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Biorefinery Production Technologies for Chemicals and Energy. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5185817
  • Book
  • November 2020
  • 416 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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The world has shifted towards sustainable development for the generation of energy and industrially valuable chemicals. Biorefinery plays an important role in the integration of conversion process with high-end equipment facilities for the generation of energy, fuels and chemicals.

The first part of the book presents the fundamentals of the biorefinery concept.  The second part describes the biorefinery approach for production of several industrially important chemicals from waste biomass and agro residues. These chemicals include industrially important C4. C5 and C6 chemicals, propylene glycol, glycerol byproducts, dyes and inks etc. Each and every chemical has its own industrial value and the book describes the production processes and strategies at the industrial level. The final part of the book describes the various biorefinery approaches and economic analysis for the different types of biofuel production.

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Preface xv

Part 1: Biorefinery Basic Principles 1

1 Principles of Sustainable Biorefinery 3
Samakshi Verma and Arindam Kuila

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Biorefinery 5

1.3 Conversion Technologies of Biorefineries 6

1.4 Some Outlooks Toward Biorefinery Technologies 7

1.5 Principles of Sustainable Biorefineries 9

1.6 Advantages of Biorefineries 10

1.7 Classification of Biorefineries 10

1.8 Conclusion 12

References 12

2 Sustainable Biorefinery Concept for Industrial Bioprocessing 15
Mohd Asyraf Kassim, Tan Kean Meng, Noor Aziah Serri, Siti Baidurah Yusoff, Nur Artikah Muhammad Shahrin, Khok Yong Seng, Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar and Lee Chee Keong

2.1 Sustainable Industrial Bioprocess 15

2.2 Biorefinery 16

2.2.1 Starch Biorefinery 18

2.2.2 Lignocellulosic Biorefinery 19

2.3 Microalgal Biorefinery 22

2.3.1 Upstream Processing 23

2.3.2 Downstream Processing 24

2.3.2.1 Lipid-Extracted Microalgae 24

2.4 Value Added Products 27

2.4.1 Biofuel 27

2.4.1.1 Bioethanol 30

2.4.1.2 Biobutanol 31

2.4.1.3 Biodiesel 34

2.4.1.4 Short Alkane 36

2.4.2 Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) 36

2.4.3 Bioactive Compounds From Food Waste Residues 39

2.5 Novel Immobilize Carrier From Biowaste 42

2.5.1 Waste Cassava Tuber Fiber 42

2.5.2 Corn Silk 43

2.5.3 Sweet Sorghum Bagasse 43

2.5.4 Coconut Shell Activated Carbon 44

2.5.5 Sugar Beet Pulp 44

2.5.6 Eggshells 45

2.6 Conclusion 45

References 46

3 Biomass Resources for Biorefinery Application 55
Varsha Upadhayay, Ritika Joshi and Arindam Kuila

3.1 Introduction 55

3.2 Concept of Biorefinery 56

3.3 Biomass Feedstocks 57

3.3.1 Types of Biomass Feedstocks 57

3.3.1.1 Biomass of Sugar Industry 57

3.3.1.2 Biomass Waste 58

3.3.1.3 Sugar and Starch Biomass 59

3.3.1.4 Algal Biomass 59

3.3.1.5 Lignocelluloses Feedstock 59

3.3.1.6 Oil Crops for Biodiesel 60

3.4 Processes 60

3.4.1 Thermo Chemical Processes 62

3.4.2 Biochemical Processes 63

3.4.3 Biobased Products and the Biorefinery Concept 64

3.5 Conclusions 64

References 65

4 Evaluation of the Refinery Efficiency and Indicators for Sustainability and Economic Performance 67
Rituparna Saha and Mainak Mukhopadhyay

