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Handbook of Water Harvesting and Conservation. Basic Concepts and Fundamentals. Edition No. 1. New York Academy of Sciences

  • ID: 5186267
  • Book
  • January 2021
  • Region: United States
  • 528 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

Water harvesting is gaining more and more recognition as a sustainable and resilient water supply options. It is economically viable, socially compatible and environmentally friendly. Water harvesting has proven to be a robust solution to overcome or reduce water shortages all over the world. It is important to understand how to apply this practice in a sustainable and effective way to make full use of its potential in a world increasingly threatened by water scarcity.

The Handbook of Water Harvesting and Conservation: Basic Concepts and Fundamentals is the most comprehensive, up-to-date and applied handbook on water harvesting and conservation yet published. The book’s 30 chapters -- written by 84 outstanding international experts from approximately 20 selected countries faced by drought -- explore, critique and develop concepts and systems for water harvesting. The editors bring together many perspectives into a synthesis that is both academically based and practical in its potential applications.

The Handbook of Water Harvesting and Conservation: Basic Concepts and Fundamentals is an important tool for education, research and technical works in the areas of soil, water and watershed management and is highly useful for drought strategy planning, flood management and developing techniques to adapt to climate change in urban, agricultural, forest and rangeland areas.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

List of Contributors xxi

About the Editors xxvii

Part A Concepts and Standards for a Secure Water Harvesting 1

1 Concept and Technology of Rainwater Harvesting 3
Fayez Abdulla, Cealeen Abdulla, and Saeid Eslamian

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Concept of Rainwater Harvesting 4

1.3 Technologies of Rainwater Harvesting 5

1.3.1 Micro-Catchment Systems 6

1.3.1.1 Rooftop System 6

1.3.1.2 On-Farm Systems 7

1.3.2 Macro-Catchment Systems 7

1.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Rainwater Harvesting 8

1.4.1 Advantages of Roof Rainwater Harvesting (RRWH) 8

1.4.2 Disadvantages of RRWH 10

1.5 Feasibility of Rainwater Harvesting across Different Climatic Zones 10

1.5.1 Physical Feasibility 10

1.5.2 Technical Aspects 10

1.5.3 Social Aspects 11

1.5.4 Financial Aspects 11

1.6 Roof Rainwater Harvesting System Components 11

1.6.1 Catchment Area 11

1.6.2 Conveyance System 12

1.6.3 Storage Tank 12

1.6.4 First Flush 13

1.7 Calculation of Potential HarvestedWater 13

1.8 Water Quality and its Health and Environmental Impacts 14

1.9 System Operation and Maintenance 14

1.10 Conclusion 15

References 15

2 Rainwater Harvesting: Recent Developments and Contemporary Measures 17
Aline Pires Veról, Marcelo Gomes Miguez, Elaine Garrido Vazquez, Fernanda Rocha Thomaz, Bruna Peres Battemarco, and Assed Naked Haddad

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Water Resource Management 18

2.2.1 Water Supply 19

2.2.2 Water Demands 19

2.2.3 Water Scarcity 19

2.2.4 Regulatory Framework 21

2.2.5 Recent Developments 21

2.2.5.1 Water-Energy Nexus 22

2.2.5.2 Net-Zero Water Buildings 24

2.3 Water Management at the Building Scale 25

2.3.1 Design of a Rainwater Harvesting System 26

2.3.1.1 Collection Surface (or Roof Surface) 26

2.3.1.2 Gutters and Pipes 26

2.3.1.3 Storage Tanks (Reservoirs) 27

2.3.1.4 Rainwater Treatment Systems 32

2.3.1.5 Rainwater Pumping Station 33

2.3.1.6 Water Supply System (Water Pipes) 33

2.3.2 Source Control Systems 33

2.4 Analysis of Payback of Rainwater Harvesting Systems 34

2.5 Conclusion 35

Acknowledgment 35

References 36

3 Standards for Rainwater Catchment Design 39
Sisuru Sendanayake and Saeid Eslamian

3.1 Introduction 39

3.2 Catchment Surface 40

3.2.1 Collection Efficiency 41

3.2.2 Pollutants on the Catchment Surface 41

3.3 Conveyance System 42

3.3.1 Filtering Devices in RWH Systems 43

3.4 Storage Tank 44

3.4.1 Sizing of the Storage Tank 44

3.4.1.1 General Methods of Determining the Tank Capacities of RTRWHS 44

3.4.1.2 Sizing Based on Supply (Mass Balance Method or Rainfall Mass Curve Analysis) 44

3.4.1.3 Sizing Based on Computer Models 45

3.4.1.4 Sizing Based on Design Charts 45

3.4.2 Advanced Methods of Determining Optimum Tank Capacities of RTRWH Systems 45

3.4.2.1 Critical Period Model 45

3.4.2.2 Moran Model 45

3.4.2.3 Behavioral Models 45

3.4.3 Investigating the Performance of RTRWH System Using the Behavioral Model 45

3.4.3.1 Yield after Spillage (YAS) Operating Model 46

3.4.3.2 Predicting the Performance of the RTRWH System Using the Behavioral Model 46

3.4.3.3 Generic Curves for System Performance of a RTRWH System 47

3.4.3.4 Sample Calculation for Sizing Storage of a RWH System 48

3.4.3.5 Use of Reference Maps to Find the Effective Combinations of Roof Area and Storage Capacity 49

3.4.4 Positioning of the Storage Tank 49

3.4.5 Cascading Multi Tank Model 51

3.4.6 Tank Materials and Life Cycle Energy (LCE) of Tanks 53

3.5 Pre-treatment of Roof Collection 53

3.6 Distribution System and Related Regulations 54

3.7 Conclusion 54

References 55

4 Water Security Using Rainwater Harvesting 57
Adebayo Eludoyin, Oyenike Eludoyin, Tanimola Martins, Mayowa Oyinloye, and Saeid Eslamian

4.1 Introduction 57

4.2 Concept of Rainwater Harvesting 57

4.3 Rainwater Collection Systems 58

4.4 Rainwater Storage 61

4.5 Importance of Rainwater Harvesting 61

4.6 Quality Assessment of Harvested Rainwater 64

4.7 Problems Associated with Rainwater Harvesting 64

4.8 Conclusion 65

References 65

Part B Water Harvesting Resources 69

5 Single-Family Home and Building Rainwater Harvesting Systems 71
Duygu Erten

5.1 Introduction 71

5.2 Historical Development of RWH and Utilization 71

5.3 Pros and Cons of RWH Systems 72

5.3.1 Economics of RWH 73

5.3.2 Cisterns as Flood Mitigation/Control Systems 74

5.3.3 Types of RWH Systems 74

5.3.4 Water Harvesting:Water Collection Source 74

5.3.5 RWH System: System Components 74

5.3.6 Rooftop Material 75

5.3.7 RoofWashers 75

5.3.8 Maintenance 75

5.3.9 Smart Rainwater Systems 76

5.3.10 RWH Systems with Solar Electric Pump 77

5.3.11 Water Harvesting from Air 77

5.4 Current Practices Around theWorld 78

5.5 Health Risks of Roof-Collected Rainwater 78

5.6 Guides, Policy, and Incentives 79

5.7 Green Building Certification Systems and RWH 82

5.7.1 Code for Sustainable Homes/BREEAM Support/Points Awarded 84

5.8 Conclusion 84

References 85

6 Water Harvesting in Farmlands 87
Elena Bresci and Giulio Castelli

6.1 Introduction 87

6.2 Water Harvesting: Definitions 87

6.3 Floodwater Harvesting in Farmlands 88

6.3.1 Case Study: Spate Irrigation Systems in Raya Valley 90

6.3.1.1 Modernization of Spate Irrigation in Raya Valley 90

6.3.1.2 Water Rights and Regulation of Raya Valley Spate Irrigation Systems 91

6.4 Macro-CatchmentWater Harvesting in Farmlands 91

6.4.1 Case Study: Sand Dams in Kenya 91

6.4.1.1 GIS and Local Knowledge for Selecting Best Sites for Sand Dam Constructions in Kenya 92

6.5 Micro-CatchmentWater Harvesting in Farmlands 94

6.5.1 Case Study: Multiple Micro Catchment Systems in Ethiopia 94

6.6 RooftopWater Harvesting in Farmlands 95

6.6.1 Case Study: RooftopWater Harvesting in Guatemala 95

6.7 Water Harvesting and Fertilization 96

6.8 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 96

References 97

7 Rainwater Harvesting for Livestock 101
Billy Kniffen

7.1 Introduction 101

7.2 Rainfall Harvesting on the Land 101

7.3 AnimalWater Requirements 102

7.4 Harvested Rainfall as a Source for Livestock 103

7.5 Requirements for Harvesting Rainwater for Livestock 104

7.6 Distribution ofWater for Livestock 107

7.7 Rainwater System Maintenance 107

7.8 Conclusion 107

References 108

8 Road Water Harvesting 109
Negin Sadeghi and Saeid Eslamian

8.1 Introduction 109

8.2 Water Harvesting Systems and Their Characteristics 110

8.2.1 Rainwater Harvest System 111

8.2.2 Necessity and Advantages of WHS 113

8.2.3 Types ofWater Harvesting Systems 113

8.3 RoadWater Harvesting 113

8.3.1 Rolling Dips 117

8.3.2 Water Bars 117

8.3.3 Side Drains 118

8.3.4 Miter 118

8.3.5 Culverts 118

8.3.6 Gully Prevention and Reclamation 118

8.3.6.1 Terrain 119

8.3.6.2 Climate 119

8.3.6.3 Soils 119

8.3.7 Inclusive Planning/Water-Friendly Road Design 120

8.3.8 Road WHS and Planting 122

8.3.8.1 Site Selection 123

8.4 Conclusion 123

References 124

Part C Hydroinformatic and Water Harvesting 127

9 Application of RS and GIS for Locating Rainwater Harvesting Structure Systems 129
Dhruvesh Patel, Dipak R. Samal, Cristina Prieto, and Saeid Eslamian

