3.2 Single-Diode-Based PV Cells (SDPVCs) 148

5.3.3 Determination of the Parameters 151

5.3.4 Double-Diode-Based PV Cell (DDPVC) 152

5.3.5 Solar PV System Configuration 153

5.4 MPPT Scheme for PV Panels 154

5.4.1 Operation and Modeling of MPPT Schemes for Solar PV Panels 155

5.4.2 Comparisons of Existing Solar MPPT Schemes 156

5.4.2.1 Perturbation and Observation (P&O)-MPPT Algorithms 156

5.4.2.2 Incremental-Conductance MPPT Algorithm 158

5.5 Way for Utilization of PV Schemes 159

5.5.1 Stand-Alone (SA) Based PV System 159

5.5.2 Grid-Integration–Based PV System 161

5.6 Future Trends 161

5.7 Conclusion 162

References 162

6 An Effective Li-Ion Battery State of Health Estimation Based on Event-Driven Processing 167
Saeed Mian Qaisar and Maram Alguthami

6.1 Introduction 168

6.2 Background and Literature Review 169

6.2.1 Rechargeable Batteries 169

6.2.2 Applications of Li-Ion Batteries 171

6.2.3 Battery Management Systems 171

6.2.4 State of Health Estimation Methods 173

6.2.4.1 Direct Assessment Approaches 173

6.2.4.2 Adaptive Model–Based Approaches 173

6.2.4.3 Data-Driven Approaches 174

6.3 The Proposed Approach 175

6.3.1 The Li-Ion Battery Model 175

6.3.2 The Event-Driven Sensing 176

6.3.3 The Event-Driven State of Health Estimation 177

6.3.3.1 The Conventional Coulomb Counting Based SoH Estimation 178

6.3.3.2 The Event-Driven Coulomb Counting Based SoH Estimation 178

6.3.4 The Evaluation Measures 179

6.3.4.1 The Compression Ratio 179

6.3.4.2 The Computational Complexity 179

6.3.4.3 The SoH Estimation Error 181

6.4 Experimental Results and Discussion 181

6.4.1 Experimental Results 181

6.4.2 Discussion 185

6.5 Conclusion 187

Acknowledgement 187

References 188

7 Effective Power Quality Disturbances Identification Based on Event-Driven Processing and Machine Learning 191
Saeed Mian Qaisar and Raheef Aljefri

7.1 Introduction 192

7.2 Background and Literature Review 194

7.2.1 Types of PQ Disturbances 195

7.2.1.1 Transient 196

7.2.1.2 Voltage Fluctuation 196

7.2.1.3 Long Duration Voltage Interruption 196

7.2.1.4 Noise 196

7.2.1.5 Flicker 196

7.2.1.6 Waveform Distortion 196

7.2.2 Reasons for Generation of the PQ Disturbances 196

7.2.3 PQ Disturbances Monitoring Techniques 197

7.2.4 Facilities Effected by Power Quality Disturbances 198

7.2.5 Power Quality (PQ) Disturbances Model 198

7.2.6 Extraction of Features 199

7.2.7 Classification Techniques 200

7.3 Proposed Solution 201

7.3.1 Power Quality (PQ) Disturbances Model 201

7.3.1.1 The Pure Signal 202

7.3.1.2 The Sag 203

7.3.1.3 The Interruption 203

7.3.1.4 The Swell 203

7.3.2 The Signal Reconstruction 204

7.3.3 The Event-Driven Sensing 206

7.3.4 The Event-Driven Segmentation 207

7.3.5 Extraction of Features 207

7.3.6 Classification Techniques 208

7.3.6.1 k-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) 208

7.3.6.2 Naïve Bayes 209

7.3.7 Evaluation Measures 209

7.4 Results 210

7.5 Discussion 213

7.6 Conclusion 215

Acknowledgement 215

References 215

8 Sr2SnO4 Ruddlesden Popper Oxide: Future Material for Renewable Energy Applications 221
Upendra Kumar and Shail Upadhya

8.1 Introduction 222

8.1.1 Needs of Renewable Energy 222

8.1.2 Ruddlesden Popper Oxide Phase 224

8.1.3 Application of Ruddlesden Popper Phase 227

8.1.4 Motivation of Present Work 229

8.2 Experimental Work 230

8.2.1 Preparation of Materials 230

8.2.2 Characterizations of Materials 231

8.3 Experimental Results 231

8.3.1 Thermogravimetric and Differential Scanning Calorimetry Analysis 231

8.3.2 Characterization of Sr2-xBaxSnO4 232

8.3.2.1 Phase Determination using XRD 232

8.3.2.2 Optical Properties 234

8.3.2.3 Dielectric Analysis of Samples 236

8.3.3 Characterization of Sr2-xLaxSnO4 239

8.3.3.1 Structural Analysis using XRD 239

8.3.3.2 UV-Vis. Spectroscopy 242

8.3.3.3 Electrical Analysis 244

8.4 Conclusions 245

Acknowledgement 246

References 246

9 A Universal Approach to Solar Photovoltaic Panel Modeling 251
Chitra A., M. Manimozhi, Sanjeevikumar P, Nirupama Nambiar and Saransh Chhawchharia

9.1 Introduction 251

9.2 PV Panel Modeling: A Brief Overview 252

9.3 Proposed Model 254

9.4 Current Model 259

9.5 Voltage Model 260

9.6 Simulation Results 260

9.7 Conclusion 265

Acknowledgement 265

References 266

10 Stepped DC Link Converters for Solar Power Applications 271
Dr. R. Uthirasamy, Dr. V. Kumar Chinnaiyan, Dr. J. Karpagam and Dr. V. J.Vijayalakshmi

10.1 Introduction 272

10.1.1 Photovoltaic Cell 272

10.1.2 Photovoltaic Module 272

10.1.3 Photovoltaic Array 273

10.1.4 Working of Solar Cell 273

10.1.5 Modeling of Solar Cell 273

10.1.6 Effect of Irradiance 277

10.1.7 Effect of Temperature 279

10.1.8 Maximum Efficiency 280

10.1.9 Fill Factor 280

10.1.10 Modeling of Solar Panel 281

10.1.11 Simulation Model of PV Interfaced Boost Chopper Unit 282

10.2 Power Converters for Solar Power Applications 283

10.2.1 Introduction 283

10.2.2 DC-DC Converters 284

10.2.2.1 Boost Converter 285

10.2.2.2 Buck-Boost Converter 286

10.2.3 DC-AC Converters 288

10.2.3.1 Structure of Boost Cascaded Multilevel Inverter 288

10.2.3.2 Analysis of DC Sources in BCMLI System 298

10.2.4 Structure of Single-Phase Seven-Level BCDCLHBI 298

10.2.4.1 Operation of Boost Cascaded DC Link Configuration 300

10.2.4.2 Operation of H-Bridge Inverter Configuration 309

10.2.4.3 Calculation of Losses in BCDCLHBI 310

10.2.5 Realization of Boost Cascaded Dc Link H-Bridge Inverter 312

10.2.5.1 Peripheral Interface Controller 312

10.2.5.2 Features of PIC16F877A Microcontroller 312

10.2.5.3 Equivalent Circuit of Boost Cascaded DC Link H-Bridge Inverter 313

10.2.5.4 Design of Boost Chopper Parameters 314

10.2.6 Conclusion 315

References 315

11 A Harris Hawks Optimization (HHO)–Based Parameter Assessment for Modified Two-Diode Model of Solar Cells 319
Shilpy Goyal, Parag Nijhawan and Souvik Ganguli

11.1 Introduction 320

11.2 Problem Formulation 322

11.3 Proposed Methodology of Work 325

11.3.1 Exploration Phase 326

11.3.2 Switching from Exploration to Exploitation 327

11.3.3 Exploitation Phase 327

11.4 Simulation Results 327

11.5 Conclusions 340

References 341

12 A Large-Gain Continuous Input-Current DC-DC Converter Applicable for Solar Energy Systems 345
Tohid Taghiloo, Kazem Varesi and Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban

12.1 Introduction 345

12.2 Proposed Configuration 348

12.3 Steady-State Analysis 351

12.4 Component Design 354

12.5 Real Gain Relation 355

12.6 Comparative Analysis 356

12.7 Simulation Outcomes 360

12.8 Conclusions 364

References 364

13 Stability Issues in Microgrids: A Review 369
Sonam Khurana and Sheela Tiwari

13.1 Introduction 370

13.2 Stability Issues 373

13.2.1 Control System Stability 375

13.2.2 Power Supply and Balance Stability 376

13.3 Analysis Techniques 378

13.3.1 Large-Perturbation Stability 379

13.3.2 Small-Perturbation Stability 381

13.4 Microgrid Control System 382

13.4.1 Control Methods for AC Microgrids 384

13.4.1.1 Primary Control 384

13.4.1.2 Secondary Control 389

13.4.1.3 Tertiary Control 391

13.4.2 Control Methods for DC Microgrid 392

13.4.2.1 Primary Control 392

13.4.2.2 Secondary Control 394

13.4.2.3 Tertiary Control 396

13.5 Conclusion 396

References 396

14 Theoretical Analysis of Torque Ripple Reduction in the SPMSM Drives Using PWM Control-Based Variable Switching Frequency 411
Mohamed G. Hussien and Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban

14.1 Introduction 411

14.2 Prediction of Current and Torque Ripples 413

14.2.1 Current Ripple Prediction 413

14.2.2 Torque Ripple Prediction 416

14.3 Variable Switching Frequency PWM (VSFPWM) Method for Torque Ripple Control 418

14.4 Conclusion 422

References 422

Appendix: Simulation Model Circuits 424

Main Model 424

Speed & Current Loop Controllers 425

VSFPWM for Torque Ripple Control 426

15 Energy-Efficient System for Smart Cities 427
Dushyant Kumar Singh, Ashish Kumar Singh and Himani Jerath

15.1 Introduction 428

15.2 Factors Promoting Energy-Efficient System 429

15.2.1 Smart and Clean Energy 429

15.2.2 Smart Grid 430

15.2.3 Smart Infrastructure 431

15.2.4 Smart Home 431

15.2.4.1 Home Automation 432

15.2.5 Smart Surveillance 437

15.2.6 Smart Roads and Traffic Management 438

15.2.7 Smart Agriculture and Water Distribution 439

References 440

16 Assessment of Economic and Environmental Impacts of Energy Conservation Strategies in a University Campus 441
Sunday O. Oyedepo, Emmanuel G. Anifowose, Elizabeth O. Obembe, Joseph O. Dirisu, Shoaib Khanmohamadi, Kilanko O., Babalola P.O., Ohunakin O.S., Leramo R.O. and Olawole O.C.

16.1 Introduction 442

16.2 Materials and Methods 444

16.2.1 Study Location 445

16.2.2 Instrumentation 446

16.2.2.1 Building Energy Simulation Tool – eQUEST Software 446

16.2.3 Procedure for Data Collection and Analysis 446

16.2.4 Analysis of Electrical Energy Consumption 447

16.2.5 Economic Analysis 448

16.2.6 Environmental Impacts Analysis 449

16.3 Electricity Consumption Pattern in Covenant University 449

16.3.1 Result of Electricity Demand in Covenant University for Various End Uses 450

16.3.1.1 Results of Energy Audit in Cafeterias 1 & 2 450

16.3.1.2 Results of Energy Audit in Academic Buildings (Mechanical Engineering Building) 453

16.3.1.3 Results of Energy Audit in University Library 455

16.3.1.4 Results of Energy Audit in Health Center 457

16.3.1.5 Results of Energy Audit in the Student Halls of Residence (Daniel Hall) 459

16.3.2 Comparison of Energy Use Among the University Buildings 461

16.3.3 Results of Greenhouse Gas Emissions 462

16.3.4 Qualitative Recommendation Analysis 463

16.3.4.1 Replacement of Lighting Fixtures with LED Bulbs 463

16.3.4.2 Installation of Solar Panels on the Roofs of Selected Buildings 464

16.4 Conclusion 465

References 466

17 A Solar Energy–Based Multi-Level Inverter Structure with Enhanced Output-Voltage Quality and Increased Levels per Components 469
Fatemeh Esmaeili, Kazem Varesi and Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban

17.1 Introduction 470

17.2 Proposed Basic Topology 471

17.2.1 Topology of Basic Unit 471

17.2.2 Operation of Basic Configuration 472

17.2.3 Switching of Basic Unit for Different Magnitudes of Input Sources 473

17.2.3.1 Symmetric Value of Input DC Supplies (P1) 473

17.2.3.2 DC Sources with Binary Order Magnitudes (P2 ) 475

17.2.3.3 DC Sources with Trinary Manner Magnitudes (P3) 476

17.3 Proposed Extended Structure 478

17.3.1 Structure 478

17.3.2 Determination of Values of DC Supplies 478

17.3.3 Blocking Voltage (BV) on Switches 479

17.4 Efficiency and Losses Analysis in Suggested Structure 480

17.4.1 Conduction Power Loss 480

17.4.2 Switching Power Loss 481

17.5 Comparison Results 483

17.6 Nearest Level Technique 485

17.7 Simulation Results 485

17.8 Conclusions 490

References 490

18 Operations of Doubly Fed Induction Generators Applied in Green Energy Systems 495
Bhagwan Shree Ram and Suman Lata Tripathi

18.1 Introduction 496

18.2 Doubly Fed Induction Generators (DFIG) Systems Operated by Wind Turbines 496

18.3 Control Scheme of Direct Current Controller 497

18.4 Simulation Studies of Direct Current Control of DFIG System 498

18.5 Characteristics of DFIG at Transient and After Transient Situation 499

18.6 Pulsation of DFIG Parameters with DCC Control Technique 501

18.7 Effects of 5th and 7th Harmonics of IS and VGRID 502

18.8 Load Contribution of DFIG in Grid with DCC Control Technique 503

18.9 Speed Control Scheme of Generators 505

18.10 DFIG Control Scheme 506

18.11 General Description About PI Controller Design 507

18.12 GSC Controller 508

18.13 Characteristics of DFIG with Wind Speed Variations 509

18.14 Conclusion 511

References 512

19 A Developed Large Boosting Factor DC-DC Converter Feasible for Photovoltaic Applications 515
Hussein Mostafapour, Kazem Varesi and Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban

19.1 Introduction 515

19.2 Suggested Topology 518

19.2.1 Configuration 518

19.2.2 Operating Modes during CCM 520

19.2.3 Operating Modes during DCM 521

19.3 Steady State Analyses 524

19.3.1 Gain Calculation 524

19.3.2 Average Currents and Current Ripple of Inductors 527

19.3.3 Stress on Semiconductors 528

19.3.4 Efficiency 529

19.4 Design Consideration 531

19.4.1 Design Consideration of Capacitors 531

19.4.2 Design Consideration of Inductors 531

19.5 Comparison 532

19.6 Simulation 539

19.7 Conclusion 544

References 545

20 Photovoltaic-Based Switched-Capacitor Multi-Level Inverters with Self-Voltage Balancing and Step-Up Capabilities 549
Saeid Deliri Khatoonabad, Kazem Varesi and Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban

20.1 Introduction 550

20.2 Suggested First (13-Level) Basic Configuration 551

20.3 Suggested Second Basic Configuration 556

20.4 Modulation Method 561

20.5 Design Consideration of Capacitors 562

20.6 Efficiency and Losses Analysis 563

20.7 Simulation Results 567

20.7.1 First Structure 567

20.7.2 Second Structure 571

20.8 Comparative Analysis 575

20.9 Conclusions 578

References 579

Index 583

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Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban
Suman Lata Tripathi
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