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Environmental Analysis Laboratory Handbook. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5185876
  • Book
  • September 2020
  • 320 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

Today, environmental issues are a great cause of concern at the global level, and universities and other institutions around the world are involved in research on climate change, deforestation, pollution control, and many other issues. Moreover, environmental science and environmental biotechnology are inherent parts of various courses while some universities provide degrees in these fields. Although the environment perspective of water is discussed time and again in research, academic, and non-academic discussions, there is no book summarizing protocols involved in water quality analysis. The information seems to be sporadically distributed on the internet.

Even if available at all, the information does not discuss limits of the protocols or caveats involved. For example, essays on chemical oxygen demand (COD) on the internet mostly do not discuss differences between organic compounds of biological origin and aliphatic/aromatic. The authors have performed nearly all the protocols mentioned in this new volume, and their protocols are discussed in a simplified, easy-to-understand manner. The book has been written after elaborative discussions with and input from faculty and research students to ensure the clarity of the material for use on many levels. 

Further, the authors have emphasized low-cost methods which involve minimal use of high-end instrumentation keeping in mind limitations faced in developing countries.  A valuable reference for engineers, scientists, chemists, and students, this volume is applicable to many different fields, across many different industries, at all levels.  It is a must-have for any library.
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Preface xxi

Acknowledgement xxiii

Table of Abbreviations xxv

Table of Symbols xxvii

List of Figures xxix

List of Tables xxxiii

List of Chemicals and Respective Molecular Weight xxxv

1 Air, Water and Soil: An Environmental Perspective 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Air 2

1.2.1 Composition of Air 2

1.2.2 Air Pollution 3

1.2.3 Air Pollutants 3

1.2.4 Adverse Effect of Contaminants 5

1.3 Water 6

1.3.1 Properties of Water Molecule 6

1.3.2 Global Significance of Water 8

1.3.3 Environmental Monitoring 9

1.3.4 Water Quality Assessment in Recycling 10

1.3.5 Wastewater Treatment Plant 10

1.3.6 Working of Sewage Treatment Plant 11

1.4 Soil 12

1.4.1 Importance of Soil 13

1.4.2 Types of Soil 13

1.4.3 Soil Pollution 14

1.4.4 Types of Soil Pollution 14

1.4.5 Anthropogenic Activities 15

1.4.6 Health Effects 16

1.4.7 Ecosystem Effects 16

1.4.8 Methods to Reduce Soil Pollution 17

References 18

2 Determination of Physical Properties of Environmental Samples 21

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Determination of Specific Gravity or Density in the Given Water Sample 22

2.2.1 Principle 22

2.2.2 Material Required 25

2.2.3 Procedure for Specific Gravity Measurements Using Pycnometer/Volumetric Flask 26

2.2.4 Observation Table 26

2.2.4.1 Measurement of Specific Gravity of Water Sample 26

2.2.4.2 Readings of Pycnometer 26

2.2.5 Calculations 27

2.2.6 Results 27

2.2.7 Notes 27

2.3 Determination of Turbidity of Given Water Sample 28

2.3.1 Principle 28

2.3.2 Nephelometric Method 28

2.3.3 Material Required 29

2.3.4 Procedure 30

2.3.5 Standard Curve 30

2.3.6 Calculation 31

2.3.7 Note 31

2.4 Determination of Total Suspended Solids 31

2.4.1 Principle 31

2.4.2 Material Required 32

2.4.3 Procedure 32

2.4.4 Observation 33

2.4.5 Observation Table 33

2.4.6 Calculation 34

2.4.7 Results 34

2.4.8 Notes 34

2.5 Determination of Total Dissolved Solids 34

2.5.1 Principle 34

2.5.2 Material Required 35

2.5.3 Procedure 36

2.5.4 Observations Table 36

2.5.5 Calculation 36

2.5.6 Result 36

2.5.7 Notes 37

2.6 Determination of the Moisture Content of Soil 37

2.6.1 Principle 37

2.6.2 Material Required 37

2.6.3 Procedure 38

2.6.4 Observation 38

2.6.5 Calculations 38

2.6.6 Result 38

2.7 Determination of pH Using Universal Indicator 39

2.7.1 Principle 39

2.7.2 pH of Natural Water Bodies 40

2.7.3 Effects of pH Variation on Aquatic Life 40

2.7.4 Universal Indicator 40

2.7.5 Dyes 40

2.7.5.1 Methyl Orange 40

2.7.5.2 Methyl Red 41

2.7.5.3 Bromothymol Blue 41

2.7.5.4 Phenolphthalein 42

2.7.6 Material Required 43

2.7.7 Reagents Preparations 43

2.7.8 Procedure 43

2.7.9 Observations 43

2.7.10 Results 44

2.7.11 Notes 44

2.8 pH Determination by Using pH Meter 45

2.8.1 Principle 45

2.8.2 Material Required 47

2.8.3 Reagent Preparation 47

2.8.4 Procedures 48

2.8.5 Result 48

2.8.6 Notes 48

2.9 pH Determination of Soil 48

2.9.1 Principle 48

2.9.2 Materials Required 49

2.9.3 Procedure 49

2.9.4 Observation 50

2.9.5 Results 50

2.10 Determination of pH of Soil by Using pH Meter 50

2.10.1 Principle 50

2.10.2 Material Required 50

2.10.3 Procedure 50

2.10.4 Result 51

2.11 Determination of pH of Soil by Using Universal Indicator 51

2.11.1 Principle 51

2.11.2 Reagent Preparation 51

2.11.3 Procedure 52

2.11.4 Observation Table 52

2.12 Determination of Conductivity of Water 53

2.12.1 Principle 53

2.12.2 Calibration of the Instrument 54

2.12.3 Reagent Preparation 54

2.12.4 Steps to be Followed for Calibration 54

2.12.5 Notes 55

References 55

3 Analysis of Organic Matter in Environmental Samples 61

3.1 Introduction 61

3.2 Determination of the Organic Content in Soil 62

3.2.1 Principle 62

3.2.2 Material Required 63

3.2.3 Reagent Preparation 63

3.2.4 Procedure 63

3.2.5 Observation Table 64

3.2.6 Calculations 64

3.2.7 Notes 65

3.3 Determination of Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) of Soil 65

3.3.1 Principle 65

3.3.2 Importance of CEC 66

3.3.3 Material Required 66

3.3.4 Reagent Preparation 66

3.3.5 Procedure 66

3.3.6 Calculations 67

3.3.7 Note 67

3.4 Rapid Method for the Determination of Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) of Soil 68

3.4.1 Material Required 68

3.4.2 Reagent Preparation 68

3.4.3 Procedure 68

3.4.4 Calculations 69

3.4.5 Notes 69

3.5 Determination of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) by Winkler’s Method 69

3.5.1 Principle 69

3.5.2 Material Required 71

3.5.3 Reagents Preparation 71

3.5.4 Procedure 71

3.5.5 Observation Table 72

3.5.5.1 Dissolved Oxygen Initial or DO 0 72

3.5.5.2 Dissolved Oxygen After 5 Days or DO 5 72

3.5.6 Calculation 73

3.5.7 Result 73

3.5.8 Notes 73

3.6 Determination of Biological Oxygen Demand by Dilution/Seeding Method 74

3.6.1 Material Required 74

3.6.2 Reagent Preparation 75

3.6.3 Sample Preparation 76

3.6.4 Procedure 76

3.6.5 Observations 77

3.6.6 Observations Table 78

3.6.6.1 Dissolved Oxygen Initial or DO 0 78

3.6.6.2 Dissolved Oxygen After 5 Days or DO 5 78

3.6.7 Calculations 78

3.6.8 Result 79

3.6.9 Note 79

3.7 Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand by Potassium Permanganate Method 79

3.7.1 Principle 79

3.7.2 Material Required 80

3.7.3 Reagent Preparation 80

3.7.4 Procedure 81

3.7.5 Observation Table 81

3.7.6 Calculations 81

3.7.7 Result 82

3.7.8 Notes 82

3.8 Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand for Sewage Waste (Samples that do not contain Chloride, Nitrate, Aliphatic and Aromatic Compounds) 82

3.8.1 Principle 82

3.8.2 Material Required 82

3.8.3 Reagent Preparation 82

3.8.4 Procedure 83

3.8.5 Observation Table 83

3.8.6 Calculations 83

3.8.7 Result 84

3.8.8 Notes 84

3.9 Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand for Toxic Organic Waste Sample That Contains Chloride, Nitrate, Aliphatic and Aromatic Compounds 84

3.9.1 Principle 84

3.9.2 Material Required 84

3.9.3 Procedure 85

3.9.4 Observation 85

3.9.5 Observations Table 86

3.9.6 Calculations 86

3.9.7 Result 86

3.9.8 Note 86

References 86

4 Spectrophotometric and Titrimetric Methods for Determination of Anions 91

4.1 Introduction 91

4.2 Determination of Sulphate Content for the Given Water Samples 92

4.2.1 Principle 92

4.2.2 Acid Rain 93

4.2.3 Problems Caused by Sulphur 93

4.2.4 Spectrophotometric Method 93

4.2.5 Material Required 94

4.2.6 Reagent Preparation 94

4.2.7 Procedure 95

4.2.8 Observation Table 95

4.2.9 Results 96

4.2.10 Notes 96

4.3 Determination of Phosphate Content in Environmental Samples 96

4.3.1 Importance of Phosphate 96

4.3.2 Eutrophication 97

4.3.3 Principle 98

4.3.4 Material Required 98

4.3.5 Reagent Preparation 98

4.3.6 Procedure 99

4.3.7 Procedure Estimation of Phosphate in Soil 99

4.3.8 Observation Table 99

4.3.9 Note 100

4.4 Estimation of Nitrite and Nitrate in Water by Spectrophotometric Method 100

4.4.1 Principle 100

4.4.2 Materials Required 102

4.4.3 Reagent Preparation 102

4.4.4 Procedure 102

4.4.5 Estimation Nitrite and Nitrate in Soil Sample 103

4.4.6 Calculations 103

4.4.7 Observation Table 104

4.4.8 Notes 105

4.5 Determination of Chloride Content in Water by Mohr’s Method 105

4.5.1 Principle 105

4.5.2 Mohr’s Method 106

4.5.3 Importance 106

4.5.4 Material Required 106

4.5.5 Procedure 107

4.5.6 Observation Table 107

4.5.7 Calculation 107

4.5.8 Result 108

4.6 Determination of Chloride Content in Water by Volhard’s Method 108

4.6.1 Principle 108

4.6.2 Material Required 109

4.6.3 Reagent Preparation 109

4.6.4 Procedure 109

4.6.5 Observation Table 109

4.6.6 Calculation 109

4.6.7 Result 110

4.6.8 Note 110

4.7 Determination of Fluoride Content in Water 110

4.7.1 Principle 110

4.7.2 Material Required 112

4.7.3 Reagent Preparation 112

4.7.4 Procedure 112

4.7.5 For Resorcin Blue Method: Preparation of Fluoride Working Standards 113

4.7.6 Note 113

4.8 Determination of Fluoride Content in Water Using Azurol B and Malachite Green 114

4.8.1 Principle 114

4.8.2 Material Required 114

4.8.3 Reagent Preparation 115

4.8.4 Procedure 115

4.8.5 For Malachite Green Method, Preparation of Fluoride Working Standards 116

4.8.6 For Azurol B Method, Preparation of Fluoride Working Standards 117

4.9 Determination of Cyanide (Cyanide Anion) by Spectrophotometric Method 117

4.9.1 Principle 117

4.9.2 Cyanide Toxicity 118

4.9.3 Material Required 119

4.9.4 Reagent Preparations 119

4.9.5 Procedure 120

4.9.6 Calculation 120

4.9.7 Single Reagent Method 120

4.9.8 Observation Table 121

4.9.9 Notes 121

References 122

5 Determination of Air Pollutants Using Titrimetric and Spectrophotometric Methods 129

5.1 Introduction 129

5.2 Determination of Particulate Matter in Air 131

5.2.1 Principle 131

5.2.2 Material Required 132

5.2.3 Procedure 132

5.2.4 Calculations 133

5.2.5 Result 133

5.3 Determination of Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) in Air 133

5.3.1 Principle 133

5.3.2 Material Required 134

5.3.3 Reagent Preparation 134

5.3.4 Procedure 135

5.3.5 Calibration Curve 135

5.3.6 Calculation 136

5.3.7 Notes 136

5.4 Determination of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) in Air 137

5.4.1 Principle 137

5.4.2 Material Required 138

5.4.3 Reagent Preparation 138

5.4.4 Procedure 138

5.4.5 For Estimation of NO2 in Air 138

5.4.6 Calculation 139

5.4.7 Results 139

5.5 Determination of Ozone Content in Air 139

5.5.1 Principle 139

5.5.2 Material Required 141

5.5.3 Reagent Preparation 141

5.5.4 Procedure 141

5.5.5 Calculations 142

5.5.6 Notes 142

5.6 Determination of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in Atmosphere 142

5.6.1 Principle 142

5.6.2 Material Required 144

5.6.3 Protocol 144

5.6.4 Calculation 144

5.6.5 Note 145

5.7 Determination of Air Quality Using Chlorophyll as Biomarker 145

5.7.1 Principle 145

5.7.2 Material Required 145

5.7.3 Procedure 146

5.7.4 Calculations 147

5.7.5 Result 147

References 147

6 Spectrophotometric Methods for Determination of Heavy Metals 151

6.1 Introduction 151

6.2 Arsenic Determination by Using Variamine Blue 153

6.2.1 Toxicity of Arsenic 153

6.2.2 Principle 155

6.2.3 Material Required 155

6.2.4 Procedure 155

6.2.5 Determination of Arsenic in Soil 156

6.2.6 Standard Preparation 157

6.2.7 Notes 159

6.3 Arsenic Determination by Using Rhodamine-B 159

6.3.1 Principle 159

6.3.2 Material Required 160

6.3.3 Procedure 160

6.3.4 Standard Preparation 161

6.3.5 Notes 161

6.4 Chromium (VI) Determination by Using 1,5-diphenylcarbazide 162

6.4.1 Mechanism of Chromium Toxicity 162

6.4.2 Principle 162

6.4.3 Material Required 162

6.4.4 Reagent Preparation 163

6.4.5 Procedure 163

6.4.6 Standard Preparation 163

6.4.7 Notes 164

6.5 Lead (II) Determination by 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (DMTD) 164

6.5.1 Application of Lead 164

6.5.2 Lead Toxicity 165

6.5.3 Principle 165

6.5.4 Material Required 165

6.5.5 Reagent Preparation 165

6.5.6 Procedure 166

6.5.7 Standard Preparation 166

6.5.8 Notes 167

6.6 Lead (II) Determination by using 5-Bromo-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde-p-hydroxybenzoic hydrazine (BHMBHBH) 167

6.6.1 Principle 167

6.6.2 Material Required 168

6.6.3 Reagent Preparation 168

6.6.4 Procedure 168

6.6.5 Standard Preparation 169

6.6.6 Notes 169

6.7 Mercury (II) Determination by using 2-Acetylpyridine Thiosemicarbazone (APT) 170

6.7.1 Mercury Toxicity 170

6.7.2 Mechanism of Toxicity 170

6.7.3 Material Required 171

6.7.4 Reagent Preparation 172

6.7.5 Sample Preparation 172

6.7.6 Procedure 172

6.7.7 Estimation of Mercury in Soil 173

6.7.8 Standard Preparation 173

6.7.9 Notes 174

6.8 Mercury (II) Determination by Using Diphenyl Thiocarbazone 174

6.8.1 Principle 174

6.8.2 Material Required 174

6.8.3 Reagent Preparation 175

6.8.4 Sample Preparation 175

6.8.5 Procedure 175

6.8.6 Determination of Mercury in Soil 175

6.8.7 Standard Preparation 176

6.8.8 Notes 177

6.9 Nickel (II) Determination by Using (E)-N1-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzylidene) Isonicotinoyl Hydrazone (HNBISNH) and 2-(4-fluoro benzylideneamino) Benzene Thiol (FBBT) 177

6.9.1 Principle 177

6.9.2 Importance of Nickel 177

6.9.3 Material Required 178

6.9.4 Reagent Preparation 178

6.9.5 Procedure 179

6.9.6 Determination of Nickel in Soil 180

6.9.7 Standard Preparation 180

6.9.8 Notes 180

6.10 Cadmium Determination by Using 1, 2-Dihydroxy Anthraquinone-3-Sulphonic Acid, Sodium Salt (Alizarin red S) 181

6.10.1 Principle and Importance 181

6.10.2 Material Required 182

6.10.3 Reagent Preparation 182

6.10.4 Procedure 183

6.10.5 Determination of Cadmium in Soil 183

6.10.6 Calibration Curve in the Range of 1 μg/ml to 40 μg/ml 184

6.10.7 Notes 184

6.11 Cadmium Determination by Using 5,7–Dibromo-8-Hydroxyquinoline (DBHQ) 185

6.11.1 Principle 185

6.11.2 Material Required 185

6.11.3 Reagent Preparation 186

6.11.4 Procedure 186

6.11.5 Determination of Cadmium in Soil 186

6.11.6 Standard Preparation 187

6.11.7 Notes 188

6.12 Copper Determination by Using Thio Mishler’s Ketone (TMK) 188

6.12.1 Principle 188

6.12.2 Material Required 189

6.12.3 Reagent Preparation 189

6.12.4 Procedure 190

6.12.5 Standard Preparation 191

6.12.6 Notes 192

6.13 Selenium Determination by Using Azure B and Thionin 192

6.13.1 Importance of Selenium 192

6.13.2 Toxicity of Selenium 192

6.13.3 Principle 193

6.13.4 Material Required 193

6.13.5 Reagent Preparation 194

6.13.6 Sample Preparation 194

6.13.7 Procedure 194

6.13.8 Estimation of Selenium in Soil 195

6.13.9 Standard Preparation for Azure B Method 195

6.13.10 Standard Preparation for Thionin B Method 196

6.13.11 Notes 196

6.14 Zinc Determination by Using 5, 7–Dibromo-8-ydroxyquinoline (DBHQ) 197

6.14.1 Importance of Zinc 197

6.14.2 Zinc Toxicity 197

6.14.3 Principle 197

6.14.4 Material Required 198

6.14.5 Reagent Preparation 198

6.14.6 Sample Preparation 198

6.14.7 Procedure 199

6.14.8 Standard Preparation 199

6.14.9 Notes 200

6.15 Iron Determination 200

6.15.1 Principle 200

6.15.2 Reagent Preparation 201

6.15.3 Procedure 202

6.15.4 Estimation of Iron in Water 202

6.15.5 Standard Preparation 203

6.15.6 Notes 204

References 204

7 Determination of Carbonates in Environmental Samples 213

7.1 Introduction 213

7.2 Determination of the Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) Content of Soil 214

7.2.1 Principle 214

7.2.2 Material Required 214

7.2.3 Reagent Preparation 214

7.2.4 Procedure 215

7.2.5 Observation Table 215

7.2.6 Calculations 216

7.2.7 Result 216

7.2.8 Notes 216

7.3 Determination of the Hardness of Water 216

7.3.1 Principle 216

7.3.2 Some Strategies to “Soften” Hard Water 217

7.3.3 Materials Required 219

7.3.4 Reagent Preparation 219

7.3.5 Procedure 220

7.3.6 Observation Table 220

7.3.7 Calculation 221

7.3.8 Result 221

7.4 Determination of Acidity and Total Acidity of Effluent Sample by Titrimetric Method 221

7.4.1 Principle 221

7.4.2 Material Required 222

7.4.3 Reagent Preparation 222

7.4.4 Procedure 222

7.4.5 Observation Table 223

7.4.6 Calculation 223

7.4.7 Result 224

7.5 Determination of Alkalinity and Total Alkalinity of Effluent Sample by Titrimetric Method 224

7.5.1 Principle 224

7.5.2 Material Required 224

7.5.3 Reagent Preparation 224

7.5.4 Procedure 225

7.5.5 Observation Table 225

7.5.6 Calculation 226

7.5.7 Result 226

References 226

8 Microbial Examination of Potable Water 229

8.1 Introduction 229

8.2 Microbial Estimation in Water by Filter Disc Method 232

8.2.1 Principle 232

8.2.2 Material Required 232

8.2.3 Reagent Preparation 232

8.2.4 Procedure 232

8.2.5 Result 233

8.2.6 Notes 233

8.3 Microbial Examination by Gram Staining 233

8.3.1 Principle 233

8.3.2 Material Required 234

8.3.3 Procedure 234

8.3.4 Result 235

8.3.5 Note 235

8.4 MPN (Most Probable Number) Method for Assessment of Water Quality 235

8.4.1 Principle 235

8.4.2 Presumptive Test 236

8.4.2.1 Media Preparation (For Testing Single Water Sample) 236

8.4.2.2 Procedure 237

8.4.2.3 Alternative Media (For Testing Single Water Sample) 237

8.4.2.4 Procedure 238

8.4.2.5 Observation Table for Presumptive Test 240

8.4.2.6 Results 245

8.4.2.7 Note 245

8.4.3 Confirmed Test 245

8.4.3.1 Media Preparation for Confirmed Test 245

8.4.3.2 Procedure 245

8.4.3.3 Result 246

8.4.4 Completed Test 246

8.4.4.1 Media Preparation for Completed Test 246

8.4.4.2 Procedure 246

8.4.4.3 Results 247

References 247

Appendix I 251

Appendix II 253

Appendix III 255

Index 257

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Anshul Nigam
Rupal Gupta
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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