9.1 Introduction 129

9.2 Experimental Site 131

9.3 Methodology 131

9.3.1 Drainage Network 131

9.3.2 Digital Elevation Model and Slope 131

9.3.3 Soil Map 131

9.3.4 Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) 132

9.3.5 Morphometric Analysis 133

9.3.6 Decision Rules for Site Selection ofWater Harvesting Structures 133

9.4 Results and Discussions 137

9.4.1 Basic Parameters 137

9.4.1.1 Area (A) and Perimeter (P) 137

9.4.1.2 Total Length of Streams (L) 137

9.4.1.3 Stream Order (u) 137

9.4.1.4 Basin Length (Lb) 137

9.4.2 Linear Parameters 138

9.4.2.1 Bifurcation Ration (Rb) 138

9.4.2.2 Drainage Density (Dd) 139

9.4.2.3 Stream Frequency (Fu) 139

9.4.2.4 Texture Ratio (T) 139

9.4.2.5 Length of Overland Flow (Lo) 139

9.4.3 Shape Parameters 139

9.4.3.1 Form Factor (Rf) 139

9.4.3.2 Shape Factor (Bs) 140

9.4.3.3 Elongation Ratio (Re) 140

9.4.3.4 Compactness Coefficient (Cc) 140

9.4.3.5 Circularity Ratio (Rc) 140

9.4.4 Compound Factor and Ranking 140

9.4.5 Positioning a Water Harvesting Structure 140

9.5 Conclusion 141

References 142

10 Information Technology in Water Harvesting 145
S. Sreenath Kashyap, M.V.V. Prasad Kantipudi, Saeid Eslamian, Maryam Ghashghaie, Nicolas R. Dalezios, Ioannis Faraslis, and Kaveh Ostad-Ali-Askari

10.1 Introduction 145

10.2 Water Harvesting Methods 145

10.2.1 Basin Method 145

10.2.2 Stream Channel Method 145

10.2.3 Ditch and Furrow Method 145

10.2.4 Flooding Method 146

10.2.5 Irrigation Method 146

10.2.6 Pit Method 146

10.2.7 RechargeWell Method 147

10.3 The Internet of Things (IoT) 147

10.3.1 Applications of the IoT inWater Harvesting 147

10.3.1.1 Estimation of the Soil Moisture Content 147

10.3.1.2 Determining the Quality of Groundwater 147

10.3.1.3 Rate of Infiltration in the Soil 148

10.3.1.4 Delineation of Aquifer Boundaries and Estimation of Storability of Aquifer 148

10.3.1.5 Depth of Aquifer from the Surface of the Earth 148

10.3.1.6 Identification of Sites for Artificial Recharge Structures 148

10.4 Assessing the Available Subsurface Resources Using the IoT 148

10.5 The IoT Devices for Efficient Agricultural/Irrigation Usage 150

10.6 Conclusions 151

References 151

11 Global Satellite-Based Precipitation Products 153
Zhong Liu, Dana Ostrenga, Andrey Savtchenko, William Teng, Bruce Vollmer, Jennifer Wei, and David Meyer

11.1 Introduction 153

11.2 Precipitation Measurements from Space 154

11.3 Overview of NASA Satellite-Based Global Precipitation Products and Ancillary Products at GES DISC 155

11.3.1 TRMM and GPM Missions 155

11.3.2 Multi-Satellite and Multi-Sensor Merged Global Precipitation Products 156

11.3.3 Global and Regional Land Data Assimilation Products 157

11.3.4 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) Products 158

11.3.5 Ancillary Products at GES DISC 158

11.4 Data Services 159

11.4.1 Point-and-Click Online Tools 159

11.4.2 Data Rod Services 160

11.4.3 Subsetting and Format Conversion Services 161

11.4.4 OtherWeb Data Services and Information 161

11.5 Examples 163

11.5.1 Maps of Seasonal Averages of Precipitation 163

11.5.2 Time Series Analysis of Precipitation inWatersheds 164

11.5.3 Changes in Precipitation Patterns 165

11.6 Conclusion 171

Acknowledgments 172

References 172

12 Risk Analysis of Water Harvesting Systems 177
Maria Do Céu Almeida, Nelson Carriço, João Santos and Saeid Eslamian

12.1 Introduction 177

12.2 Concepts and Terminology 177

12.3 General Approaches to Risk Management Applicable to RWHS 177

12.4 Supporting Risk Management for RWHS 181

12.5 Hazards and Exposure Modes 182

12.6 Rainwater Collection Reliability asWater Source 183

12.7 Specific Risk Treatment Actions 185

12.8 Process Control and Monitoring 186

12.9 Conclusion 187

References 187

Part D Hydrological Aspects of Water Harvesting 191

13 Return Period Determination for Rainwater Harvesting System Design 193
Sandeep Samantaray, Dillip K. Ghose, and Saeid Eslamian

