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Optical Fibre Sensors. Fundamentals for Development of Optimized Devices. Edition No. 1. IEEE Press Series on Sensors

  • ID: 5185844
  • Book
  • November 2020
  • 544 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

The most complete, one-stop reference for fiber optic sensor theory and application

Optical Fiber Sensors: Fundamentals for Development of Optimized Devices constitutes the most complete, comprehensive, and up-to-date reference on the development of optical fiber sensors. Edited by two respected experts in the field and authored by experienced engineers and scientists, the book acts as a guide and a reference for an audience ranging from graduate students to researchers and engineers in the field of fiber optic sensors.

The book discusses the fundamentals and foundations of fiber optic sensor technology and provides real-world examples to illuminate and illustrate the concepts found within. In addition to the basic concepts necessary to understand this technology, Optical Fiber Sensors includes chapters on:

  • Distributed sensing with Rayleigh, Raman and Brillouin scattering methods
  • Biomechanical sensing
  • Gas and volatile organic compound sensors
  • Application of nanotechnology to optical fiber sensors
  • Health care and clinical diagnosis
  • And others

Graduate students as well as professionals who work with optical fiber sensors will find this volume to be an indispensable resource and reference.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

List of Contributors xv

Acknowledgment xix

About the Editors xxi

1 Introduction 1
Ignacio R. Matias and Ignacio Del Villar

References 14

2 Propagation of Light Through Optical Fibre 17
Ignacio Del Villar

2.1 Geometric Optics 17

2.2 Wave Theory 22

2.2.1 Scalar Analysis 23

2.2.2 Vectorial Analysis 26

2.3 Fibre Losses and Dispersion 32

2.4 Propagation in Microstructured Optical Fibre 35

2.5 Propagation in Specialty Optical Fibres Focused on Sensing 37

2.6 Conclusion 45

References 46

3 Optical Fibre Sensor Set-Up Elements 49
Minghong Yang and Dajuan Lyu

3.1 Introduction 49

3.2 Light Sources 50

3.2.1 Light-Emitting Diodes 52

3.2.1.1 Surface Light-Emitting Diode 52

3.2.1.2 Side Light-Emitting Diode 52

3.2.2 Laser Diode 53

3.2.2.1 Single-Mode Laser Diode Structure 54

3.2.2.2 Quantum Well Laser Diode 56

3.2.3 Superluminescent Diodes (SLD) 56

3.2.4 Amplified Spontaneous Emission Sources 59

3.2.5 Narrow Line Broadband Sweep Source 62

3.2.6 Broadband Sources 62

3.3 Optical Detectors 63

3.3.1 Basic Principles of Optical Detectors 64

3.3.1.1 PN Photodetector 64

3.3.1.2 PIN Photodetector 65

3.3.1.3 Avalanche Photodiode (APD) 66

3.3.2 Main Characteristics of Optical Detectors 66

3.3.2.1 Operating Wavelength Range and Cut-Off Wavelength 66

3.3.2.2 Quantum Efficiency and Responsiveness 67

3.3.2.3 Response Time 68

3.3.2.4 Materials and Structures of Semiconductor Photodiodes 69

3.3.3 Optical Spectrometers 70

3.4 Light Coupling Technology 71

3.4.1 Coupling of Fibre and Light Source 71

3.4.1.1 Coupling of Semiconductor Lasers and Optical Fibres 71

3.4.1.2 Coupling Loss of Semiconductor Light-Emitting Diodes and Optical Fibres 72

3.4.2 Multimode Fibre Coupled Through Lens 72

3.4.3 Direct Coupling of Fibre and Fibre 73

3.5 Fibre-Optic Device 74

3.5.1 Fibre Coupler 74

3.5.2 Optical Isolator 74

3.5.3 Optical Circulator 76

3.5.4 Fibre Attenuator 76

3.5.5 Fibre Polarizer 76

3.5.6 Optical Switch 77

3.6 Optical Modulation and Interrogation of Optical Fibre-Optic Sensors 77

3.6.1 Intensity-Modulated Optical Fibre Sensing Technology 78

3.6.1.1 Reflective Intensity Modulation Sensor 78

3.6.1.2 Transmissive Intensity Modulation Sensor 80

3.6.1.3 Light Mode (Microbend) Intensity Modulation Sensor 80

3.6.1.4 Refractive Index Intensity-Modulated Fibre-Optic Sensor 80

3.6.2 Wavelength Modulation Optical Fibre Sensing Technology 81

3.6.2.1 Direct Demodulation System 81

3.6.2.2 NarrowBand Laser Scanning System 82

3.6.2.3 Broadband Source Filter Scanning System 83

3.6.2.4 Linear Sideband Filtering Method 84

3.6.2.5 Interference Demodulation System 84

3.6.3 Phase Modulation Optical Fibre Sensing Technology 86

References 87

4 Basic Detection Techniques 91
Daniele Tosi and Carlo Molardi

4.1 Introduction 91

4.2 Overview of Interrogation Methods 93

4.3 Intensity-Based Sensors 97

4.3.1 Macrobending 97

4.3.2 In-Line Fibre Coupling 99

4.3.3 Bifurcated Fibre Bundle 100

4.3.4 Smartphone Sensors 100

4.4 Polarization-Based Sensors 102

4.4.1 Pressure and Force Detection 102

4.4.2 Lossy Mode Resonance for Refractive Index Sensing 104

4.5 Fibre-Optic Interferometers 105

4.5.1 Fabry–Pérot Interferometer (FPI)-Based Fibre Sensors 106

4.5.1.1 Extrinsic FPI for Pressure Sensing 107

4.5.1.2 In-Line FPI for Temperature Sensing 108

4.5.2 Mach–Zehnder Interferometer (MZI)-Based Fibre Sensors 109

4.5.3 Single-Multi-Single Mode (SMS) Interferometer-Based Fibre Sensors 109

4.6 Grating-Based Sensors 111

4.6.1 Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) 111

4.6.2 FBG Arrays 113

4.6.3 Tilted and Chirped FBG 115

4.6.4 Long-Period Grating (LPG) 117

4.6.5 FBG Fabrication 118

4.7 Conclusions 121

References 121

5 Structural Health Monitoring Using Distributed Fibre-Optic Sensors 125
Alayn Loayssa

5.1 Introduction 125

5.2 Fundamentals of Distributed Fibre-Optic Sensors 126

5.2.1 Raman DTS 128

5.2.2 Brillouin DTSS 129

5.3 DFOS in Civil and Geotechnical Engineering 130

5.3.1 Bridges 133

5.3.2 Tunnels 134

5.3.3 Geotechnical Structures 137

5.4 DFOS in Hydraulic Structures 141

5.5 DFOS in the Electric Grid 143

5.6 Conclusions 145

References 146

6 Distributed Sensors in the Oil and Gas Industry 151
Arthur H. Hartog

6.1 The Late Life Cycle of a Hydrocarbon Molecule 153

6.1.1 Upstream 154

6.1.1.1 Exploration 154

6.1.1.2 Well Construction 155

6.1.1.3 Formation and Reservoir Evaluation 157

6.1.1.4 Production 158

6.1.1.5 Production of Methane Hydrates 159

6.1.1.6 Well Abandonment 160

6.1.2 Midstream: Transportation 160

6.1.3 Downstream: Refinery and Distribution 161

6.2 Challenges in the Application of Optical Fibres to the Hydrocarbon 161

6.2.1 Conditions 161

6.2.2 Conveyance Methods 162

6.2.2.1 Temporary Installations (Intervention Services) 163

6.2.2.2 Permanent Fibre Installations 163

6.2.3 Fibre Reliability 165

6.2.4 Fibre Types 166

6.3 Applications and Take-Up 168

6.3.1 Steam-Assisted Recovery; SAGD 168

6.3.2 Flow Allocation: Conventional Wells 171

6.3.3 Injector Monitoring 174

6.3.4 Thermal Tracer Techniques 175

6.3.5 Water Flow Between Wells 176

6.3.6 Gas-Lift Valves 176

6.3.7 Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) 177

6.3.8 Hydraulic Fracturing Monitoring (HFM) 184

6.3.9 Sand Production 185

6.4 Summary 186

References 186

7 Biomechanical Sensors 193
Cicero Martelli, Jean Carlos Cardozo da Silva, Alessandra Kalinowski, José Rodolfo Galvão, and Talita Paes

7.1 Optical Fibre Sensors in Biomechanics: Introduction and Review 193

7.2 Optical Fibre Sensors: From Experimental Phantoms to In Vivo Applications 198

7.2.1 Experimental Phantoms and Models 198

7.2.1.1 Joints 199

7.2.1.2 Bones and Muscles 199

7.2.1.3 Teeth, Lower Jaw (Mandible), and Upper Jaw (Maxilla) 200

7.2.1.4 Prosthesis and Extracorporeal Devices 200

7.2.1.5 Sole and Insoles 201

7.2.1.6 Smart Fabrics 201

7.2.1.7 Blood Vessels 202

7.2.1.8 Respiratory Monitoring 203

7.2.2 In Vitro 203

7.2.3 Ex Vivo 204

7.2.3.1 Joints 204

7.2.3.2 Bones and Muscles 205

7.2.3.3 Teeth, Lower Jaw (Mandible), and Upper Jaw (Maxilla) 205

7.2.3.4 Blood Vessels 205

7.2.3.5 Mechanical Properties of Tissues 207

7.2.4 In Vivo 207

7.2.4.1 Joints 207

7.2.4.2 Bones and Muscles 207

7.2.4.3 Teeth, Lower Jaw (Mandible) and Upper Jaw (Maxilla) 208

7.2.4.4 Blood Vessels 208

7.2.4.5 Respiratory Monitoring 208

7.2.5 In Situ 208

7.2.5.1 Joints 209

7.2.5.2 Bones and Muscles 209

7.2.5.3 Prostheses and Extracorporeal Devices 210

7.2.5.4 Soles and Insoles 210

7.2.5.5 Cardiac Monitoring 211

7.2.5.6 Respiratory Monitoring 211

7.3 FBG Sensors Integrated into Mechanical Systems 213

7.3.1 FBG Sensors Glued with Polymer 214

7.3.2 Polymer-Integrated FBG Sensor 215

7.3.3 Smart Fibre Reinforced Polymer (SFRP) 218

7.4 Future Perspective 222

Acknowledgment 223

References 224

8 Optical Fibre Chemical Sensors 239
T. Hien Nguyen and Tong Sun

8.1 Introduction 239

8.2 Principles and Mechanisms of Fibre-Optic-Based Chemical Sensing 240

8.2.1 Principle of Chemical Sensor Response 240

8.2.2 Absorption-Based Sensors 242

8.2.3 Luminescence-Based Sensors 243

8.2.4 Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)-Based Sensors 245

8.3 Sensor Design and Applications 247

8.3.1 Optical Fibre pH Sensors 247

8.3.1.1 Principle of Fluorescence-Based pH Measurements 248

8.3.1.2 pH Sensor Design 249

8.3.1.3 Set-Up of a pH Sensor System 253

8.3.1.4 Evaluation of the pH Sensor Systems 254

8.3.1.5 Comments 260

8.3.2 Optical Fibre Mercury Sensor 261

8.3.2.1 Sensor Design and Mechanism 262

8.3.2.2 Evaluation of the Mercury Sensor System 265

8.3.2.3 Comments 271

8.3.3 Optical Fibre Cocaine Sensor 271

8.3.3.1 Sensing Methodology 272

8.3.3.2 Design and Fabrication of a Cocaine Sensor System 273

8.3.3.3 Evaluation of the Cocaine Sensor System 275

8.3.3.4 Comments 280

8.4 Conclusions and Future Outlook 281

Acknowledgements 282

References 282

9 Application of Nanotechnology to Optical Fibre Sensors: Recent Advancements and New Trends 289
Armando Ricciardi, Marco Consales, Marco Pisco, and Andrea Cusano

9.1 Introduction 289

9.2 A View Back 292

9.3 Nanofabrication Techniques on the Fibre Tip for Biochemical Applications 293

9.3.1 Direct Approaches 294

9.3.2 Indirect Approaches 301

9.3.3 Self-Assembly 305

9.3.4 Smart Materials Integration 307

9.4 Nanofabrication Techniques on the Fibre Tip for Optomechanical Applications 309

9.5 Conclusions 317

References 320

10 From Refractometry to Biosensing with Optical Fibres 331
Francesco Chiavaioli, Ambra Giannetti, and Francesco Baldini

10.1 Basic Sensing Concepts and Parameters for OFSs 332

10.1.1 Parameters of General Interest 335

10.1.1.1 Uncertainty 335

10.1.1.2 Accuracy and Precision 335

10.1.1.3 Sensor Drift and Fluctuations 336

10.1.1.4 Repeatability 336

10.1.1.5 Reproducibility 336

10.1.1.6 Response Time 336

10.1.2 Parameters Related to Volume RI Sensing 337

10.1.2.1 Refractive Index Sensitivity 337

10.1.2.2 Resolution 338

10.1.2.3 Figure of Merit (FOM) 339

10.1.3 Parameters Related to Surface RI Sensing 339

10.1.3.1 Sensorgram and Calibration Curve 340

10.1.3.2 Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantification (LOQ) 341

10.1.3.3 Specificity (or Selectivity) 345

10.1.3.4 Regeneration (or Reusability) 345

10.2 Optical Fibre Refractometers 347

10.2.1 Optical Interferometers 348

10.2.2 Grating-Based Structures 348

10.2.3 Other Resonance-Based Structures 350

10.3 Optical Fibre Biosensors 352

10.3.1 Immuno-Based Biosensors 353

10.3.2 Oligonucleotide-Based Biosensors 354

10.3.3 Whole Cell/Microorganism-Based Biosensors 357

10.4 Fibre Optics Towards Advanced Diagnostics and Future Perspectives 360

References 361

11 Humidity, Gas, and Volatile Organic Compound Sensors 367
Diego Lopez-Torres and César Elosua

11.1 Introduction 367

11.2 Optical Fibre Sensor Specific Features for Gas and VOC Detection 368

11.3 Sensing Materials 370

11.3.1 Organic Chemical Dyes 370

11.3.2 Metal–Organic Framework (MOF) Materials 372

11.3.3 Metallic Oxides 374

11.3.4 Graphene 378

11.4 Detection of Single Gases 379

11.5 Relative Humidity Measurement 383

11.6 Devices for VOC Sensing and Identification 384

11.7 Artificial Systems for Complex Mixtures of VOCs: Optoelectronic Noses 387

11.8 Conclusions 391

References 392

12 Interaction of Light with Matter in Optical Fibre Sensors: A Biomedical Engineering Perspective 399
Sillas Hadjiloucas

12.1 Introduction 399

12.2 Energy Content in Light and Its Effect in Chemical Processes 399

12.3 Relevance of Wien’s Law to Physicochemical Processes 402

12.4 Absorption of Light Molecules 403

12.5 The Role of Electron Spin and State Multiplicity in Spectroscopy 404

12.6 Molecular Orbitals, Bond Conjugation, and Photoisomerization 406

12.7 De-excitation Processes Through Competing Pathways: Their Effect on Lifetimes and Quantum Yield 407

12.8 Energy Level Diagrams and Vibrational Sublevels 412

12.9 Distinction Between Absorption and Action Spectra 413

12.10 Light Scattering Processes 414

12.10.1 Elastic Scattering 414

12.10.2 Inelastic Scattering 416

12.11 Induction of Non-linear Optical Processes 418

12.12 Concentrating Fields to Maximize Energy Exchange in the Measurement Process Using Slow Light 419

12.12.1 Slow Light Using Atomic Resonances and Electromagnetically Induced Transparency 419

12.12.2 Slow Light Using Photonic Resonances 424

12.13 Field Enhancement and Improved Sensitivity Through Whispering Gallery Mode Structures 427

12.14 Emergent Technological Trends Facilitating Multi-parametric Interactions of Light with Matter 429

12.14.1 Integration of Optical Fibres with Microfluidic Devices and MEMS 429

12.14.2 Pump–Probe Spectroscopy 430

12.15 Prospects of Molecular Control Using Femtosecond Fibre Lasers 430

12.15.1 Femtosecond Pulse Shaping 430

12.15.2 New Opportunities for Coherent Control of Molecular Processes 432

12.15.3 Developments in Evolutionary Algorithms for Molecular Control 434

References 436

13 Detection in Harsh Environments 441
Kamil Kosiel and Mateusz Śmietana

13.1 Introduction 441

13.2 Optical Fibre Sensors for Harsh Environments 442

13.3 Need for Harsh Environment Sensing Based on Optical Fibres 443

13.4 General Requirements for Harsh Environment OFSs 449

13.5 Silica Glass Optical Fibres for Harsh Environment Sensing 451

13.6 Polymer Optical Fibres for Harsh Environment Sensing 461

13.7 Chalcogenide Glass and Polycrystalline Silver Halide Optical Fibres for Harsh Environment Sensing 464

13.8 Monocrystalline Sapphire Optical Fibres for Harsh Environment Sensing 467

13.9 Future Trends in Optical Fibre Sensing 469

References 470

14 Fibre-Optic Sensing: Past Reflections and Future Prospects 477
Brian Culshaw and Marco N. Petrovich

14.1 Introductory Comments 477

14.2 Reflections on Achievements to Date 478

14.3 Photonics: How is It Changing? 484

14.4 Some Future Speculation 486

14.4.1 Photonic Integrated and Plasmonic Circuits 487

14.4.2 Metamaterials in Sensing 490

14.4.3 More Variations on the Nano Story 492

14.4.4 Improving the Signal-to-Noise Ratio 493

14.4.5 Quantum Sensing, Entanglement, and the Like 494

14.4.6 The Many Prospects in Fibre Design and Fabrication 495

14.4.7 Technologies Other than Photonics 500

14.4.8 Societal Aspirations in Sensor Technology 501

14.4.9 The Future and a Quick Look at the Sensing Alternatives 501

14.4.10 So What Has Fibre Sensing Achieved to Date 503

14.5 Concluding Observations 504

References 504

Index 511

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
Ignacio Del Villar Ignacio R. Matias
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown