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Lead-free Soldering Process Development and Reliability. Edition No. 1. Quality and Reliability Engineering Series

  • Book
  • 512 Pages
  • August 2020
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
  • ID: 5186851

Covering the major topics in lead-free soldering 

Lead-free Soldering Process Development and Reliability provides a comprehensive discussion of all modern topics in lead-free soldering. Perfect for process, quality, failure analysis and reliability engineers in production industries, this reference will help practitioners address issues in research, development and production.  

Among other topics, the book addresses: 

-          Developments in process engineering (SMT, Wave, Rework, Paste Technology) 

-          Low temperature, high temperature and high reliability alloys 

-          Intermetallic compounds 

-          PCB surface finishes and laminates 

-          Underfills, encapsulants and conformal coatings 

-          Reliability assessments  

In a regulatory environment that includes the adoption of mandatory lead-free requirements in a variety of countries, the book’s explanations of high-temperature, low-temperature, and high-reliability lead-free alloys in terms of process and reliability implications are invaluable to working engineers.  

Lead-free Soldering takes a forward-looking approach, with an eye towards developments likely to impact the industry in the coming years. These will include the introduction of lead-free requirements in high-reliability electronics products in the medical, automotive, and defense industries. The book provides practitioners in these and other segments of the industry with guidelines and information to help comply with these requirements. 

Table of Contents

List of Contributors xix

Introduction xxi

1 Lead-Free Surface Mount Technology 1
Jennifer Nguyen and Jasbir Bath

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Lead-Free Solder Paste Alloys 1

1.3 Solder Paste Printing 2

1.3.1 Introduction 2

1.3.2 Key Paste Printing Elements 2

1.4 Component Placement 5

1.4.1 Introduction 5

1.4.2 Key Placement Parameters 5

1.4.2.1 Nozzle 6

1.4.2.2 Vision System 6

1.4.2.3 PCB Support 6

1.4.2.4 Component Size, Packaging, and Feeder Capacity 6

1.4.2.5 Feeder Capacity 6

1.5 Reflow Process 7

1.5.1 Introduction 7

1.5.2 Key Parameters 7

1.5.2.1 Preheat 7

1.5.2.2 Soak 8

1.5.2.3 Reflow 8

1.5.2.4 Cooling 9

1.5.2.5 Reflow Atmosphere 9

1.6 Vacuum Soldering 9

1.7 Paste in Hole 10

1.8 Robotic Soldering 11

1.9 Advanced Technologies 12

1.9.1 Flip Chip 12

1.9.2 Package on Package 12

1.10 Inspection 13

1.10.1 Solder Paste Inspection (SPI) 13

1.10.2 Solder Joint Inspection 14

1.10.2.1 Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) 14

1.10.2.2 X-ray Inspection 15

1.11 Conclusions 16

References 17

2 Wave/Selective Soldering 19
Gerjan Diepstraten

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Flux 19

2.2.1 The Function of a Flux 19

2.2.2 Flux Contents 20

2.3 Amount of Flux Application on a Board 20

2.4 Flux Handling 21

2.5 Flux Application 21

2.5.1 Methods to Apply Flux (Wave Soldering) 21

2.5.2 Methods to Apply Flux (Selective Soldering) 23

2.6 Preheat 24

2.6.1 Preheat Process-Heating Methods 24

2.6.2 Preheat Temperatures 27

2.6.3 Preheat Time 28

2.6.4 Controlling Preheat Temperatures 28

2.6.5 BoardWarpage Compensation (Selective Soldering) 29

2.7 Selective Soldering 29

2.7.1 Different Selective Soldering Point to Point Nozzles (Selective Soldering) 29

2.7.2 Solder Temperatures (Selective Soldering) 30

2.7.3 Dip/Contact Times (Selective Soldering) 31

2.7.4 Drag Conditions (Selective Soldering) 31

2.7.5 Nitrogen Environment (Selective Soldering) 31

2.7.6 Wave Height Controls (Selective Soldering) 32

2.7.7 De-Bridging Tools (Selective Soldering) 32

2.7.8 Solder Pot (Selective Soldering) 33

2.7.9 Topside Heating during Soldering (Selective Soldering) 34

2.7.10 Selective Soldering Dip Process with Nozzle Plates (Selective Soldering) 34

2.7.11 Solder Temperatures for Multi-Wave Dip Soldering (Selective Soldering) 35

2.7.12 Nitrogen Environment (Selective Soldering) 35

2.7.13 Wave Height Control (Selective Soldering) 36

2.7.14 Dip Time - Contact Time with Solder (Selective Soldering) 36

2.7.15 Solder Flow Acceleration and Deceleration (Selective Soldering) 37

2.7.16 De-Bridging Tools (Selective Soldering) 37

2.7.17 Pallets (Selective Soldering) 38

2.7.18 Conveyor (Selective Soldering) 38

2.8 Wave Soldering 39

2.8.1 Wave Formers (Wave Soldering) 39

2.8.2 Pallets (Wave Soldering) 40

2.8.3 Nitrogen Environment (Wave Soldering) 40

2.8.4 Process Control (Wave Soldering) 41

2.8.5 Conveyor (Wave Soldering) 41

2.9 Conclusions 42

References 42

3 Lead-Free Rework 43
Jasbir Bath

3.1 Introduction 43

3.2 Hand Soldering Rework for SMT and PTH Components 43

3.2.1 Alloy and Flux Choices 43

3.2.1.1 Alloys 43

3.2.1.2 Flux 44

3.2.2 Soldering Iron Tip Life 44

3.2.3 Hand Soldering Temperatures and Times 47

3.3 BGA/CSP Rework 50

3.3.1 Alloy and Flux Choices 50

3.3.1.1 Alloys 50

3.3.1.2 Flux 50

3.3.2 BGA/CSP Rework Soldering Temperatures and Times 50

3.3.3 Component Temperatures in Relation to IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020 and Component/BoardWarpage Standards 52

3.3.3.1 IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020 Standard 52

3.3.3.2 ComponentWarpage Standards 52

3.3.3.3 BoardWarpage Standards 52

3.3.4 Equipment Updates for Lead-Free BGA/CSP Rework 53

3.3.5 Adjacent Component Temperatures 53

3.4 Non-standard Component Rework (Including BTC/QFN) 54

3.4.1 Alloy and Flux Choices 54

3.4.1.1 Alloys 54

3.4.1.2 Flux 54

3.4.2 Soldering Temperatures and Times 54

3.4.3 Non-standard Component Temperatures in Relation to IPC JEDEC J-STD-020 Standard and ComponentWarpage Standards 55

3.4.4 Equipment and Tooling Updates for Lead-Free Non-standard Component Rework 55

3.4.5 Adjacent Component Temperatures 56

3.4.6 Non-standard Component Rework Solder Joint Reliability 56

3.5 PTH (Pin-Through-Hole)Wave Rework 56

3.5.1 Alloy and Flux Choices 56

3.5.1.1 Alloys 56

3.5.1.2 Flux 57

3.5.2 Soldering Temperatures and Times 57

3.5.3 Component Temperatures in Relation to Industry and Board Standards During PTH Rework 67

3.5.3.1 Component Temperature Rating Standards 67

3.5.3.2 Bare Board Testing Standards and Methods for PTH Rework 67

3.5.4 Equipment Updates for PTH Component Rework 68

3.5.5 Adjacent Component Temperatures During PTH Rework 68

3.5.6 PTH Component Rework Solder Joint Reliability 68

3.5.6.1 Copper Dissolution 68

3.5.6.2 Holefill 69

3.6 Conclusions 69

References 70

4 Solder Paste and Flux Technology 73
Shantanu Joshi and Peter Borgesen

4.1 Introduction 73

4.2 Solder Paste 75

4.2.1 Water-Soluble Solder Paste 75

4.2.2 No-Clean Solder Paste 76

4.3 Flux Technology 77

4.3.1 Halide-Free and Halide-Containing 77

4.4 Composition of Solder Paste 79

4.4.1 Alloy 79

4.4.2 Flux 82

4.4.3 Solder Powder Type 83

4.4.3.1 Oxide Layer 84

4.5 Characteristics of a Solder Paste 84

4.5.1 Printing 84

4.5.1.1 Printing Parameters 85

4.5.2 Reflow 86

4.5.2.1 Wetting/Spreadability of Lead-Free Solder Paste 86

4.5.2.2 Bridging 86

4.5.2.3 Micro Solder Balls 86

4.5.2.4 Voiding 86

4.5.2.5 Head-on-Pillow Component Soldering Defect 88

4.5.2.6 Non-Wet Open 90

4.5.2.7 Tombstoning 90

4.5.3 In-Circuit Test (ICT) Probe Testability 90

4.5.4 Flux Reliability Issues 91

4.6 Conclusions 92

References 92

5 Low Temperature Lead-Free Alloys and Solder Pastes 95
Raiyo Aspandiar, Nilesh Badwe, and Kevin Byrd

5.1 Introduction 95

5.1.1 Definition of Low Temperature Solders 95

5.1.2 Benefits of Low Temperature Soldering 97

5.1.2.1 Reduced Manufacturing Cost 98

5.1.2.2 Power Use Savings 98

5.1.2.3 Environmental Benefits 99

5.1.2.4 Manufacturing Yield Improvements 100

5.1.3 Drawbacks 103

5.1.3.1 Brittleness 103

5.1.4 Other Low Temperature Metallurgical Systems 103

5.2 Development of Robust Bismuth-Based Low Temperature Solder Alloys 105

5.2.1 Bismuth-Tin (Bi-Sn) Phase Diagram 105

5.2.2 Mechanical Properties 107

5.2.3 Physical Properties 108

5.2.4 Alloy Development Progress 108

5.2.5 Fluxes for Low Temperature Solders 109

5.3 SMT Process Characterization of Sn-Bi Based Solder Pastes 111

5.3.1 Printability 111

5.3.2 Reflow Profiles 112

5.3.3 Rework 113

5.4 Polymeric Reinforcement of Sn-Bi Based Low Temperature Alloys 114

5.4.1 Current Polymeric Reinforcement Strategies 114

5.4.2 Joint Reinforced Pastes (JRP) 118

5.4.3 Polymeric Reinforcement Summary 128

5.5 Mixed SnAgCu-BiSn BGA Solder Joints 128

5.5.1 Formation Mechanism 128

5.5.2 Microstructural Features and Key Characteristics 133

5.5.3 Soldering Process Optimization 134

5.5.4 Possible Defects 135

5.6 Solder Joint Reliability 140

5.7 Conclusions 145

5.8 Future Development and Trends 146

References 149

6 High Temperature Lead-Free Bonding Materials - The Need, the Potential Candidates and the Challenges 155
Hongwen Zhang and Ning-Cheng Lee

6.1 Introduction 155

6.2 Solder Materials 159

6.2.1 Gold-Based Solders 159

6.2.2 Bismuth-Rich Solders 160

6.2.2.1 Design of Bismuth-Rich Solders 160

6.2.2.2 Mechanical Behavior of BiAgX 163

6.2.2.3 Microstructure and Microstructural Evolution of BiAgX Joint 167

6.2.3 Tin-Antimony (Sn-Sb) High Temperature Solders 174

6.2.4 Zinc-Aluminum Solders 176

6.3 Silver (Ag)-Sintering Materials 178

6.4 Transient Liquid Phase Bonding Materials/Technique 181

6.5 Summary 182

Acknowledgment 185

References 185

7 Lead (Pb)-Free Solders for High Reliability and High-Performance Applications 191
Richard J. Coyle

7.1 Evolution of Commercial Lead (Pb)-Free Solder Alloys 191

7.1.1 First Generation Commercial Pb-Free Solders 191

7.1.2 Second Generation Commercial Pb-Free Solders 192

7.1.3 Third Generation Commercial Pb-Free Solders 196

7.2 Third Generation Alloy Research and Development 196

7.2.1 Limitations of Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Alloys 196

7.2.2 Emergence of Commercial Third Generation Alloys 202

7.2.2.1 The Genesis of 3rd Generation Alloy Development 202

7.2.2.2 An Expanding Class of 3rd Generation Alloys 202

7.2.3 Metallurgical Considerations 203

7.2.3.1 Antimony (Sb) Additions to Tin (Sn) 206

7.2.3.2 Indium (In) Additions to Tin (Sn) 207

7.2.3.3 Bismuth (Bi) Additions to Tin (Sn) 209

7.3 Reliability Testing Third Generation Commercial Pb-Free Solders 210

7.3.1 Thermal Fatigue Evaluations 210

7.3.2 iNEMI/HDPUG Third Generation Alloy Pb-Free Thermal Fatigue Project 213

7.3.3 Microstructure and Reliability of Third Generation Alloys 219

7.4 Reliability Gaps and Suggestions for AdditionalWork 223

7.4.1 Root Cause of Interfacial Fractures 223

7.4.2 Effect of Component Attributes on Thermal Fatigue 224

7.4.3 Effect of Surface Finish on Thermal Fatigue 224

7.4.4 Thermomechanical Test Parameters and Test Outcomes 225

7.4.4.1 Thermal Cycling Dwell Time 225

7.4.4.2 Preconditioning (Isothermal Aging) 225

7.4.4.3 Thermal Cycling of Mixed Metallurgy BGA Assemblies 226

7.4.4.4 Thermal Shock or Aggressive Thermal Cycling 226

7.4.5 Reliability Under Mechanical Loading: Drop/Shock, and Vibration 227

7.4.6 Solder Alloy Microstructure and Reliability 230

7.4.7 Summary of Suggestions for Additional Investigation 231

7.5 Conclusions 232

Acknowledgments 234

References 234

8 Lead-Free Printed Wiring Board Surface Finishes 249
Rick Nichols

8.1 Introduction: Why a Surface Finish is Needed 249

8.2 Surface Finishes in the Market 250

8.3 Application Perspective 255

8.4 A Description of Final Finishes 261

8.4.1 Hot Air Solder Leveling (HASL) 263

8.4.1.1 Process Complexity 263

8.4.1.2 Process Description 265

8.4.1.3 Issues and Remedies 267

8.4.1.4 Summary 267

8.4.2 High Temperature OSP 267

8.4.2.1 Process Complexity 267

8.4.2.2 Process Description 269

8.4.2.3 Issues and Remedies 270

8.4.2.4 Summary 270

8.4.3 Immersion Tin 271

8.4.3.1 Process Complexity 271

8.4.3.2 Process Description 273

8.4.3.3 Issues and Remedies 275

8.4.3.4 Summary 276

8.4.4 Immersion Silver 276

8.4.4.1 Process Complexity 277

8.4.4.2 Process Description 279

8.4.4.3 Issues and Remedies 280

8.4.4.4 Summary 281

8.4.5 Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold (ENIG) 281

8.4.5.1 Process Complexity 281

8.4.5.2 Process Description 283

8.4.5.3 Issues and Remedies 285

8.4.5.4 Summary 286

8.4.6 Electroless Nickel/Electroless Palladium/Immersion Gold (ENEPIG) 287

8.4.6.1 Process Complexity 287

8.4.6.2 Process Description 289

8.4.6.3 Issues and Remedies 290

8.4.6.4 Summary 291

8.4.7 Electroless Nickel Autocatalytic Gold (ENAG) 291

8.4.7.1 Process Complexity 292

8.4.7.2 Process Description 293

8.4.7.3 Issues and Remedies 295

8.4.7.4 Summary 295

8.4.8 Electroless Palladium Autocatalytic Gold (EPAG) 295

8.4.8.1 Process Complexity 295

8.4.8.2 Process Description 297

8.4.8.3 Issues and Remedies 298

8.4.8.4 Summary 299

8.4.9 Electrolytic Nickel Electrolytic Gold 299

8.4.9.1 Process Complexity 299

8.4.9.2 Process Description 301

8.4.9.3 Issues and Remedies 301

8.4.9.4 Summary 302

8.5 Conclusions 303

References 304

9 PCB Laminates (Including High Speed Requirements) 307
Karl Sauter and Silvio Bertling

9.1 Introduction 307

9.2 Manufacturing Background 307

9.3 PCB Fabrication Design and Laminate Manufacturing Factors Affecting Yield and Reliability 308

9.3.1 High Frequency Loss 308

9.3.2 Mixed Dielectric 308

9.3.3 Back-Drilling 309

9.3.4 Aspect Ratio 309

9.3.5 PCB Fabrication 309

9.3.6 Press Lamination 310

9.3.7 Moisture Content 310

9.3.8 Laminate Material 311

9.4 Assembly Factors Affecting Yields and Long-Term Reliability for Laminate Materials 311

9.4.1 Reflow Temperature 311

9.4.2 Assembly Components 312

9.4.3 Thermal Stress 312

9.5 Copper Foil Trends (by Silvio Bertling) 312

9.6 High Frequency/High Speed and Other Trends Affecting Laminate Materials 316

9.6.1 High Speed Standards 316

9.6.2 Adhesion Treatment (Prior to Press Lamination) 317

9.6.3 Laminate Material Filler Content 317

9.6.4 GlassWeave Effect 317

9.6.5 Halogen-Free 318

9.7 Conclusions 318

References 319

10 Underfills and Encapsulants Used in Lead-Free Electronic Assembly 321
Brian J. Toleno

10.1 Introduction 321

10.2 Rheology 322

10.2.1 Rheological Response and Behavior 323

10.2.1.1 Thixotropy 325

10.2.2 Measuring Rheology 327

10.2.2.1 Spindle Type Viscometry 327

10.2.2.2 Cone and Plate Rheometry 328

10.3 Curing of Adhesive Systems 330

10.3.1 Thermal Cure 330

10.3.2 Ultraviolet (UV) Light Curing 335

10.3.3 Moisture Cure 338

10.4 Glass Transition Temperature 339

10.5 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) 341

10.6 Young’s Modulus (E) 343

10.7 Applications 344

10.7.1 Underfills 344

10.7.1.1 Capillary Underfill 345

10.7.1.2 Fluxing (No-Flow) Underfill 348

10.7.1.3 Removable/Reworkable Underfill 349

10.7.1.4 Staking or Corner Bond Underfill 349

10.7.2 Encapsulant Materials 350

10.7.2.1 Glob Top 351

10.7.2.2 Component Encapsulation 351

10.7.2.3 Application 353

10.7.2.4 Low-Pressure Molding 355

10.8 Conclusions 355

References 355

11 Thermal Cycling and General Reliability Considerations 359
Maxim Serebreni

11.1 Introduction to Thermal Cycling of Electronics 359

11.1.1 Influence of Solder Alloy Composition and Microstructure on Thermal Cycling Reliability 362

11.2 Influence of Package Type and Thermal Cycling Profile 363

11.2.1 Influence of Board and Pad Design 366

11.3 Fatigue Life Prediction Models 371

11.3.1 Empirical Models and Acceleration Factors 371

11.3.2 Semi-empirical Models 372

11.3.3 Finite Element Analysis (FEA) Based Fatigue Life Predictions 373

11.4 Conclusions 376

References 377

12 Intermetallic Compounds 381
Alyssa Yaeger, Travis Dale, Elizabeth McClamrock, Ganesh Subbarayan, and Carol Handwerker

12.1 Introduction 381

12.1.1 Solders 382

12.1.2 Interaction with Substrates 382

12.2 Setting the Stage 384

12.2.1 Mechanical and Thermomechanical Response of Solder Joints 386

12.3 Common Lead-Free Solder Alloy Systems 392

12.3.1 Solder Joints Formed Between Sn-Cu, Sn-Ag, and Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Alloys and Copper Surface Finishes 396

12.3.1.1 Sn-Cu Solder on Copper 396

12.3.1.2 Sn-Ag and Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Alloys on Copper 399

12.3.2 Solder Joints Formed Between Sn-Cu, Sn-Ag, and Sn-Ag-Cu Alloys and Nickel Surface Finishes 408

12.3.2.1 Ni-Sn 408

12.3.2.2 Sn-Ag Solder Alloys on Nickel 411

12.3.2.3 Spalling 415

12.3.2.4 Effects of Phosphorus Concentration in ENIG on Solder Joint Reliability 416

12.3.3 Au-Sn 417

12.4 High Lead - Exemption 422

12.5 Conclusions 423

References 423

13 Conformal Coatings 429
Jason Keeping

13.1 Introduction 429

13.2 Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) Requirements 430

13.3 Overview of Types of Conformal Coatings 430

13.3.1 Types of Conformal Coatings 431

13.3.1.1 Acrylic Resins (Type AR) 432

13.3.1.2 Urethane Resins (Type UR) 433

13.3.1.3 Epoxy Resins (Type ER) 433

13.3.1.4 Silicone Resins (Type SR) 435

13.3.1.5 Para-xylylene (Type XY) 436

13.3.1.6 Synthetic Rubber (Type SC) 437

13.3.1.7 Ultra-Thin (Type UT) 438

13.4 Preparatory Steps Necessary to Ensure a Successful Coating Process 440

13.4.1 Assembly Cleaning 440

13.4.2 Assembly Masking 440

13.4.3 Priming and Other Surface Treatments 441

13.4.3.1 Measuring Surface Energy 441

13.4.3.2 Water Drop Contact Angle 447

13.4.4 Bake-Out 448

13.5 Various Methods of Applying Conformal Coating 449

13.5.1 Manual Coating 449

13.5.2 Dip 449

13.5.3 Hand Spray 450

13.5.4 Automatic Spray 451

13.5.5 Selective Coating 451

13.5.6 Vapor Deposition 451

13.6 Aspects for Cure, Inspection, and Demasking 453

13.6.1 Cure 453

13.6.1.1 Solvent Evaporation 453

13.6.1.2 Room Temperature Vulcanization (RTV) 454

13.6.1.3 Heat Cure 454

13.6.1.4 UV Cure 454

13.6.1.5 Catalyzed 454

13.6.2 UV Inspection 455

13.6.3 Demasking 455

13.7 Repair and Rework Processes 456

13.7.1 Chemical 456

13.7.2 Thermal 456

13.7.3 Mechanical 457

13.7.4 Abrasion (Micro-Abrasion) 457

13.7.5 Plasma Etch 457

13.8 Design Guidance on When and Where Conformal Coating is Required, and Which Physical Characteristics and Properties are Important to Consider 457

13.8.1 Is Conformal Coating Required? 458

13.8.1.1 Why Use It? 458

13.8.1.2 Why Not Use Conformal Coating? 459

13.8.2 Desirable Material Properties 459

13.8.3 Areas to Mask 461

13.9 Long-Term Reliability and Testing 462

13.10 Conclusions 462

13.11 Future Work 463

References 463

Index 467

Authors

Jasbir Bath Flextronics International, formerly called Solectron.