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Process Systems Engineering for Biofuels Development. Edition No. 1. Wiley Series in Renewable Resource

  • ID: 5186850
  • Book
  • August 2020
  • 384 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

A comprehensive overview of current developments and applications in biofuels production 

Process Systems Engineering for Biofuels Development brings together the latest and most cutting-edge research on the production of biofuels. As the first book specifically devoted to process systems engineering for the production of biofuels, Process Systems Engineering for Biofuels Development covers theoretical, computational and experimental issues in biofuels process engineering. 

Written for researchers and postgraduate students working on biomass conversion and sustainable process design, as well as industrial practitioners and engineers involved in process design, modeling and optimization, this book is an indispensable guide to the newest developments in areas including: 

  • Enzyme-catalyzed biodiesel production 
  • Process analysis of biodiesel production (including kinetic modeling, simulation and optimization) 
  • The use of ultrasonification in biodiesel production 
  • Thermochemical processes for biomass transformation to biofuels 
  • Production of alternative biofuels 

In addition to the comprehensive overview of the subject of biofuels found in the Introduction of the book, the authors of various chapters have provided extensive discussions of the production and separation of biofuels via novel applications and techniques. 

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

List of Contributors xiii

Series Preface xv

Preface xvii

1 Introduction 1
Adrián Bonilla-Petriciolet and Gade Pandu Rangaiah

1.1 Importance of Biofuels and Overview of their Production 1

1.2 Significance of Process Systems Engineering for Biofuels Production 3

1.2.1 Modeling of Physicochemical Properties of Thermodynamic Systems Related to Biofuels 4

1.2.2 Intensification of the Biomass Transformation Routes for the Production of Biofuels 5

1.2.3 Computer-Aided Methodologies for Process Modeling, Design, Optimization, and Control Including Supply Chain and Life Cycle Analyses 7

1.3 Overview of this Book 9

References 11

2 Waste Biomass Suitable as Feedstock for Biofuels Production 15
Maria Papadaki

2.1 Introduction 15

2.1.1 The Need for Biofuels 15

2.1.2 Problem Definition 17

2.1.3 The Biomass Pool 18

2.2 Kinds of Feedstock 20

2.2.1 Spent Coffee Grounds 21

2.2.2 Lignocellulose Biomass 22

2.2.3 Palm, Olive, Coconut, Avocado, and Argan Oil Production Residues 25

2.2.4 Citrus 33

2.2.5 Grape Marc 36

2.2.6 Waste Oil and Cooking Oil 37

2.2.7 Additional Sources 38

2.3 Conclusions 40

Acknowledgment 40

References 40

3 Multiscale Analysis for the Exploitation of Bioresources: From Reactor Design to Supply Chain Analysis 49
Antonio Sánchez, Borja Hernández, and Mariano Martín

3.1 Introduction 49

3.2 Unit Level 50

3.2.1 Short Cut Methods 50

3.2.2 Mechanistic Models 51

3.2.3 Rules of Thumb 56

3.2.4 Dimensionless Analysis 56

3.2.5 Surrogate Models 56

3.2.6 Experimental Correlations 59

3.3 Process Synthesis 60

3.3.1 Heuristic Based 60

3.3.2 Supestructure Optimization 61

3.3.3 Environmental Impact Metrics 65

3.3.4 Safety Considerations 66

3.4 The Product Design Problem 66

3.4.1 Product Design: Engineering Biomass 66

3.4.2 Blending Problems 68

3.5 Supply Chain Level 68

3.5.1 Introduction 68

3.5.2 Modeling Issues 70

3.6 Multiscale Links and Considerations 71

Acknowledgment 74

Nomenclature 74

References 75

4 Challenges in the Modeling of Thermodynamic Properties and Phase Equilibrium Calculations for Biofuels Process Design 85
Roumiana P. Stateva and Georgi St. Cholakov

4.1 Introduction 85

4.2 Thermodynamic Modeling Framework: Elements, Structure, and Organization 86

4.3 Thermodynamics of Biofuel Systems 88

4.3.1 Phase Equilibria 88

4.3.2 Thermodynamic Models 90

4.4 Sources of Data for Biofuels Process Design 98

4.5 Methods for Predicting Data for Biofuels Process Design 102

4.5.1 Group Contribution Methods for Biofuels Process Design 103

4.5.2 Quantitative Structure–Property Relationships for Biofuels Process Design 105

4.6 Challenges for the Biofuels Process Design Methods 109

4.7 Influence of Uncertainties in Thermophysical Properties of Pure Compounds on the Phase Behavior of Biofuel Systems 112

4.8 Conclusions 114

Acknowledgment 114

Exercises 114

References 115

5 Up-grading ofWaste Oil: A Key Step in the Future of Biofuel Production 121
Luigi di Bitonto and Carlo Pastore

5.1 Introduction 121

5.2 Physicochemical Pretreatments of Waste Oils: Removal of Contaminants 124

5.3 Direct Treatment and Conversion of FFAs into Methyl Esters 125

5.3.1 Homogeneous Catalysis: Brønsted and Lewis Acids 125

5.3.2 Heterogeneous Catalysis 127

5.3.3 Enzymatic Biodiesel Production 128

5.3.4 ILs Biodiesel Production 130

5.3.5 Use of Metal Hydrated Salts 133

5.4 Future Trends of the Pretreatments of Waste Oils 139

5.5 Conclusions 140

Acknowledgment 141

Abbreviations 141

References 142

6 Production of Biojet Fuel from Waste Raw Materials: A Review 149
Ana Laura Moreno-Gómez, Claudia Gutiérrez-Antonio, Fernando Israel Gómez-Castro, and Salvador Hernández

6.1 Introduction 149

6.2 Waste Triglyceride Feedstock 150

6.3 Waste Lignocellulosic Feedstock 159

6.4 Waste Sugar and Starchy Feedstock 164

6.5 Main Challenges and Future Trends 165

6.6 Conclusions 167

Acknowledgments 167

References 167

7 Computer-Aided Design for Genetic Modulation to Improve Biofuel Production 173

Feng-Sheng Wang and Wu-Hsiung Wu

7.1 Introduction 173

7.2 Method 175

7.2.1 Flux Balance Analysis 175

7.2.2 Flux Variability Analysis 176

7.2.3 Minimization of Metabolic Adjustment 176

7.2.4 Regulatory On-Off Minimization 177

7.2.5 Optimal Strain Design Problem 177

7.3 Computer-Aided Strain Design Tool 179

7.4 Examples 181

7.4.1 E. coli Core Model 181

7.4.2 Genome-Scale Metabolic Model of E. coli iAF1260 183

7.5 Conclusions 185

Appendix 7.A: The SBP Program 187

References 187

8 Implementation of Biodiesel Production Process Using Enzyme-Catalyzed Routes 191
Thalles Allan Andrade, Massimiliano Errico, and Knud Villy Christensen

8.1 Introduction 191

8.2 Biodiesel Production Routes: Chemical versus Enzymatic Catalysts 194

8.2.1 Chemical Catalysts 195

8.2.2 Enzymatic Catalysts 196

8.3 Optimal Reaction Conditions and Kinetic Modeling 198

8.3.1 Evaluation of the Reaction Conditions 199

8.3.2 Kinetic Modeling 201

8.4 Process Simulation and Economic Evaluation 205

8.5 Reuse of Enzyme for the Transesterification Reaction 210

8.5.1 Recovery of Eversa Transform by Means of Centrifugation 210

8.5.2 Recovery of Eversa Transform by Means of Ceramic Membranes 211

8.6 Environmental Impact and Final Remarks 215

Acknowledgments 217

Nomenclature 217

References 217

9 Process Analysis of Biodiesel Production – Kinetic Modeling, Simulation, and Process Design 221
Bruna Ricetti Margarida, Wanderson Rogerio Giacomin-Junior, Luiz Fernando de Lima Luz Junior, Fernando Augusto Pedersen Voll, and Marcos Lucio Corazza

9.1 Introduction 221

9.1.1 Homogeneous-Based Reactions 222

9.1.2 Heterogeneous-Based Reactions 223

9.1.3 Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions 224

9.1.4 Supercritical Route Reactions 224

9.1.5 Methanol or Ethanol for Biodiesel Synthesis 224

9.2 Getting Started with Aspen Plus V10 224

9.2.1 Pure Compounds 225

9.2.2 Mixture Parameters 229

9.3 Kinetic Study 232

9.3.1 Esterification Reaction 232

9.3.2 Experimental Reaction Data Regression 234

9.3.3 Transesterification Reaction 236

9.3.4 Supercritical Route 238

9.4 Process Design 239

9.4.1 Esterification Reaction 239

9.4.2 Methanol Recycling 243

9.4.3 Transesterification Reaction 244

9.4.4 Biodiesel Purification 245

9.4.5 Additional Resources 248

9.5 Energy and Economic Analysis 252

9.6 Concluding Remarks 254

Acknowledgment 255

Exercises 255

References 256

10 Process Development, Design and Analysis of Microalgal Biodiesel Production Aided by Microwave and Ultrasonication 259
Dipesh S. Patle, Savyasachi Shrikhande, and Gade Pandu Rangaiah

10.1 Introduction 259

10.2 Process Development and Modeling 262

10.3 Sizing and Cost Analysis 272

10.4 Comparison with the WCO-Based Process of the Same Capacity 277

10.4.1 Biodiesel Process Using WCO as Raw Material 277

10.4.2 Comparative Analysis 277

10.5 Comparison with the Microalgae-Based Processes 280

10.6 Conclusions 280

Acknowledgment 281

Appendix 10.A 281

Exercises 282

References 282

11 Thermochemical Processes for the Transformation of Biomass into Biofuels 285
Carlos J. Durán-Valle

11.1 Introduction 285

11.2 Biomass and Biofuels 288

11.3 Combustion 289

11.4 Gasification 290

11.4.1 Fixed Bed Gasification 291

11.4.2 Fluidized Bed Gasification 292

11.4.3 Dual Fluidized Bed Gasification 292

11.4.4 Hydrothermal Gasification 293

11.4.5 Supercritical Water Gasification 294

11.4.6 Plasma Gasification 294

11.4.7 Catalyzed Gasification 295

11.4.8 Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis 295

11.5 Liquefaction 296

11.6 Pyrolysis 296

11.6.1 Slow Pyrolysis 297

11.6.2 Fast Pyrolysis 297

11.6.3 Flash Pyrolysis 297

11.6.4 Catalytic Biomass Pyrolysis 303

11.6.5 Microwave Heating 304

11.6.6 Product Separation 304

11.7 Carbonization 305

11.8 Conclusions 308

Acknowledgments 309

References 309

12 Intensified Purification Alternative for Methyl Ethyl Ketone Production: Economic, Environmental, Safety and Control Issues 311
Eduardo Sánchez-Ramírez, Juan José Quiroz-Ramírez, and Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernández

12.1 Introduction 311

12.2 Problem Statement and Case Study 316

12.3 Evaluation Indexes and Optimization Problem 317

12.3.1 Total Annual Cost Calculation 319

12.3.2 Environmental Index Calculation 319

12.3.3 Individual Risk Index 320

12.3.4 Controllability Index Calculation 322

12.3.5 Multi-Objective Optimization Problem 323

12.4 Global Optimization Methodology 324

12.5 Results 325

12.6 Conclusions 335

Acknowledgments 335

Notation 335

References 336

13 Present and Future of Biofuels 341
Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernández, César Ramírez-Márquez, and Eduardo Sánchez-Ramírez

13.1 Introduction 341

13.2 Some Representative Biofuels 344

13.2.1 Bioethanol 344

13.2.2 Biodiesel 347

13.2.3 Biobutanol 348

13.2.4 Biojet Fuel 349

13.2.5 Biogas 351

13.3 Perspectives and Future of Biofuels 352

References 354

Index 357

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Gade Pandu Rangaiah National University of Singapore.

Adrian Bonilla-Petriciolet Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes.
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