4.1 Introduction 67

4.2 Biofuels and Biorefineries: Sustainability Development and Economic Performance 69

4.3 Future Developments Required for Building a Sustainable Biorefinery System 72

4.4 Conclusion 72

References 73

5 Biorefinery: A Future Key of Potential Energy 77
Anirudha Paul, Sampad Ghosh, Saptarshi Konar and Anirban Ray

5.1 Introduction 77

5.2 Biorefinery: Definitions and Descriptions 78

5.3 Modus Operandi of Different Biorefineries 79

5.3.1 Thermochemical Processing 79

5.3.2 Mechanical Processing 79

5.3.3 Biochemical Processing 79

5.3.4 Chemical Processing 79

5.4 Types of Biorefineries 80

5.4.1 Lignocellulose Feedstock Biorefinery 80

5.4.2 Syngas Platform Biorefinery 81

5.4.3 Marine Biorefinery 81

5.4.4 Oleochemical Biorefinery 81

5.4.5 Green Biorefinery 81

5.4.6 Whole Crop Biorefinery 82

5.5 Some Biorefinery Industries 82

5.5.1 European Biorefinery Companies 82

5.5.2 Biorefinery Companies in USA 82

5.5.3 Biorefinery Companies in Asia 83

5.6 Conclusion and Future of Biorefinery 83

References 84

Part 2: Biorefinery for Production of Chemicals 89

6 Biorefinery for Innovative Production of Bioactive Compounds from Vegetable Biomass 91
Massimo Lucarini, Alessandra Durazzo, Ginevra Lombardi-Boccia, Annalisa Romani, Gianni Sagratini, Noemi Bevilacqua, Francesca Ieri, Pamela Vignolini, Margherita Campo and Francesca Cecchini

6.1 Introduction 91

6.2 Waste From Grape and During Vinification: Bioactive Compounds and Innovative Production 92

6.2.1 Grape 92

6.2.2 Polyphenols 92

6.2.3 Antioxidant Activity and Health Properties of Grape 94

6.2.4 Winemaking Technologies 96

6.2.5 Winemaking By-Products 96

6.2.6 Extraction Technologies 97

6.3 Waste from Olive and During Oil Production: Bioactive Compounds and Innovative Process 99

6.3.1 Olive Oil Quality, its Components, and Beneficial Properties 100

6.3.2 Olive Oil By-Products 108

6.3.3 Olive Oil, Tradition, Biodiversity, Territory, and Sustainability 113

6.4 Bioactive Compounds in Legume Residues 115

6.4.1 Polyphenols 116

6.4.2 Phytosterols and Squalene 116

6.4.3 Dietary Fiber and Resistant Starch 117

6.4.4 Soyasaponins 117

6.4.5 Bioactive Peptides 118

References 120

7 Prospects of Bacterial Tannase Catalyzed Biotransformation of Agro and Industrial Tannin Waste to High Value Gallic Acid 129
Sunny Dhiman and Gunjan Mukherjee

7.1 Introduction 129

7.2 Bacterial Tannase Producers 131

7.3 Bacterial Tannase Production 131

7.4 Hydrolyzable Tannins: A Substrate for Gallic Acid Production 133

7.5 Tannins as Waste 133

7.5.1 Agro-Waste 133

7.5.2 Industrial Waste 134

7.6 Bacterial Biotransformation of Tannins 134

7.7 Applications of Gallic Acid 136

7.7.1 Therapeutic Applications 136

7.7.2 Industrial Applications 137

7.8 Conclusions 138

References 138

8 Biorefinery Approach for Production of Industrially Important C4, C5, and C6 Chemicals 145
Shritoma Sengupta and Aparna Sen

8.1 Introduction 145

8.2 Role of Biorefinery in Industrially Important Chemical Production 147

8.3 Production of C4 Chemicals 149

8.4 Production of C5 Chemicals 152

8.5 Production of C6 Chemicals 155

8.6 Concluding Remarks 157

References 158

9 Value-Added Products from Guava Waste by Biorefinery Approach 163
Pranav D. Pathak, Sachin A. Mandavgane and Bhaskar D. Kulkarni

9.1 Introduction 163

9.2 Physicochemical Characterization 164

9.3 Valorization of GW 165

9.3.1 Medicinal Uses 165

9.3.1.1 GL, GB, and GF in Medicines 166

9.3.1.2 GP in Medicines 169

9.3.2 Extraction of Chemicals 171

9.3.2.1 Extraction from GL 171

9.3.2.2 Extraction from GP 176

9.3.2.3 Extraction from GS 176

9.3.3 Food Supplements 177

9.3.4 Extraction of Pectin 178

9.3.5 Animal Feed 178

9.3.6 As Insecticide 179

9.3.7 Synthesis of Nanomaterials 180

9.3.8 In Fermentations 180

9.3.9 As a Water Treatment Agent 181

9.3.10 Production of Enzymes 181

9.4 Sustainability of Value-Added Products From GW 181

9.5 Conclusion 189

References 189

10 Case-Studies Towards Sustainable Production of Value-Added Compounds in Agro-Industrial Wastes 197
Massimo Lucarini, Alessandra Durazzo, Ginevra Lombardi-Boccia, Annalisa Romani, Gianni Sagratini, Noemi Bevilacqua, Francesca Ieri, Pamela Vignolini, Margherita Campo and Francesca Cecchini

10.1 Introduction 197

10.2 Experimental Pilot Plant 199

10.2.1 Chestnut 199

10.2.2 Soy 204

10.2.3 Olive Oil By-Products Case Studies 213

10.2.3.1 Olive Oil Wastewater 213

10.2.3.2 Olea europaea L. leaves 214

References 216

11 Biorefining of Lignocellulosics for Production of Industrial Excipients of Varied Functionalities 221
UpadrastaLakshmishri Roy, DebabrataBera, Sreemoyee Chakraborty and Ronit Saha

11.1 Introduction 221

11.2 Structure and Composition 222

11.3 Lignocellulosic Residues: A Bioreserve for Fermentable Sugars and Polyphenols 222

11.3.1 Biorefining of Lignocellulosic Residues 223

11.4 Pre-Treatment of Lignocellulosics 224

11.4.1 Physico-Chemical Process 224

11.4.1.1 Acid Refining 224

11.4.1.2 Alcohol Refining 225

11.4.1.3 Alkali Refining 225

11.4.2 Thermo-Physical Process 226

11.4.2.1 Steam Explosion Process 226

11.4.2.2 Supercritical and Subcritical Water Treatment 226

11.4.2.3 Hot-Compressed Water Treatment 227

11.4.3 Biological Process 227

11.4.3.1 Lignin Degrading Enzymes 227

11.4.3.2 Cellulose Degrading Enzymes 229

11.4.3.3 Hemicellulose Degrading Enzymes 229

11.4.4 Phenols as By-Products of Lignocellulosic Pre-Treatment Process 230

11.5 Methods of Extraction of Polyphenols From Lignocellulosic Biomass 231

11.5.1 Solvent Affiliated Extraction 231

11.5.2 Enzyme Affiliated Extraction 231

11.5.3 Advanced Technological Methods Adopted for Recovery of Phenolics: (Pulsed-Electric-Field Pre-Treatment) 232

11.5.4 Catalytic Microwave Pyrolysis 233

11.5.5 Multifaceted Applications of Phenolics 233

11.6 Conclusion 235

References 235

12 Bioactive Compounds Production from Vegetable Biomass: A Biorefinery Approach 241
Shritoma Sengupta, Debalina Bhattacharya and Mainak Mukhopadhyay

12.1 Introduction 241

12.2 Production of Bioactive Compounds 243

12.3 Bioactive Compounds From Vegetable Biomass 246

12.4 Role of Biorefinery in Production of Bioactive Compounds 248

12.5 Concluding Remarks 252

References 253

Part 3: Biorefinery for Production of Alternative Fuel and Energy 259

13 Potential Raw Materials and Production Technologies for Biorefineries 261
Shilpi Bansal, Lokesh Kumar Narnoliya and Ankit Sonthalia

13.1 Introduction 261

13.2 Bioresources 264

13.2.1 First-Generation Feedstock 264

13.2.2 Second-Generation Feedstock 264

13.2.3 Third-Generation Feedstock 270

13.3 Chemicals Produced from Biomass 270

13.3.1 Ethylene 270

13.3.2 Propylene 273

13.3.3 Propylene Glycol 273

13.3.4 Butadiene 274

13.3.5 2,3-Butanediol and 2-Butanone Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) 274

13.3.6 Acrylic Acid 274

13.3.7 Aromatic Compounds 275

13.4 Production Technologies 275

13.4.1 Pre-Treatment 275

13.4.2 Hydrolysis 276

13.4.3 Fermentation 277

13.4.4 Pyrolysis 278

13.4.5 Gasification 278

13.4.6 Supercritical Water 279

13.4.7 Algae Biomass 280

13.5 Conclusion 280

References 281

14 Sustainable Production of Biofuels Through Synthetic Biology Approach 289
Dulam Sandhya, Phanikanth Jogam, Lokesh Kumar Narnoliya, Archana Srivastava and Jyoti Singh Jadaun

