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Monitoring for Health Hazards at Work. Edition No. 5

  • ID: 5185836
  • Book
  • April 2021
  • 344 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

Monitoring for Health Hazards at Work remains the seminal textbook on measuring and controlling the risk of workplace exposure to physical, chemical, and biological hazards. Designed for students studying occupational hygiene and exposure science, this comprehensive and accessible volume provides step-by-step guidance on identifying hazards and quantifying their risks in various workplace environments. Complete with checklists and practical examples, the authors present clear explanations of all types of hazards that can arise in the workplace, including dust, particles, fibrous aerosols, gases, vapours, and bioaerosols. 

The fifth edition features revised material throughout, and remains an essential resource for students and professionals in occupational hygiene, reflecting global standards and recent developments in monitoring equipment, modelling methods, exposure assessment, and legislation on workplace safety.  

  • Several new or substantially revised chapters cover topics such as human biomonitoring, exposure modelling, hazardous substances, physical agents, evaluating ventilation, PPE, and other control measures 
  • Updated sections discuss the equipment currently available, the importance of risk communication, assessing dermal and inadvertent ingestion exposures, and more 
  • Examines common workplace comfort issues such as noise, vibration, heat and cold, and lighting 
  • Offers practical advice on conducting and presenting risk assessments and reports 
  • Discusses the future of the development and application of hazard measurement equipment and methods  

Monitoring for Health Hazards at Work, is required reading for students and professionals in occupational hygiene, environmental health and safety, occupational health and safety, and exposure science. 

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

List of Figures



Units and Abbreviations

Part 1    Introduction

Chapter 1             Occupational Hygiene and Risk Assessment

1.1          Introduction

1.2          Hazard and risk

1.3          Risk assessment

1.4          The stages of a risk assessment

1.4.1      Identify the hazard

1.4.2      Decide who might be affected and how

1.4.3      Evaluate the risks

1.4.4      Take preventative and protective measures

1.4.5      Record the significant findings

1.4.6      Review the assessment regularly and revise it if necessary

1.5          Who should carry out risk assessment?

1.6          References and further reading

Chapter 2             Identifying Hazards

2.1          Introduction

2.2          Identifying hazards

2.3          Example of hazard identification

2.4          Conclusions arising from a hazard assessment

2.5          References and further reading

Chapter 3             Exposure, Exposure Routes and Exposure Pathways

3.1          Introduction

3.2          Exposure routes

3.3          Exposure pathways

3.4          Measuring exposure

3.5          Biological monitoring

3.6          Exposure assessment: what the legislation requires

3.7          Conclusions

3.8          References and further reading

Chapter 4             The Exposure Context

4.1          Context for measurement

4.2          Sources of hazardous substances

4.3          Dispersion through the workroom

4.4          Receptor

4.5          Jobs and tasks

4.6          Conclusion

4.7          References and further reading

Chapter 5             Modelling Exposure

5.1          Introduction

5.2          Worst case models

5.3          Control banding and COSHH Essentials

5.4          Screening tools used for regulation of chemicals in Europe

5.5          The Advanced REACH Tool

5.6          Conclusions and prospects

5.7          References and further reading

Chapter 6             Why Measure?

                6.1          Introduction

6.2          Reasons for undertaking monitoring

6.2.1      To support a risk assessment

6.2.2      To assess compliance with an OEL

6.2.3      To make a comparison with existing data

6.2.4      To provide baseline information on the exposure distributions within a plant

6.2.5      Supporting information for registration submissions under the REACH Regulations

6.2.6      Containment capability studies

6.2.7      To underpin a research study

6.3          References and further reading

Chapter 7             How to carry out a survey

                7.1          Introduction

7.2          Planning the survey

7.3          Workplace monitoring

7.4          Monitoring strategies

7.5          Quality assurance and quality control

7.6          References and further reading

Chapter 8             Analysis of Measurement Results

8.1          Introduction

8.2          Dealing with variability in measurement results

8.3          Summary statistics and data presentation

8.4          Testing compliance

8.5          Other software tools to aid data analysis

8.6          References and further reading

Chapter 9             Introduction to Control

9.1          Introduction

9.2          Specific control measures

9.2.1      Elimination

9.2.2      Substitution

9.2.3      Total enclosure

9.2.4      Technological solutions

9.2.5      Segregation

9.2.6      Partial enclosure

9.2.7      Local ventilation

9.2.8      General ventilation

9.2.9      Personal protective equipment

9.3          The effectiveness of control measures

9.4          References and further reading

Chapter 10          The importance of good records and how to write a survey report

10.1        Record, educate and influence

10.2        Measurement records

10.3        Survey reports

10.3.1    General principles of writing a good report

10.3.2    Report structure

10.3.3    Common pitfalls and administrative points

10.4        References and further reading

Chapter 11          Risk Assessment

11.1        Introduction

11.2        Identify all hazardous substances or agents

11.3        Identify the likely levels of exposure

11.4        Identify all persons likely to be exposed

11.5        Assess whether the exposures are likely to cause harm

11.6        Consider elimination or substitution

11.7        Define additional control measures necessary to reduce the harm to acceptable levels

11.8        References and further reading

Chapter 12          Risk Communication

12.1        Introduction

12.2        Risk perception

12.3        Trust

12.4        Principles of good Risk Communication

12.4.1    Know your constraints before you start

12.4.2    Define the role of the communicator

12.4.3    Research your audience

12.4.4.   Timing

12.5        The Presentation

12.6        Communicating risk

12.7        Quantitative risk assessment to aid risk communication

12.8        References and further reading

Part 2    Hazardous substances

Chapter 13          An introduction to hazardous substances

13.1        Introduction

13.2        The complexities of modern workplaces

13.3        The top five hazardous carcinogens

13.4        Substances of concern for the respiratory system

13.5        Pesticides, pharmaceuticals and other biologically active substances

13.6        Organic chemicals

13.7        Summary

13.8        References and further reading

Chapter 14          Dusts, Particles and Fibrous Aerosols

14.1        Introduction

14.2        Airborne particulate matter

14.3        Fibres

14.4        Measurement of airborne particulate and fibre concentrations

14.4.1    Filters

14.4.2    Filter holders and sampling heads

14.5        Measurement of flow rate

14.6        Pumps

14.7        Direct-reading aerosol monitors

14.8        Flow rate measurement using a rotameter or electronic flow calibrator by using the soap-bubble method

14.9        The measurement of inhalable airborne dust

14.9.1    Equipment required

14.9.2    Method

14.9.3    Calculations

14.9.4    Possible problems

14.10     The measurement of airborne respirable dust by using a cyclone sampler

14.10.1 Equipment required

14.10.2 Method

14.10.3 Calculations

14.10.4 Possible problems

14.11     The measurement of nanoparticles

14.12     The sampling and counting of airborne asbestos fibres

14.12.1 Equipment required for sampling

14.12.2 Method for sampling

14.12.3 Fibre counting and generating concentration data

14.12.4 Method of evaluation

14.12.5 Calculations

14.12.6 Possible problems

14.13     The choice of filter and filter holder to suit a specific dust, fume or mist

14.14     To trace the behaviour of a dust cloud by using a Tyndall beam

14.14.1 Equipment required

14.14.2 Method

14.15     References and further reading

Chapter 15          Gases and Vapours

15.1        Introduction

15.2        Collection devices

15.2.1    Adsorption methods

15.2.2    Adsorbent tubes

15.2.3    Passive samplers

15.2.4    Colorimetric detector tubes

15.3        Containers

15.4        Direct-reading instruments

15.5        To measure personal exposure to solvent vapours using an adsorbent tube

15.5.1    Equipment required

15.5.2    Method

15.5.3    Calculations

15.5.4    Example

15.6        References and further reading

Chapter 16          Bioaerosols

16.1        Introduction

16.2        Classification of microorganisms

16.3        Viruses

16.4        Bacteria

16.5        Moulds and yeasts

16.6        Allergens

16.7        Principles of containment

16.8        Monitoring bioaerosols

16.9        Measurement of endotoxins and allergens

16.10     Interpretation of sample results

16.11     References and further reading

Chapter 17          Dermal and Inadvertent Ingestion Exposure

17.1        Introduction

17.2        Occupations where dermal exposure is important

17.3        Local and systemic effects

17.4        How do we know if dermal exposure is an issue?

17.5        What do we measure?

17.6        Methods for dermal exposure measurement

17.7        Sampling strategy

17.8        Liquids and solids

17.9        Biomonitoring and modelling of dermal exposure

17.10     From exposure to uptake

17.11     Controlling dermal exposure

17.12     Inadvertent ingestion exposure

17.13     References and further reading

Chapter 18          Human Biomonitoring

18.1        Introduction

18.2        Selection of a suitable HBM method

18.3        Examples of HBM

18.4        Study protocols

18.5        Interpretation of HBM data

18.6        References and further reading

Part 3    Physical Agents

Chapter 19          An introduction to physical agents

19.1        Introduction

19.2        Physical agents in the workplace

19.3        Noise and vibration

19.4        Thermal environment

19.5        Ionising and non-ionising radiation

19.6        References and further reading

Chapter 20          Noise

20.1        Introduction

20.2        Frequency

20.3        Duration

20.4        Occupational exposure limits

20.5        Pressure and magnitude of pressure variation

20.6        Equipment available

20.7        Sound level meters and personal noise dosimeters

20.8        Personal noise dosimeters

20.9        Calibration

20.10     Collecting noise measurements

20.10.1 Using an SLM

20.10.2 Results

20.11     To measure workplace noise using a PND

20.11.1 Using a PND

20.11.2 Results

20.11.3 Possible complications

20.12     To measure the spectrum of a continuous noise by octave band analysis

20.12.1 Collecting a spectrum of a continuous noise by octave band analysis

20.12.2 Results

20.13     To determine the degree of noise exposure and the actions to take

20.14     References and further reading

Chapter 21          Vibration

21.1        Introduction

21.2        Vibration

21.3        Occupational exposure limits

21.4        Risk assessment

21.5        Measurements and measurement equipment

21.6        Hand–arm vibration measurement calculations

21.6.1    Reporting of vibration exposure data

21.7        Control of vibration

21.8        References and further reading

Chapter 22          Heat and Cold

22.1        Introduction

22.2        Heat stress

22.3        Measurement equipment

22.3.1    Dry bulb thermometers

22.3.2    Wet bulb thermometers

22.3.3    Air speed

22.3.4    Globe thermometers

22.3.5    Integrating WBGT instruments

22.4        Personal physiological monitoring

22.5        Measurement of the thermal environment

22.6        Predicted Heat Strain Index,

22.7        Risk assessment strategy

22.8        Thermal comfort

22.9        Cold environments

22.10     To calculate the wind chill factor

22.10.1 Procedure

22.11     References and further reading

Chapter 23          Lighting

23.1        Introduction

23.2        Lighting Standards

23.3        Equipment available

23.4        Calibration

23.5        To measure lighting

23.5.1    Aim

23.5.2    Equipment required

23.5.3    Method

23.5.4    Possible problems

23.5.5    Results and comparison with guidance

23.5.6    Reporting

23.6        Control

23.7        References and further reading

Chapter 24          Ionising Radiation

24.1        Introduction

24.2        Ionising radiation

24.3        Background radiation

24.4        Basic concepts and quantities

24.5        Types of radiation

24.6        Energy

24.7        Activity

24.8        Radiation dose units

24.8.1    Absorbed dose and dose equivalent

24.8.2    To calculate dose equivalent

24.8.3    Dose rate

24.9        Dose limits

24.10     Derived limits

24.11     Procedures to minimise occupational dose

24.12     Personal dosimetry and medical surveillance

24.12.1 Monitoring of ionising radiation in work areas

24.12.2 Personal monitoring for external dose

24.12.3 Film badge dosimeter

24.12.4 Thermoluminescent dosimeter

24.12.5 Direct-reading monitors

24.12.6 Air monitoring

24.13     References and further reading

Chapter 25          Non-Ionising Radiation

25.1        Introduction

25.2        Ultraviolet radiation

25.3        Visible and infrared radiation

25.4        Blue light

25.5        Microwaves, radiowaves and low frequency electric and magnetic fields

25.6        Lasers

25.7        References and further reading

Part 4    Control of hazards

Chapter 26          Assessing the effectiveness of exposure controls

26.1        Introduction

26.2        The effectiveness of control measures

26.2.1    Elimination and substitution

26.2.2    Ventilation and control measures at source

26.2.3    Personal protective equipment

26.3        Measuring exposure to assess the effectiveness of controls

26.4        References and further reading

Chapter 27          Assessing local ventilation control systems

27.1        Introduction

27.2        Air pressure

27.2.1    Static pressure

27.2.2    Velocity pressure

27.2.3    Total pressure

27.3        Measurement equipment

27.3.1    Pressure-measuring instruments

27.3.2    Air velocity measuring instruments

27.3.3    Barometric pressure instruments

27.4        Ventilation measurement records

27.5        Measurement of air flow in ducts

27.5.1    Aim

27.5.2    Equipment required

27.5.3    Method

27.5.4    Calculation

27.5.5 Example

27.5.6    Possible problems

27.6        Measurement of pressure in ventilation systems

27.6.1    Aim

27.6.2    Equipment required

27.6.3    Method

27.6.4    Results

27.6.6    Possible problems

27.7        To measure the face velocity on a booth, hood, or fume cupboard

27.7.1    Aim

27.7.2    Equipment required

27.7.3    Method

27.7.4    Results

27.7.6    Possible problems

27.8        References and further reading

Chapter 28          Personal Protective Equipment

28.1        Introduction

28.2        Components of an effective PPE programme

28.2.1    Assessment of risks and identification of where control is required

28.2.2    Implement all feasible controls

28.2.3    Identify who needs residual protection

28.2.4    Inform wearers of the consequences of exposure

28.2.5    Select PPE adequate to control residual exposure

28.2.6    Involve wearers in the PPE selection process

28.2.7    Match PPE to each individual wearer

28.2.8    Carry out objective fit-tests of RPE

28.2.9    Ensure that PPE does not exacerbate or create risks

28.2.10 Ensure PPE are mutually compatible

28.2.11 Train wearers in the correct use of their PPE

28.2.12 Supervise wearers to ensure correct use of PPE

28.2.13 Maintain PPE in efficient and hygienic condition

28.2.14 Inspect PPE to ensure it is correctly maintained

28.2.15 Provide suitable storage facilities for PPE

28.2.16 Record maintenance and inspection data

28.2.17 Monitor programme to ensure its continuing effectiveness

28.3        References and further reading

Part 5    The future

Chapter 29          Monitoring for hazards at work in the future

29.1        What the future holds for monitoring hazards at work

29.2        References and further reading

Appendix Survey checklists

Equipment Suppliers

Chemical Analytical Services


Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
John Cherrie
Sean Semple
Marie Coggins
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown