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Psychopathology. Research, Assessment and Treatment in Clinical Psychology, Enhanced. Edition No. 3. BPS Textbooks in Psychology

  • ID: 5186584
  • Book
  • February 2021
  • 736 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

Psychopathology has been designed to provide students with a comprehensive coverage of both psychopathology and clinical practice, including extensive treatment techniques for a range of mental health issues. The text is designed to be accessible to students at a range of different learning levels, from first year undergraduates to post-graduate researchers and those undergoing clinical training.

The emphasis in the book is on providing students with a real insight into the nature and experience of mental health problems, both through the written coverage and by providing a range of video material covering personal accounts of mental health problems. 

The text is integrated with a wide variety of teaching and learning features that will enable facilitators to teach more effectively, and students to learn more comprehensively.

  • New to this Edition:  all updated research findings
  • Completely updated Focus Points that discuss contentious or topical issues in detail,
  • Research Methods boxes showing how clinical psychologists do research on psychopathology,
  • Case Histories detailing a range of mental health problems.
  • Coverage of third generation CBT approaches and updates to Clinical practice to reflect recent changes in service delivery.
  • Update videos and supplements package
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

Acknowledgements

Preface to Third Edition

Accompanying Online Resources for Instructors and Students

PART I   - INTRODUCING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY: CONCEPTS, PROCEDURES & PRACTICES

Chapter 1 – An Introduction to Psychopathology: Concepts, Paradigms & Stigma

Introduction

1.1          A BRIEF HISTORY OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

1.1.1      Demonic Possession

1.1.2      The Medical or Disease Model

1.1.3      From Asylums to Community Care

1.1.4      Summary

1.2          DEFINING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

Deviation from the statistical norm

Deviation from social and political norms

Maladaptive Behaviour & Harmful Dysfunction

Distress and Disability

Summary

1.3          EXPLANATORY APPROACHES TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

1.3.1      Biological Models

1.3.1.1   Genetics

1.3.1.2   Neuroscience

Brain Structure & Function

Brain Neurotransmitters

1.3.1.3   Summary

1.3.2      Psychological Models

1.3.2.1   The Psychoanalytical or Psychodynamic Model.

1.3.2.2   The Behavioural Model

1.3.2.3   The Cognitive Model

1.3.2.4   The Humanist-Existential Approach

1.3.2.5   Summary

1.4          MENTAL HEALTH & STIGMA

What is mental health stigma?

Who holds stigmatizing beliefs about mental health problems?

What factors cause stigma?

Why does stigma matter?

How can we eliminate stigma?

1.5          CONCEPTS, PARADIGMS & STIGMA REVISITED

Chapter 2 – Classification & Assessment in Clinical Psychology

Introduction

2.1          CLASSIFYING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

2.1.1      The Development of Classification Systems

2.1.2      Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)

Defining and Diagnosing Psychopathology

General Problems with Classification

2.1.3      DSM-5

2.1.4      Developing Alternatives to DSM

Research Domains Criteria (RDoC)

Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP)

Network Analyses

The Power Threat Meaning (PTM) Framework

2.1.5      Conclusions

2.2          METHODS OF ASSESSMENT

2.2.1      The Reliability and Validity of Assessment Methods

2.2.1.1   Reliability

2.2.1.2   Validity

2.2.2      Clinical Interviews

The Nature of Clinical Interviews

Structured Interviews

Limitations of the Clinical Interview

2.2.3      Psychological Tests

Personality Inventories

Specific Trait Inventories

Projective Tests

Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT)

Intelligence Tests

Neurological Impairment Tests

2.2.4      Biologically-Based Assessments

Psychophysiological Tests

Neuroimaging Techniques

2.2.5      Clinical Observation

2.2.6      Cultural Bias in Assessment

Examples of Cultural Anomalies in Assessment and Diagnosis

Causes of Cultural Anomalies in Assessment and Diagnosis

Addressing Cultural Anomalies in Assessment and Diagnosis

Summary

2.3          CASE FORMULATION

2.4          CLASSIFICATION & ASSESSMENT IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVISITED

Chapter 3 – Research Methods in Clinical Psychology

Introduction

3.1          RESEARCH AND SCIENCE

3.1.1      What is Research?

3.1.2      Scientific Method

3.2          CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH – WHAT DO WE WANT TO FIND OUT?

3.2.1      How does clinical psychology research help us to understand psychopathology?

3.2.2      What questions do clinical psychologists use research to try and answer?

3.3          RESEARCH DESIGNS IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY

3.2.1      Correlational Designs

3.2.2      Longitudinal Studies and Prospective Designs

3.2.3      Epidemiological Studies

3.2.4      Experimental Designs

3.2.4.1   Basic Features of the Experimental Method

3.2.4.2   Uses of the Experiment in Clinical Psychology Research

3.2.4.3   Summary

3.2.5      Mixed Designs

3.2.6      Natural Experiments

3.2.7      Single Case Studies

3.2.7.1   Case Studies

3.2.7.2   Single-Case Experiments

3.3.8      Mediators & Moderators

3.3.9      Meta-analyses & Systematic Reviews

3.3.10    Qualitative Methods

3.3.10.1                Conducting and Analysing Qualitative Studies

3.3.10.2                Summary

3.3.11    Summary of Research Designs in Clinical Psychology

3.4          ETHICAL ISSUES IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH

3.4.1      Informed Consent

3.4.2      Causing Distress or Withholding Benefits

3.4.3      Privacy and Confidentiality

3.4.4      Summary of Ethical Issues

3.5          RESEARCH METHODS IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVISITED

Chapter 4 – Treating Psychopathology

Introduction

4.1          THE NATURE AND FUNCTION OF TREATMENTS FOR PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

4.1.1      Theoretical Approaches to Treatment

4.1.1.1   Psychodynamic Approaches

4.1.1.2   Behaviour Therapy

Therapies based on classical conditioning principles

Therapies based on operant conditioning principles

4.1.1.3   Cognitive Therapies

The Origins of Cognitive Therapy

‘Waves’ of CBT

4.1.1.4   Humanistic Therapies

4.1.1.5   Family & Systemic Therapies

4.1.1.6   Drug Treatments

Drug treatments for depression

Drug Treatments for Anxiety

Drug Treatments for Psychosis

Problems with Drug Treatments

4.1.1.7   Summary of Theoretical Approaches to Treatment

4.1.2      Modes of Treatment Delivery

Group Therapy

Counselling

Digital Technologies

Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT)

Summary

4.2          EVALUATING TREATMENT

4.2.1      Factors affecting the evaluation of treatments

Spontaneous Remission

Placebo Effects

Unstructured attention, understanding and caring

4.2.2      Methods of assessing the effectiveness of treatments

4.2.2.1   Randomised Controlled Trials (RCT)

What are RCTs?

Problems with RCTs

4.2.2.2   Meta-analyses & Systematic Reviews

4.2.3      What treatments are effective?

Is treatment more effective than no treatment?

4.2.4      Summary

4.3          TREATING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY REVIEWED

Chapter 5 – Clinical Practice

Introduction

5.1          THE ECONOMIC COST OF MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS

5.2          WHO ARE MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS?

5.3          PROVIDING MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES

5.3.1      What Facilities are Available?

5.3.2      How are Mental Health Services Structured?

5.3.3      The Recovery Model

5.4          THE ROLE OF THE CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST

5.4.1      Key Capabilities & Competencies

5.4.2      The Reflective Practitioner Model

5.4.3      Regulation & Continuing Professional Development

5.4.4      Training to be a Clinical Psychologist

5.4.4.1   Pre-Training Qualifications & Experiences

5.4.4.2   Clinical Training

5.5          CLINICAL PRACTICE REVIEWED

PART II – PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS

Chapter 6 – Anxiety & Stressor-Related Problems

Introduction

Anxiety as a Comorbid Condition

6.1          SPECIFIC PHOBIAS

Prevalence

Common Phobias

6.1.1      The Aetiology of Specific Phobias

Psychoanalytic Accounts

Classical Conditioning and Phobias

Biological Accounts of Phobias – The Role of Evolution

Biological Accounts of Phobias - Neuroimaging Studies

Multiple Pathways to Phobias

6.1.2      The Treatment of Specific Phobias

6.2          SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER

Prevalence

6.2.1      The Aetiology of Social Anxiety Disorder

Genetic Factors

Familial & Developmental Factors

Cognitive Factors

6.2.2      The Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder

6.3          PANIC DISORDER & AGORAPHOBIA

Panic Disorder

Agoraphobia

Prevalence

6.3.1      The Aetiology of Panic Disorder & Agoraphobia

6.3.1.1   The Aetiology of Panic Disorder

6.3.1.1.1               Biological Theories of Panic Disorder

Biological Factors

The Role of Hyperventilation

6.3.1.1.2               Psychological Theories of Panic Disorder

Classical conditioning

Anxiety Sensitivity

Catastrophic Misinterpretation of Bodily Sensations

Summary

6.3.2      The Treatment of Panic Disorder

6.4          GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER (GAD)

Diagnosis & Prevalence

Prevalence

6.4.1      The Aetiology of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

6.4.1.1   Biological Theories

6.4.1.2   Psychological Theories

Information processing biases in GAD

Beliefs about Worry and the Function of Worrying

Dispositional Characteristics of Worriers

6.4.2      The Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

6.4.2.1   Pharmacological Treatments

6.4.2.2   Psychological Treatments

Stimulus Control Treatment

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

6.5          OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD)

Diagnosis & Prevalence

OCD-Related Disorders

6.5.1      The Aetiology of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

6.5.1.1   Biological Factors

6.5.1.2   Psychological Factors

6.5.1.2.1               Memory Deficits

6.5.1.2.2               Clinical Constructs and OCD

Inflated Responsibility

Thought-Action Fusion

Mental Contamination

6.5.1.2.3               Thought Suppression

6.5.1.2.4               Family Accommodation & Excessive Reassurance Seeking

6.5.1.2.5               Perseveration and the Role of Mood

6.5.1.2.6               Summary

6.5.2      The Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Problems in Treating OCD

Exposure & Ritual Prevention Treatments (EPR)

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)

Pharmacological and Neurosurgical Treatments

6.6          TRAUMA & STRESS-RELATED DISORDERS

Diagnosis & Prevalence of Trauma and Stress-Related Disorders

6.6.1      The Aetiology of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Biological Factors 

Vulnerability Factors

Avoidance & Dissociation

Conditioning Theory

Emotional Processing Theory

‘Mental Defeat’

Dual Representation Theory

Summary

6.6.2      The Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Psychological Debriefing

Exposure Therapies

Cognitive Restructuring

6.7          ANXIETY-BASED PROBLEMS REVIEWED

Chapter 7 – Depression & Mood Disorders

Introduction

7.1          MAJOR DEPRESSION

7.1.1      THE DIAGNOSIS & PREVALENCE OF MAJOR DEPRESSION

7.1.2      THE AETIOLOGY OF DEPRESSION & MOOD DISORDERS

7.1.2.1 Risk Factors for Depression

7.1.2.2   Biological Theories

Genetic Factors

Neurochemical Factors

Brain Abnormalities and Depression

Neuroendocrine Factors

Summary of Biological Theories

7.1.2.3   Psychological Theories

Psychodynamic Explanations

Behavioural Theories

Negative Cognitions & Self-Schema

Learned Helplessness and Attribution

Hopelessness Theory

Rumination Theory

7.2          BIPOLAR DISORDER

7.2.1      THE DIAGNOSIS & PREVALENCE OF BIPOLAR DISORDER

7.2.2      THE AETIOLOGY OF BIPOLAR DISORDER

7.2.2.1   Biological Theories

Genetic Factors

Neurochemical Factors

7.2.2.2   Cognitive Deficits in Bipolar Disorder

7.2.2.3   Triggers for Depression & Mania in Bipolar Disorder

7.3          THE TREATMENT OF DEPRESSION

7.3.1      Biological Treatments

Antidepressant Medications

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

7.3.2      Psychological Treatments

Psychoanalysis

Social Skills Training

Behavioural Activation

Cognitive Therapy

7.4          NON-SUICIDAL SELF INJURY (NSSI)

7.5          SUICIDE

7.5.1      Risk factors for Suicide

7.5.2      Identifying and Preventing Suicide

7.6          DEPRESSON & MOOD DISORDERS REVIEWED

Chapter 8 – Experiencing Psychosis: Schizophrenia Spectrum Problems

Introduction

8.1          THE NATURE OF PSYCHOTIC SYMPTOMS

8.1.1      Delusions

8.1.2      Hallucinations

8.1.3      Disorganised Thinking (Speech)

8.1.4      Grossly Disorganised or Abnormal Motor Behaviour

8.1.5      Negative Symptoms

8.2          THE DIAGNOSIS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA SPECTRUM DISORDERS

8.2.1      Delusional Disorder

8.2.2      Brief Psychotic Disorder

8.2.3      Schizophrenia

8.2.4      Schizoaffective Disorder

8.3          THE PREVALENCE OF SCHIZOPHRENIA SPECTRUM DISORDERS

8.4          THE COURSE OF PSYCHOTIC SYMPTOMS

The Prodromal Stage

The Active Stage

The Residual Stage

8.5          THE AETIOLOGY OF PSYCHOTIC SYMPTOMS

8.5.1      Biological Theories

Genetic Factors

Molecular Genetics

Brain Neurotransmitters

The Neuroscience of Schizophrenia

8.5.2      Psychological Theories

8.5.2.1   Psychodynamic Theories

8.5.2.2   Behavioural Theories

8.5.2.3   Cognitive Theories

8.5.2.3.1               Cognitive Deficits

8.5.2.3.2               Cognitive Biases

Attentional Biases

Attributional Biases

Reasoning Biases

Interpretational Biases

Theory of Mind (TOM)

8.5.2.4   Metacognitive Deficits

8.5.3      Sociocultural Theories

Social Factors

Familial Factors

8.5.4      Summary of Theories of Psychotic Symptoms

8.6          THE TREATMENT OF PSYCHOSIS

8.6.1      Biological Treatments

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) and Psychosurgery

Antipsychotic Drugs

8.6.2      Psychological Therapies

Social Skills Training

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychosis (CBTp)

Personal Therapy

Cognitive Remediation Training

8.6.3      Family Interventions

8.6.4      Community Care

8.6.5      Summary of Treatment for Psychosis

8.7          EXPERIENCING PSYCHOSIS REVIEWED

Chapter 9 – Substance Use Disorders

Introduction

9.1          DEFINING AND DIAGNOSING SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS

9.2          THE PREVALENCE AND COMORBIDITY OF SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS

9.3          CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIFIC SUBSTANCE ABUSE DISORDERS

9.3.1      Alcohol Use Disorder

Alcohol Abuse and Dependence

Prevalence of Use

The Course of Alcohol Use Disorders

The Costs of Alcohol Use Disorders

Summary

9.3.2      Tobacco Use Disorder

Prevalence of Use:

Tobacco Use Disorder

The Costs of Nicotine Use

Summary

9.3.3      Cannabis Use Disorder

Prevalence of Use

Cannabis Use Disorder

The Costs of Cannabis Use Disorder

9.3.4      Stimulant Use Disorders

9.3.4.1   Cocaine

Prevalence of Use

Cocaine Use Disorder

The Costs of Cocaine Use Disorder

9.3.4.2   Amphetamines

Prevalence of Use

Amphetamine Use Disorder

The Costs of Amphetamine Use Disorder

9.3.4.3   Caffeine

9.3.5      Sedative Use Disorders

9.3.5.1   Opioids

Prevalence of Use

Opioid Use Disorder

The Costs of Opioid Use Disorder

9.3.6      Hallucinogenic-Related Disorders

9.3.6.1   Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)

Prevalence of Use

LSD Abuse and Dependency

The Costs of LSD Use

9.3.6.2   Ecstasy

Prevalence of Use

Ecstasy Regular Use

The Costs of Ecstasy Use

9.4          THE AETIOLOGY OF SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS

9.4.1      Experimentation

Availability

Familial Factors

Peer Group Influences

Media Influences

9.4.2      Regular Use

Mood Regulation

Self-Medication

Long-Term Expectations and Beliefs

Cultural Variables

9.4.3      Abuse and Dependence

Genetic Predisposition

Long-Term Substance-Induced Cognitive Deficits

Concurrent Psychiatric Diagnoses

Poverty

9.4.4      Summary

9.5          THE TREATMENT OF SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS

9.5.1      Community-Based Programmes

9.5.2      Behavioural Therapies

Aversion Therapy

Contingency Management Therapy

9.5.3      Cognitive Behavioural Therapies (CBT)

9.5.4      Family & Couples Therapy

9.5.5      Biological Treatments

9.5.6      Summary

9.6          SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS REVIEWED

Chapter 10 – Eating Disorders

Introduction

10.1        DIAGNOSIS AND PREVALENCE

10.1.1    Anorexia Nervosa

10.1.2    Bulimia Nervosa

10.1.3    Binge-Eating Disorder (BED)

10.2        CULTURAL & DEMOGRAPHIC DIFFERENCES IN EATING DISORDERS

Cultural Differences

Demographic Factors within Cultures

10.3        THE AETIOLOGY OF EATING DISORDERS

10.3.1    Biological Factors

Genetic Influences

Neurobiological Factors

10.3.2    Sociocultural Influences

Media Influences, Body Dissatisfaction and Dieting

Peer Influences

Familial Factors

10.3.3    Experiential Factors

10.3.4    Psychological and Dispositional Factors

10.3.5    Cognitive Deficits

10.3.6    Transdiagnostic Models of Eating Disorders

10.3.7    Summary

10.4        THE TREATMENT OF EATING DISORDERS

Pharmacological Treatments

Family Therapy

The Maudsley Anorexia Nervosa Treatment for Adults (MANTRA)

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)

Prevention Programmes

10.5        EATING DISORDERS REVIEWED

Chapter 11 – Sexual Problems

Introduction

11.1        DEFINING PATHOLOGICAL SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR

11.2        SEXUAL DYSFUNCTIONS

11.2.1    Diagnosis of Sexual Dysfunctions

11.2.1.1                Specific Sexual Dysfunctions

11.2.1.1.1             Disorders of Desire and Arousal

Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder

Erectile Disorder

Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder

11.2.1.1.2             Disorders of Orgasm

Female Orgasmic Disorder

Delayed Ejaculation

Early Ejaculation

11.2.1.1.3             Sexual Pain Disorders

Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder

11.2.1.1.4             Summary of Specific Sexual Dysfunction Disorders

11.2.2    The Aetiology of Sexual Dysfunctions

11.2.2.1                Risk Factors for Sexual Dysfunctions

11.2.2.2                                Theories of the Aetiology of Sexual Dysfunction

Psychanalytic Theory

The Two-Factor Model of Masters & Johnson

Sexual Dysfunction and Interpersonal Problems

The Role of Negative Emotion and Psychopathology

Remote vs Immediate Causes

Biological Causes

Sociocultural Causes

Summary

11.2.3    The Treatment of Sexual Dysfunctions

11.2.3.1                                Psychological and Behavioural Treatments

Direct Treatment of Symptoms

Couples Therapy

Sexual Skills and Communication Training

CBT for Sexual Dysfunction

Summary of Psychological Interventions for Sexual Dysfunction

11.2.3.2                                Biological Treatments

Drug Treatments

Hormone Treatments

Mechanical Devices

11.2.3.3                                Summary of Treatments of Sexual Dysfunction

11.2.4    Summary of Sexual Dysfunction

11.3        PARAPHILIC DISORDERS

11.3.1    The Diagnosis and Description of Paraphilic Disorders

Fetishistic disorder

Transvestic Disorder

Exhibitionistic Disorder

Voyeuristic disorder

Frotteuristic Disorder

Pedophilic Disorder

Sexual Masochism Disorder and Sexual Sadism Disorder

11.3.2    The Aetiology of Paraphilic Disorders

Risk Factors for Paraphilic disorders

The Psychodynamic Perspective

Classical conditioning

Childhood Abuse & Neglect

Dysfunctional Beliefs, Attitudes and Schemata

Biological Theories

Summary

11.3.3    The Treatment of Paraphilic Disorders

Behavioural Techniques

Cognitive Treatments

Relapse-Prevention Training

Hormonal and Drug Treatments

Summary of the Treatment of Paraphilic Disorders

11.3.4    Summary of Paraphilic Disorders

11.4        SEXUAL PROBLEMS REVIEWED

Chapter 12 – Personality Disorders

Introduction

12.1        CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS

12.1.1    The Categorical Approach to Personality Disorders in DSM-IV-TR & DSM-5

12.1.2    Problems with the Traditional Categorical Model

12.1.3    DSM-5’s Alternative Model

Level of Personality Functioning

Pathological Personality Traits

Specific Personality Disorders

12.1.4    Summary

12.2        PERSONALITY DISORDERS & THEIR DIAGNOSIS

12.2.1    Odd/Eccentric Personality Disorders (Cluster A)

Paranoid Personality Disorder

Schizoid Personality Disorder

Schizotypal Personality Disorder

12.2.2    Dramatic/Emotional Personality Disorders (Cluster B)

Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD)

Borderline Personality Disorder (BDP)

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Histrionic Personality Disorder

12.2.3    Anxious/Fearful Personality Disorders (Cluster C)

Avoidant Personality Disorder

Dependent Personality Disorder

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

12.2.4    Summary

12.3        THE PREVALENCE OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS

12.4        THE AETIOLOGY OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS

12.4.1    Odd/Eccentric Personality Disorders (Cluster A)

Psychodynamic Approaches

The Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder

12.4.2    Dramatic/Emotional Personality Disorders (Cluster B)

12.4.2.1                                Antisocial Personality Disorder

Childhood and Adolescent Behavioural Precursors of APD

Developmental Factors

Genetic Factors

Physiological and Neurological Factors

Cognitive Models

Summary of Theories of Antisocial Personality Disorder

12.4.2.2                Borderline Personality Disorder

Risk Factors for Borderline Personality Disorder

Biological Theories of BPD

Psychological Theories of BPD

Diathesis-Stress Models of BPD

12.4.2.3                Narcissistic Personality Disorder

12.4.2.4                Histrionic Personality Disorder

12.4.3    Anxious/Fearful Personality Disorders (Cluster C)

12.4.3.1                                Avoidant Personality Disorder

12.4.3.2                Dependent Personality Disorder

12.4.3.3                Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

12.4.3.4                Summary of the Aetiology of Personality Disorders

12.5        TREATING PEOPLE WITH A DIAGNOSIS OF PERSONALITY DISORDER

12.5.1    Drug Treatments

12.5.2    Psychodynamic and Insight Approaches

12.5.3    Dialectical Behaviour Therapy

12.5.4.   Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

12.5.5    Schema-Focused Cognitive Therapy

12.5.6    Summary of Treatments for People with a Diagnosis of Personality Disorder

12.6        PERSONALITY DISORDERS REVIEWED

Chapter 13 – Somatic Symptom Disorders

Introduction

13.1        THE DIAGNOSIS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SOMATIC SYMPTOM DISORDERS

Somatic Symptom Disorder

Illness Anxiety Disorder

Conversion Disorder

Factitious Disorder

13.2        THE AETIOLOGY OF SOMATIC SYMPTOM DISORDERS

Psychodynamic Interpretations

Consciousness and Behaviour

Risk Factors for Somatic Symptom Disorders

Learning approaches

Cognitive Factors

Sociocultural Approaches

Biological Factors

Summary

13.3        THE TREATMENT OF SOMATIC SYMPTOM DISORDERS

Psychodynamic Therapy

Behaviour Therapy

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

Drug Treatments

Summary

13. 4      SOMATIC SYMPTOM DISORDERS REVIEWED

Chapter 14 – Dissociative Experiences

Introduction

14.1        THE DIAGNOSIS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS.

Dissociative Amnesia

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

Depersonalization Disorder

14.1.2    Dissociative Disorders & PTSD

14.2        THE AETIOLOGY OF DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS

Risk Factors for Dissociative Disorders

Psychodynamic Theories

The Role of Fantasy and Dissociative Experiences

Cognitive Approaches

Biological Explanations

Dissociative Symptoms as Role-Playing and Therapeutic Constructions

Summary

14.3        THE TREATMENT OF DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS

Psychodynamic Therapy

Hypnotherapy

Drug Treatments

Summary

14.4        DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS REVIEWED

Chapter 15 – Neurocognitive Disorders

Introduction

15.1        THE DIAGNOSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS

15.1.1    Cognitive Impairments in Neurocognitive Disorders

Learning and memory deficits

Deficits in attention and arousal

Language Deficits

Deficits in visual-perceptual functioning

Motor Skill deficits

Deficits in Executive Functions

Deficits in Higher-Order Intellectual Functioning

15.1.2    Assessment in Clinical Neuropsychology

15.1.3    The Diagnosis of Neurocognitive Disorders

15.1.3.1                                Difficulties of Diagnosis

15.1.3.2                                DSM-5 Neurocognitive Disorder Diagnostic Categories

Delirium

Major or Minor Neurocognitive Disorders (NCDs)

15.1.3.3                                TYPES OF MAJOR NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDER

15.1.3.3.1             NCD due to HIV Infection

15.1.3.3.2             NCD due to Prion Disease

15.1.3.3.3             NCD due to Traumatic Brain Injury

15.1.3.3.4             Vascular Neurocognitive Disorder

15.1.3.3.5             Degenerative Disorders

15.1.3.3.5.1         NCD due to Alzheimer’s Disease

Characteristics of Alzheimer’s Disease

Aetiology of Alzheimer’s Disease

15.1.3.3.5.2         Frontotemporal Neurocognitive Disorder

15.1.3.3.5.3         NCD due to Parkinson’s Disease & NCD with Lewy Bodies

15.1.3.3.5.4         NCD due to Huntington’s Disease

15.1.3.3.5.5         Summary of Types of Neurocognitive Disorder

15.2        TREATMENT AND REHABILITATION FOR NEUROCOGNTIVE DISORDERS

15.2.1    Biological Treatments

Drug Treatments

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)

15.2.2    Cognitive Rehabilitation

Attention Deficits

Visuospatial Deficits

Apraxia and Deficits in Coordinated Self-Help Behaviours

Language and Communication Deficits

Memory Deficits

Deficits in Executive Functioning

Holistic Rehabilitation Methods

15.2.3    Caregiver Support Programmes

15.2.4    Summary of Treatments and Rehabilitation for Neurocognitive Disorders

15.3        NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS REVIEWED

Chapter 16 – Childhood & Adolescent Psychological Problems

Introduction

16.1        THE DIAGNOSIS & PREVALENCE OF CHILDHOOD & ADOLESCENT PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS: SOME GENERAL ISSUES

16.1.1    Difficulties associated with identification and diagnosis of childhood and adolescent psychological problems

16.1.2    Childhood Psychopathology as the Precursor of Adult Psychopathology

16.1.3    The Prevalence of Childhood & Adolescent Psychological Disorders

16.2        DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOUR PROBLEMS

16.2.1    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

16.2.1.1                                The Diagnosis of ADHD

16.2.1.2                                The Prevalence of ADHD

16.2.1.3                                The Consequences of ADHD

16.2.1.4                                The Aetiology of ADHD

16.2.1.4.1             Biological Factors

Genetic Factors

Neuroscience

Pre-natal Factors

Environmental Toxins

16.2.1.4.2             Psychological Factors

Parent-Child Interactions

Theory of Mind (TOM) Deficits

16.2.1.5                                Summary

16.2.2    CONDUCT DISORDER

16.2.2.1                                The Diagnosis of Conduct Disorder

16.2.2.2                The Prevalence and Course of Conduct Disorder

16.2.2.3                The Aetiology of Conduct Disorder

16.2.2.3.1             Biological Factors

Genetic Factors

Neuropsychological Deficits

Prenatal Factors

16.2.2.3.2             Psychological Factors

The Family Environment and Parent-Child Relationships

Media and Peer Influences

Cognitive Factors

Socioeconomic Factors

16.2.2.4                Summary

16.3        CHILDHOOD & ADOLESCENT ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION

16.3.1    Childhood Anxiety

16.3.1.1                                The Features and Characteristics of Childhood & Adolescent Anxiety Problems

Separation Anxiety

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

Specific Phobias

16.3.1.2                                The Aetiology of Childhood & Adolescent Anxiety Problems

Genetic Factors

Trauma and Stress Experiences

Modelling and Exposure to Information

Parenting Style

16.3.2    Childhood & Adolescent Depression

16.3.2.1                                The Diagnosis and Prevalence of Childhood & Adolescent Depression

16.3.2.2                The Aetiology of Childhood & Adolescent Depression

Risk Factors of Childhood Depression

Genetic Factors

Psychological Factors

16.4        THE TREATMENT OF CHILDHOOD & ADOLESCENT PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS

16.4.1    Drug Treatments

16.4.2    Behaviour Therapy

16.4.3    Family Interventions

16.4.4    Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)

16.4.5    Play Therapy

16.4.6    Prevention Strategies

16.4.7    Summary of Treatment of Childhood & Adolescent Psychological Problems

16.5        CHILDHOOD & ADOLESCENT PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS REVIEWED

Chapter 17 – Neurodevelopmental Disability & Diversity

Introduction

17.1        THE HISTORY OF CATERGORIZING AND LABELLING NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES & DIVERSITIES

17.2        SPECIFIC LEARNING PROBLEMS

17.2.1    Specific Learning Disorder

Dyslexia

Dyscalculia

17.2.2    Communication Disorders

Language Disorder

Speech Sound Disorder

Childhood-onset Fluency Disorder (Stuttering)

17.2.3    The Aetiology of Specific Learning Disabilities

17.2.3.1                                Dyslexia

Genetic Factors

Cognitive Factors

Brain Function

17.2.3.2                Dyscalculia

17.2.3.3                Communication Disorders

17.2.4    Treatment & Support for Specific Learning Problems

17.2.5    Summary of Specific Learning Problems

17.3        INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES

17.3.1    DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for Intellectual Disability

17.3.2    Alternative Approaches to Defining Intellectual Disability

17.3.3    The Prevalence of Intellectual Disabilities

17.3.4    The Aetiology of Intellectual Disability

17.3.4.1                                Biological Causes

Chromosomal Disorders

Metabolic Disorders

Perinatal Causes

17.3.4.2                Childhood Causes

17.3.4.3                Summary

17.3.5    Support and Interventions for Intellectual Disabilities

17.3.5.1                                Prevention Strategies

17.3.5.2                Training Procedures

17.3.5.3                Inclusion Strategies

17.3.5.4                Summary of Support and Intervention for Intellectual Disabilities

17.3.6    Summary of Intellectual Disabilities

17.4        AUTISTIC SPECTRUM DISORDER (ASD)

17.4.1    The Characteristics of Autistic Spectrum Disorder

Impairments of reciprocal social interaction

Impairments in communication

Impairments in imagination and flexibility of thought

Intellectual Deficits

17.4.2    The Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorder

17.4.3    The Prevalence of Autistic Spectrum Disorder

17.4.4    The Aetiology of Autistic Spectrum Disorder

17.4.4.1                                Biological Causes

Genetic Factors

Perinatal Factors

Brain Function

17.4.4.2                Cognitive Factors

Deficits in Executive Functioning

Theory of Mind Deficits

The Empathizing-Systematizing Theory

17.4.4.3                Summary of the Aetiology of Autistic Spectrum Disorder

17.4.5    Support and Interventions and Individuals with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

17.4.5.1                                Difficulties in the treatment of individuals with severe autistic spectrum disorder

17.4.5.2                Drug Treatments

17.4.5.3                Behavioural Training Methods

17.4.5.4                Inclusion Strategies

17.4.5.5                Summary of Support & Interventions for Individuals with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

17.4.6    Summary of Autistic Spectrum Disorder

17.5        NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY & DIVERSITY REVIEWED

Index

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
Graham C. Davey The City University, London.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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