13.1 Introduction 193

13.2 Study Area 194

13.2.1 Water Level Fluctuation 195

13.3 Overview of Rainwater Harvesting 197

13.3.1 Different Types ofWater Harvesting Techniques 197

13.3.1.1 RooftopWater Harvesting (RTWH) 197

13.3.1.2 Micro-Catchment System of Rainwater Harvesting (MiCSRWH) 197

13.3.1.3 Macro-Catchment System of Rainwater Harvesting (MaCSRWH) 197

13.3.1.4 Floodwater Harvesting (FWH) 197

13.3.1.5 Storage Structure Systems 197

13.3.1.6 Spreading ofWater 198

13.4 Methodology 198

13.4.1 Evaluation of Return Period 198

13.4.2 Design ofWater Harvesting Structures 198

13.4.2.1 Design Approach 198

13.4.2.2 Estimation of Runoff Rate 198

13.4.2.3 Estimation of Runoff Volume 198

13.4.2.4 Runoff Coefficients 199

13.4.2.5 Normal Distribution Method 199

13.4.2.6 Gumbel Distribution Method 199

13.4.2.7 Extreme Value Type-I Distribution 200

13.4.2.8 Log Pearson Type-III Distribution 200

13.5 Results and Discussions 201

13.6 Conclusions 203

References 203

14 Rainwater Harvesting Impact on Urban Groundwater 207
A. Jebamalar, R. Sudharsanan, G. Ravikumar, and Saeid Eslamian

14.1 Introduction 207

14.2 State of the Art 208

14.3 Study Area and Data Collection 209

14.4 Methodology 213

14.5 Temporal Analysis of Groundwater Level 214

14.6 Spatial Analysis of Groundwater Table 215

14.7 Impact of RWH on Groundwater Recharge 215

14.8 Model Simulations for Impact of RWH Systems 217

14.9 Model Predictions for the Future 218

14.10 Conclusion 222

Acknowledgement 223

References 223

15 Effects of Water Harvesting Techniques on Sedimentation 225
Siavash Fasihi, and Saeid Eslamian

15.1 Introduction 225

15.1.1 How to Incorporate WHTs in Models 226

15.2 Qualitative Effects and Data Collection 226

15.2.1 Measurements and Data Input 227

15.3 Sedimentation in Small Check Dams 228

15.4 Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) 229

15.4.1 Abilities and Limitations of RUSLE 234

15.5 Limburg Soil Erosion Model (LISEM) 235

15.5.1 Model Implementation 235

15.5.2 Calibration and Modification of p-Factor 236

15.5.3 Assessing Effects ofWHTs on Sedimentation Using LISEM 237

15.6 Conclusion 238

References 238

Part E Hydrometeorological Water Harvesting 243

16 Principles and Applications of Atmospheric Water Harvesting 245
Mousa Maleki, Saeid Eslamian, and Boutaghane Hamouda

16.1 Introduction 245

16.1.1 UnconventionalWater Resources 245

16.2 AtmosphericWater Harvesting Necessity 245

16.3 Methods of AtmosphericWater Harvesting 246

16.3.1 Vapor Condensing 246

16.3.2 Active Cooling of the Ambient Air 247

16.3.3 Fog Harvesting – Age-Old Practices that StillWork 247

16.4 Energy Requirements of AMH andWater Production Costs 247

16.5 Atmospheric Vapor Harvesting Systems 248

16.5.1 Water Harvesting from Air with Metal-Organic Frameworks Powered by Natural Sunlight 248

16.5.2 Atmospheric Vapor Harvesting Adsorption Materials 251

16.5.3 Applications of Superhydrophilic and Superhydrophobic Materials 252

16.5.4 Vapor Compression Refrigerating System 252

16.5.4.1 Water Generation System 252

16.5.4.2 Operation ofWater Generation Systems 253

16.5.4.3 Water Treatment System 253

16.5.4.4 Water Formation in a Humid Atmosphere 254

16.5.4.5 Computations and Estimations 254

16.5.4.6 Cooling Condensation Process 254

16.5.4.7 Compressor 255

16.5.4.8 Dew Point 255

16.5.4.9 Relative Humidity 255

16.5.4.10 Comparison Between Various Compression Systems 255

16.6 Conclusion 256

References 257

17 Dew Harvesting on High Emissive Natural and Artificial Passive Surfaces 261
Jose Francisco Maestre-Valero, Bernardo Martin-Gorriz, Victoriano Martínez-Alvarez, and Saeid Eslamian

17.1 Introduction 261

17.2 Passive Surfaces for the Case Studies 262

17.2.1 Optical Properties 262

17.2.2 Passive Radiative Condensers and Foils 263

17.2.3 Experimental Pan 263

17.2.4 Agricultural Pond 263

17.3 Data Collection 264

17.3.1 Climate Measurements 264

17.3.2 Dew Measurements 264

17.3.2.1 RDCs 264

17.3.2.2 Experimental Pan 264

17.3.2.3 Agricultural Pond 265

17.3.3 Statistical Analysis 265

17.4 Case Studies for Dew Collection 265

17.4.1 Dew Collection on Passive Radiative Condensers 265

17.4.2 Dew Collection on the Experimental Pan 266

17.4.3 Dew Collection on an Agricultural Pond 267

17.5 Dew Modeling 267

17.5.1 Correlation with Climatic Variables 267

17.5.2 Mass Transfer Equation 268

17.6 Conclusion 270

Acknowledgments 271

References 271

18 Atmospheric Water Harvesting Using Waste Energy from Landfills and Oilfields 273
Enakshi Wikramanayake, Onur Ozkan, Aritra Kar, and Vaibhav Bahadur

18.1 Introduction 273

18.2 Refrigeration-Based AtmosphericWater Harvesting Systems 275

18.3 ModelingWaste Natural Gas-Based AtmosphericWater Harvesting 276

18.4 Landfill Gas-Based AtmosphericWater Harvesting 277

18.4.1 Modeling LFG-Based AWH in the Barnett Shale 277

18.4.2 Benefits of LFG-Based AWH for the Barnett Shale 278

18.4.3 Techno-Economic Analysis of LFG-Powered AWH 279

18.4.4 Environmental Benefits of LFG-Powered AWH 282

18.5 Oilfield Gas-Based AtmosphericWater Harvesting 283

18.6 Sensitivity of theWater Harvest to Various Parameters 284

18.7 Comparison of AWH to Other Techniques for ProducingWater 285

18.8 Perspectives on AtmosphericWater Harvesting 285

18.9 Conclusions 286

Acknowledgements 286

References 286

Part F Environmental Aspects of Water Harvesting 289

19 Treatment Techniques in Water Harvesting 291
Brandon Reyneke, Monique Waso, Thando Ndlovu, Tanya Clements, Sehaam Khan, and Wesaal Khan

19.1 Introduction 291

19.2 Pretreatment of Harvested Rainwater: Prevention of Debris Entry and Sedimentation 292

19.3 Chemical Disinfection 293

19.3.1 Chlorination 293

19.3.2 Non-Chlorine Disinfectants 294

19.4 Physical Disinfection 295

19.4.1 Filtration Techniques 295

19.4.2 SODIS/UV Treatment 296

19.4.3 Thermal Disinfection 297

19.5 Biological Treatment 298

19.5.1 Slow-Sand and Granular Activated Carbon Filters 298

19.5.2 Coagulation and Bioflocculants 299

19.5.3 Bacteriophages and Bacteriophage Proteins 300

19.6 Conclusion 300

References 301

20 Water Recycling from Palm Oil Mill Effluent 307
Hossein Farraji, Irvan Dahlan, and Saeid Eslamian

20.1 Introduction 307

20.2 Problem Statement 307

20.3 Palm Oil Production 308

20.4 POME as an Agro-IndustryWastewater 308

20.5 Characteristics of POME 308

20.5.1 Total Suspended Solids 310

20.5.1.1 Volatile Suspended Solids 310

20.5.2 Biological Oxygen Demand 310

20.5.3 Chemical Oxygen Demand 311

20.5.4 Color 311

20.5.5 Biodegradability of POME 311

20.6 POME Treatment Methods 312

20.6.1 Commercial Treatment Method 312

20.6.2 Non-Commercial Treatment Method 312

20.7 Water Recycling by Membrane Technique 313

20.7.1 Benefits and Drawbacks of Membrane Treatment Method for POME 314

20.8 Application of the SBR in POME Treatment 314

20.8.1 Factors Affecting the SBR System 315

20.8.2 Microbial Augmentation for POME 315

20.9 Discussions 316

20.10 Conclusion 316

References 316

Part G Green Water Harvesting 321

21 Vegetation Advantages for Water and Soil Conservation 323
Hadis Salehi Gahrizsangi, Saeid Eslamian, Nicolas R. Dalezios, Anna Blanta, and Mohadaseh Madadi