14.1 Introduction 289

14.2 Types of Biofuel 291

14.2.1 First-Generation Biofuels (Conventional Biofuels) 291

14.2.1.1 Biogas 291

14.2.1.2 Biodiesel and Bioethanol 291

14.2.2 Second-Generation Biofuels 292

14.2.2.1 Cellulosic Ethanol 293

14.2.2.2 Biomethanol 293

14.2.2.3 Dimethylformamide 293

14.2.3 Third-Generation Biofuels 293

14.2.4 Fourth-Generation Biofuels 293

14.2.5 Advantages of Biofuels 294

14.2.6 Disadvantages of Biofuels 294

14.3 Sources of Biofuel 294

14.3.1 Bacterial Source 294

14.3.2 Algal Source 296

14.3.3 Fungal Source 296

14.3.4 Plant Source 297

14.3.4.1 Plant Materials Utilized for the Production of Biofuels 298

14.3.5 Animal Source 299

14.4 Possible Routes of Biofuel Production Through Synthetic Biology 299

14.4.1 Metabolic Engineering 299

14.4.2 Tissue Culture/Genetic Engineering 300

14.4.3 CRISPR-Cas 300

14.5 Synthetic Biology and Its Application for Biofuels Production 301

14.5.1 Case Study 1: Production of Isobutanol by Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae 301

14.5.2 Case Study 2: Generation of Biofuel From Ionic Liquid Pretreated Plant Biomass Using Engineered E. coli 302

14.5.3 Case Study 3: CRISPRi-Mediated Metabolic Pathway Modulation for Isopentenol Production in E. coli 302

14.6 Current Status of Biofuel 302

14.7 Future Aspects 303

14.8 Conclusion 304

References 304

15 Biorefinery Approach for Bioethanol Production 313
Rituparna Saha, Debalina Bhattacharya and Mainak Mukhopadhyay

15.1 Introduction 313

15.2 Bioethanol 315

15.3 Classification of Biorefineries 315

15.3.1 Agricultural Biorefinery 316

15.3.2 Lignocellulosic Biorefinery 317

15.4 Types of Pre-Treatments 318

15.4.1 Physical Pre-Treatments 318

15.4.2 Chemical Pre-Treatments 319

15.4.3 Physico-Chemical Pre-Treatments 320

15.4.4 Biological Pre-Treatments 321

15.5 Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Biomass 323

15.6 Fermentation 324

15.7 Future Prospects for the Production of Bioethanol Through Biorefineries 325

15.8 Conclusion 326

References 326

16 Biorefinery Approach for Production of Biofuel From Algal Biomass 335
Bhasati Uzir and Amrita Saha

16.1 Introduction 335

16.2 Algal Biomass: The Third-Generation Biofuel 336

16.2.1 Algae as a Raw Material for Biofuels Production 338

16.2.2 Algae as Best Feedstock for Biorefinery 339

16.3 Microalgal Biomass Cultivation/Production 340

16.3.1 Open Pond Production 341

16.3.2 Closed Bioreactors/Enclosed PBRs 341

16.3.3 Hybrid Systems 341

16.4 Strain Selection and Microalgae Genetic Engineering Method Strain Selection Process for Biorefining of Microalgae 342

16.5 Harvesting Methods 343

16.6 Cellular Disruption 343

16.7 Extraction 344

16.8 Conclusion 344

References 344

17 Biogas Production and Uses 347
Anirudha Paul, Saptarshi Konar, Sampad Ghosh and Anirban Ray

17.1 Introduction 347

17.2 Potential Use of Biogas 348

17.2.1 Anarobic Digestion 348

17.2.2 Biogas from Energy Crops and Straw 349

17.2.3 Biogas from Fish Waste 349

17.2.4 Biogas from Food Waste 349

17.2.5 Biogas from Sewage Sludge 350

17.2.6 Biogas from Algae 350

17.2.7 Some Biogas Biorefinery 350

17.3 Pre-Treatment 350

17.3.1 Physical Pre-Treatment 350

17.3.2 Physiochemical Pre-Treatment 351

17.3.3 Chemical Pre-Treatment 351

17.3.4 Biological Pre-Treatment 351

17.4 Process and Technology 351

17.5 Biogas Purification and Upgradation 352

17.5.1 Removal of CO2 352

17.5.2 Removal of H2S 353

17.5.3 Removal of Water 353

17.6 Conclusion 353

References 353

18 Use of Different Enzymes in Biorefinery Systems 357
A.N. Anoopkumar, Sharrel Rebello, Embalil Mathachan Aneesh, Raveendran Sindhu, Parameswaran Binod, Ashok Pandey and Edgard Gnansounou

18.1 Introduction 357

18.2 Perspectives of the Biorefinery Concept 360

18.3 Starch Degradation 361

18.4 Biodegradation and Modification of Lignocellulose and Hemicellulose 361

18.5 Conversion of Pectins 363

18.6 Microbial Fermentation and Biofuel and Biodiesel Aimed Biorefinery 363

18.7 Conclusion 365

Acknowledgement 365

References 365

Part 4: Conclusion 369

19 Wheat Straw Valorization: Material Balance and Biorefinery Approach 371
Sachin A. Mandavgane and Bhaskar D. Kulkarni

19.1 Introduction 371

19.2 Wax Extraction Process 372

19.3 Combustion Process 373

19.4 Mass Balance for Combustion 375

19.5 Pyrolysis of Wheat Straw 376

19.6 Mass Balance of Pyrolysis 377

19.7 Separation of Valuable Chemicals From Bio-Oil 377

19.8 Production of Biodeisel From Wheat Straw 378

19.9 Conclusion 380

Acknowledgment 381

References 381

Index 383

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Mainak Mukhopadhyay
Arindam Kuila
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