21.1 Introduction 323

21.2 Background 323

21.2.1 Soil Erosion Concepts 323

21.2.2 Water-Induced Erosion 324

21.2.3 Water-Induced Erosion in the Slope and Agricultural Farms 325

21.2.4 Soil andWater Conservation by Crop Management 326

21.2.5 Conservation by Vetiver Grass 328

21.3 Vegetation Advantage for Soil andWater Conservation in Artificial Plots 329

21.3.1 Soil Erosion in Malaysia 329

21.3.2 Soil andWater Conservation in Malaysia 331

21.3.3 Case Study: Application of Vetiver Grass for Soil andWater Conservation in Artificial Plots 331

21.4 Conclusions 334

References 335

22 Water Harvesting in Forests: An Important Step in Water-Food-Energy Nexus 337
Rina Kumari and Saeid Eslamian

22.1 Introduction 337

22.2 GlobalWater Scarcity 337

22.3 Change in Land Use-Land Cover and its Impact on Forest andWater Resources 339

22.4 Forest Hydrology 339

22.4.1 Hydrologic Processes in Forest 339

22.4.2 Effects of Forest Structure on Hydrological Processes 340

22.4.2.1 Stemflow 340

22.4.2.2 Litterfall 341

22.4.3 Preconditions for Rainwater Infiltration 341

22.4.3.1 Vegetative Cover 342

22.4.3.2 Soil Type 342

22.4.4 Groundwater Conditions 342

22.4.5 Dimensions of Hydrological Services Governed by Forest 342

22.4.5.1 Water Quantity and Forests 342

22.4.5.2 Water Quality and Forests 342

22.4.5.3 Evapotranspiration, Precipitation, andWater Loss 342

22.4.5.4 Erosion/Sediment Control and Forests 343

22.4.5.5 Forests and Flood Control, Drought, and Fire Risks 343

22.4.5.6 Forests and Groundwater 343

22.4.5.7 Forests and Their Effect on Rainfall 343

22.4.5.8 Forests and Riparian Management 343

22.5 Rainwater Harvesting in Forests 343

22.5.1 Definition and Typology of Rainwater Harvesting Systems 343

22.6 Deforestation and its Impact 345

22.7 Forest Management andWatershed Development 346

22.8 Knowledge Gaps 347

22.9 Forests andWater in International Agreements 348

22.10 Role of Geospatial Technologies 348

22.11 Managing the Climate-Water-Forest Nexus for Sustainable Development 349

22.12 Case Studies 350

22.12.1 CombatingWater Scarcity in Latin America 350

22.12.2 Amazon River 350

22.12.3 Case Study of Southeast Asia 350

22.13 Conclusions 350

References 351

23 Rainwater and Green Roofs 355
Sara Nazif, Seyed Ghasem Razavi, Pouria Soleimani, and Saeid Eslamian

23.1 Introduction 355

23.2 Green Roof Components 355

23.2.1 Vegetation 356

23.2.2 Growth Substrate 357

23.2.3 Filter Layer 357

23.2.4 Drainage Layer 358

23.2.5 Root Barrier 358

23.2.6 Waterproof Layer 358

23.2.7 Insulation Layer 358

23.2.8 Protection Layer 358

23.3 Green Roof Types 358

23.4 Green Roof Irrigation 359

23.5 Green Roof Standards 359

23.6 Green Roofs for Rainwater Collection and Storage 360

23.6.1 Hydrologic Modeling of Green Roof Performance 360

23.6.2 Green Roof Rainwater Retention Potential 362

23.6.3 Green Roof Characteristics and Rainwater Retention Potential 362

23.7 Green Roof Effect on Runoff Quality 363

23.8 Other Functions of Green Roofs 364

23.8.1 Improving Energy Usage Efficiency 365

23.8.2 Air Pollution Reduction 365

23.8.3 Human Feelings 366

23.8.4 Green Roof Effect on Urban Heat Island 366

23.8.5 Interior Noise Pollution Reduction 367

23.9 Cost and Benefit Analysis of Green Roofs 367

23.10 Conclusion 369

References 369

24 Green Landscaping and Plant Production with Water Harvesting Solutions 373
Saeid Eslamian, Saeideh Parvizi, and Sayed Salman Ghaziaskar

24.1 Introduction 373

24.2 Water Harvesting 374

24.3 Rainwater Harvesting 374

24.3.1 Rainwater Harvesting in the Past 374

24.3.2 Modern Rainwater Harvesting 375

24.4 The Goals and Benefits of Rainwater Harvesting 376

24.5 Impact of RWHR on Infiltration and Surface Runoff Processes 376

24.5.1 Groundwater Recharge 376

24.5.2 Surface Runoff Estimation 376

24.6 Climate Change and RWH 376

24.7 Landscape Functions and RWH 377

24.8 Hydrological Functions and RWH 377

24.8.1 Infiltration 377

24.8.2 Groundwater Recharge 377

24.8.3 Water Competition 378

24.9 Soil Fertility and Biomass Production 378

24.9.1 Soil Fertility 378

24.9.2 Crop Yields and Biomass Production 378

24.9.3 Biodiversity Conservation 378

24.9.3.1 Changes in Floral Diversity 378

24.9.3.2 Changes in Structural Heterogeneity/Patchiness 378

24.9.3.3 Changes in Animal Diversity 379

24.9.4 Sustainable Livelihoods 379

24.9.4.1 Food Security 379

24.9.4.2 Conflicts ConcerningWater Resources 379

24.9.4.3 Income/Social Balance 379

24.10 Discussions 380

24.11 Conclusions 381

References 381

Part H Reliable Rainwater Harvesting and Storage Systems 385

25 Comparing Rainwater Storage Options 387
Sara Nazif, Hamed Tavakolifar, Hossein Abbasizadeh, and Saeid Eslamian

25.1 Introduction 387

25.2 History of Rainwater Harvesting 387

25.3 Benefits of Rainwater Storage 388

25.4 Main Rainwater Storage Options 389

25.4.1 Surface Runoff Harvesting 389

25.4.1.1 Surface Runoff Harvesting Using Surface and Underground Structures 389

25.4.1.2 Surface Runoff Harvesting Using Paved and Unpaved Roads 390

25.4.2 Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting 390

25.4.2.1 Components of Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting 390

25.4.2.2 The Usage of HarvestedWater 394

25.4.3 Rainwater Harvesting In Situ 394

25.4.3.1 Use of Topographic Depressions as Rainfall Harvesting Areas 394

25.4.3.2 Use of Furrows as Rainwater Storage Areas 395

25.5 Comparing Rainwater Storage Options 395

25.6 Conclusion 398

References 398

26 Rainwater Harvesting Storage-Yield-Reliability Relationships 401
John Ndiritu

26.1 Introduction 401

26.2 The Rainwater Harvesting Storage-Yield-Reliability Problem 401

26.3 Modeling Storage-Yield-Reliability Relationships 402

26.3.1 Modeling Approaches and Methods 402

26.3.2 Behavior Analysis (Continuous Simulation) Method 405

26.3.3 Sequent Peak Algorithm and Rippl’s Method 407

26.3.4 Generalized Storage-Yield-Reliability Relationships 409

26.4 Key Considerations 411

26.4.1 How is the Adequacy of the Rainfall Time Series Assessed? 411

26.4.2 What Modeling Methods are Best Suited for Use? 411

26.4.3 When is It Essential to Apply Statistically-Based Reliability? How is this Done? 412

26.4.4 When Do Generalized Storage-Yield-Reliability Relationships Need to Be Used? 412

26.5 Conclusions 412

References 413

27 Towards Developing Generalized Equations for Calculating Potential Rainwater Savings 417
Monzur A. Imteaz, Muhammad Moniruzzaman and, Abdullah Yilmaz

27.1 Introduction 417

27.2 State of the Art 418

27.3 Methodology 419

27.4 Study Area and Data 420

27.5 Results 421

27.6 Conclusions 423

Acknowledgement 424

References 424

Part I Sustainable Water Harvesting and Conservation in a Changing Climate 427

28 Water Harvesting, Climate Change, and Variability 429
Jew Das, Manish Kumar Goyal, and N.V. Umamahesh

28.1 Introduction 429

28.2 Water Harvesting 431

28.2.1 Trans-Himalayan Region 431

28.2.1.1 Zing 431

28.2.2 Western Himalaya 432

28.2.2.1 Kul 432

28.2.2.2 Naula 432

28.2.2.3 Khatri 432

28.2.3 Eastern Himalaya 432

28.2.3.1 Apatani 432

28.2.4 North Eastern Hill Ranges 432

28.2.4.1 Zabo 432

28.2.4.2 Bamboo Drip Irrigation 432

28.2.5 Brahmaputra Valley 433

28.2.5.1 Dongs 433

28.2.5.2 Dungs 433

28.2.6 Indo-Gangetic Plains 433

28.2.6.1 Ahar and Pynes 433

28.2.6.2 Bengal’s Inundation Channel 433

28.2.6.3 Dighis 433

28.2.6.4 Baolis 433

28.2.7 Thar Desert 433

28.2.7.1 Kunds 433

28.2.7.2 Kuis/Beris 433

28.2.7.3 Baoris/Bers 433

28.2.7.4 Jhalaras 434

28.2.7.5 Nadis 434

28.2.7.6 Tobas 434

28.2.7.7 Tankas 434

28.2.7.8 Khadin 434

28.2.7.9 Virdas 434

28.2.7.10 Paar System 434

28.2.8 Central Highlands 434

28.2.8.1 Talab 434

28.2.8.2 Saza Kuva 434

28.2.8.3 Johad 434

28.2.8.4 Naada/Bandha 434

28.2.8.5 Pat 434

28.2.8.6 Repat 434

28.2.8.7 Chandela Tank 435

28.2.8.8 Bundela Tank 435

28.2.9 Eastern Highlands 435

28.2.9.1 Katas /Mundas/Bandhas 435

28.2.10 Deccan Plateau 435

28.2.10.1 Cheruvu 435

28.2.10.2 Kohli Tanks 435

28.2.10.3 Bhanadaras 435

28.2.10.4 Phad 435

28.2.10.5 Kere 435

28.2.10.6 The Ramtek Model 435

28.2.11 Western Ghats 435

28.2.11.1 Surangam 435

28.2.12 Western Coastal Plains 435

28.2.12.1 Virdas 435

28.2.13 Eastern Ghats 435

28.2.13.1 Korambus 435

28.2.14 Eastern Coastal Plains 435

28.2.14.1 Eri 435

28.2.14.2 Ooranis 435

28.2.15 Rooftop Harvesting 436

28.2.16 Perforated Pavements 436

28.2.17 Infiltration Pits 436

28.2.18 Swale 436

28.3 Case Study 437

28.3.1 Study Area 437

28.3.2 Climate and Rainfall 437

28.3.3 GCM Projection and Scenarios 438

28.3.4 Surplus Intensity 439

28.4 Results and Discussion 439

28.4.1 Understanding the Uncertainty 441

28.5 Conclusion 443

References 444

29 Water Harvesting and Sustainable Tourism 447
Neda Torabi Farsani, Homa Moazzen Jamshidi, Mohammad Mortazavi, and Saeid Eslamian

29.1 Introduction 447

29.2 Water Management: An Approach to Sustainable Tourism 447

29.2.1 Water Harvesting and Museums 449

29.3 Tourism andWater Harvesting Economy 451

29.3.1 The Impact of Tourism onWater Demand 451

29.3.2 Water Harvesting as a Supply-SideWater Management Strategy 451

29.3.3 Financial and Economic Analysis of Rainwater Harvesting Projects 452

29.3.4 Raising Revenue for Financing Rainwater Harvesting Projects 452

29.3.5 Rainwater Harvesting in Modern Tourism 452

29.4 Conclusion 453

References 453

30 Rainwater Harvesting Policy Issues in the MENA Region: Lessons Learned, Challenges, and

Sustainable Recommendations 457
Muna Yacoub Hindiyeh, Mohammed Matouq, and Saeid Eslamian

30.1 Introduction 457

30.2 Definitions of RWH 457

30.3 Rainwater Harvesting Toward Millennium and Sustainable Development Goals 458

30.4 Water Administration and Legislation 459

30.5 Policy and Regulatory Approaches to RWH Use 459

30.5.1 The Need for Policy 459

30.5.2 Key Characteristics of Good Policy 461

30.5.3 Framework for a Policy 461

30.5.3.1 Policy Must Balance the Risks from Controlled RWH Use with the Alternatives 461

30.5.3.2 Policy Must Be Integrated 461

30.5.3.3 Policy Should Be Simple and Incentivize RWH Use 461

30.5.3.4 Risk Management Should Be Behavior Based, Rather than Technology orWater-Quality Based 462

30.5.3.5 Policy Development Should Include Stakeholders 462

30.5.3.6 Policy Must Be Clear Regarding Implementation 462

30.5.3.7 Policy Should Not Place Undue Financial Burdens on Users 462

30.5.3.8 Privately Owned RWH Systems and Use Should Be Considered for Poor Communities 462

30.5.3.9 Policy Should Differentiate with Regard to Scale 463

30.6 Considerations When Establishing a Municipal Rainwater Harvesting Program 463

30.7 Regulatory Approaches in Other Countries 464

30.7.1 Australia 464

30.7.2 Germany 465

30.7.3 United Kingdom 465

30.7.4 Bermuda 465

30.7.5 The Netherlands 465

30.7.6 India 465

30.7.7 Indonesia 466

30.7.8 Brazil 466

30.7.9 China 466

30.7.10 Capiz Province, The Philippines 466

30.7.11 United States 466

30.7.12 St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands 467

30.7.13 Portland 468

30.7.14 Singapore 468

30.7.15 Kenya 468

30.7.16 Namibia 469

30.7.17 Middle East 469

30.8 Challenges and Limitations 469

30.9 Future Recommendations for the MENA Region 470

30.10 Conclusion 470

References 471

Index 475

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
Saeid Eslamian Isfahan University of Technology, Iran. Faezeh Eslamian McGill University, Canada.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown