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Biopolymers for Biomedical and Biotechnological Applications. Edition No. 1. Advanced Biotechnology

  • ID: 5187118
  • Book
  • January 2021
  • 400 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
Provides insight into biopolymers, their physicochemical properties, and their biomedical and biotechnological applications

This comprehensive book is a one-stop reference for the production, modifications, and assessment of biopolymers. It highlights the technical and methodological advancements in introducing biopolymers, their study, and promoted applications.

"Biopolymers for Biomedical and Biotechnological Applications" begins with a general overview of biopolymers, properties, and biocompatibility. It then provides in-depth information in three dedicated sections: Biopolymers through Bioengineering and Biotechnology Venues; Polymeric Biomaterials with Wide Applications; and Biopolymers for Specific Applications. Chapters cover: advances in biocompatibility; advanced microbial polysaccharides; microbial cell factories for biomanufacturing of polysaccharides; exploitation of exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria; and the new biopolymer for biomedical application called nanocellulose. Advances in mucin biopolymer research are presented, along with those in the synthesis of fibrous proteins and their applications. The book looks at microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), as well as natural and synthetic biopolymers in drug delivery and tissue engineering. It finishes with a chapter on the current state and applications of, and future trends in, biopolymers in regenerative medicine.

Offers a complete and thorough treatment of biopolymers from synthesis strategies and physiochemical properties to applications in industrial and medical biotechnology
Discusses the most attracted biopolymers with wide and specific applications
Takes a systematic approach to the field which allows readers to grasp and implement strategies for biomedical and biotechnological applications

"Biopolymers for Biomedical and Biotechnological Applications" appeals to biotechnologists, bioengineers, and polymer chemists, as well as to those working in the biotechnological industry and institutes.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

1 Advances in Biocompatibility: A Prerequisite for Biomedical Application of Biopolymers 1
Matthew R. Jorgensen, Helin Räägel, and Thor S. Rollins

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Biocompatibility Evaluation of Biopolymeric Materials and Devices 2

1.3 Using a Risk-Based Approach to Biocompatibility 4

1.3.1 Chemistry of Biopolymers and Risk 6

1.3.2 Chemistry Screening of Biopolymers 7

1.4 Specific Biological Endpoint Evaluations 11

1.4.1 Cytotoxicity 11

1.4.2 Systemic Toxicity (Acute, Subacute, Subchronic, and Chronic) 12

1.4.3 Implantation 14

1.5 Conclusion 15

References 16

2 Advanced Microbial Polysaccharides 19
Filomena Freitas, Cristiana A.V. Torres, Diana Araújo, Inês Farinha, João R. Pereira, Patrícia Concórdio-Reis, and Maria A.M. Reis

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Functional Properties and Applications of Microbial Polysaccharides 20

2.3 Commercially Relevant Microbial Polysaccharides: Established Uses and Novel/Prospective Applications 22

2.3.1 Pullulan 22

2.3.2 Scleroglucan 23

2.3.3 Xanthan Gum 23

2.3.4 Dextrans 24

2.3.5 Curdlan 24

2.3.6 Gellan Gum 24

2.3.7 Levan 25

2.3.8 Hyaluronic Acid 25

2.4 Hydrogels Based on Microbial Polysaccharides 25

2.5 Bionanocomposites Based on Microbial Polysaccharides 29

2.6 Bioactive Polysaccharides from Microalgae: An Emerging Area 32

2.6.1 Polysaccharide-Producing Microalgae 33

2.6.2 Biological Activity and Potential Applications 33

2.6.2.1 Antiviral Activity 36

2.6.2.2 Immunomodulatory, Anti-inflammatory, and Anticancer Activities 36

2.6.2.3 Anticoagulant and Antithrombotic Activity 38

2.6.2.4 Antioxidant Activity 38

2.6.2.5 Other Biological Properties 39

2.6.3 Commercialization Prospects 39

2.7 Applications of Chitinous Polymers 40

2.7.1 Chitin, Chitosan, and Chitinous Polysaccharides 40

2.7.2 Properties of Chitinous Polysaccharides 41

2.7.3 Applications of Chitinous Polysaccharides 41

2.7.3.1 Biomedical Applications 42

2.7.3.2 Pharmaceutical Applications 43

2.7.3.3 Food Applications 43

2.7.3.4 Other Applications 43

2.8 Microbial Polysaccharides: A World of Opportunities 44

Acknowledgments 45

References 45

3 Microbial Cell Factories for Biomanufacturing of Polysaccharides 63
M. Fata Moradali and Bernd H.A. Rehm

3.1 Introduction 63

3.2 Prominent Microbial Polysaccharides and Their Properties and Applications 63

3.2.1 Xanthan and Acetan 64

3.2.2 Succinoglycan and Galactoglucan 64

3.2.3 Sphingan Polysaccharides 66

3.2.4 Pullulan 66

3.2.5 Cellulose and Curdlan 67

3.2.6 Alginates 67

3.2.7 Hyaluronic Acid or Hyaluronate 68

3.2.8 Dextrans 68

3.2.9 Levan and Inulin 69

3.3 Biosynthesis Pathways of Bacterial Polysaccharides 69

3.3.1 Genetic Background Required for Biosynthesis of Polysaccharides in Bacteria 70

3.3.2 Production of Active Precursor, Polymerization, and Polysaccharide Modifications 71

3.3.3 Regulatory Pathways and Posttranslational Modifications 72

3.4 Strategies for Engineering Cell Factories 76

3.4.1 Enhancement of Productivity upon the Energetic State of the Cell and Metabolites 77

3.4.2 Genetic and Metabolic Engineering of Cell Factories 78

3.4.3 Strategies for Optimizing Physicochemical Properties of Polysaccharides 79

3.4.4 Recombinant Production of Polysaccharides and Tailor-Made Products 83

3.5 Conclusion and Future Perspective 86

Acknowledgments 87

References 87

4 Exploitation of Exopolysaccharides from Lactic Acid Bacteria 103
Tsuda Harutoshi

4.1 Introduction 103

4.1.1 Lactic Acid Bacteria 103

4.1.2 Exopolysaccharides 103

4.1.3 Importance of PS Produced by LAB 105

4.2 Homo-PS 105

4.2.1 Biosynthesis 105

4.2.2 Composition and Structure 106

4.2.3 Instability of Homo-PS Production 106

4.3 Hetero-PS 111

4.3.1 Biosynthesis 111

4.3.2 Monosaccharides Composition of Hetero-PS 111

4.3.3 Yield of Hetero-PS 112

4.3.4 Instability of Hetero-PS Production 116

4.4 Prebiotic Activity 117

4.4.1 Commercial Prebiotic Oligosaccharides 117

4.4.2 Prebiotic Polysaccharides 118

4.4.3 Prebiotics in Japanese FOSHU 119

4.4.4 Prebiotics Produced by LAB 119

4.5 Conclusion 120

References 120

5 Nanocellulose: A New Biopolymer for Biomedical Application 129
Hippolyte Durand, Megan Smyth, and Julien Bras

5.1 Trends of Biobased Polymers in Biomedical Application 129

5.1.1 Introduction to Biomedical Engineering 130

5.1.2 Overview of Biobased Materials for Biomedical Applications 132

5.1.2.1 Biomaterials: A Definition 132

5.1.2.2 Biobased Polymers 135

5.1.2.3 Cellulose as a Biomaterial 138

5.2 Nanocellulose: Production, Characterization, Application, and Commercial Aspects 142

5.2.1 Isolation and Characterization of Nanocellulose Materials 143

5.2.1.1 Cellulose Nanocrystals 144

5.2.1.2 Cellulose Nanofibrils 145

5.2.1.3 Bacterial Nanocellulose (BNC) 149

5.2.2 Characterization of Cellulosic Nanomaterials (CNMs) 151

5.2.3 Industrialization of Nanocellulose: First and Upcoming Applications 153

5.2.4 Health and Toxicology: A Concern for CNM Development in Biomedical Field 154

5.2.5 Cellulose Nanofibrils and Medical Applications 164

5.3 Conclusions and Perspectives 170

References 170

6 Advances in Mucin Biopolymer Research: Purification, Characterization, and Applications 181
Matthias Marczynski, Benjamin Winkeljann, and Oliver Lieleg

6.1 Introduction 181

6.2 Mucin Sources and Purification Process 182

6.3 Structure–Function Relation of Mucins 185

6.4 Characterizing Mucins and Mucin-Based Materials 187

6.5 Biomedical Applications of Purified Mucins 190

6.5.1 Eye Drops or Contact Lens Coatings 190

6.5.2 Mouth Sprays 192

6.5.3 Artificial Joint Fluids 192

6.5.4 Coatings of Medical Devices 193

6.5.5 Components of Hydrogels for Drug Delivery 194

6.5.6 Molecular Standards for Lab Tests with Clinical Mucus Samples 194

6.6 Outlook: Engineered Mucins and Mucin-Mimetic Polymers 194

Acknowledgments 195

References 195

7 Advances in the Synthesis of Fibrous Proteins and Their Applications 209
Gang Wei, Xi Ma, Yaru Bai, Coucong Gong, and Yantu Zhang

7.1 Introduction 209

7.2 Synthesis, Structure, and Characterizations of Fibrous Protein Materials 210

7.2.1 Synthesis Methods 210

7.2.2 Structure 212

7.2.3 Characterizations 213

7.3 Applications of Fibrous Protein Materials 213

7.3.1 Bone Tissue Engineering 213

7.3.2 Biomedical Engineering 215

7.3.3 Sensors and Biosensors 216

7.3.4 Nanodevices 217

7.3.5 Energy Application 218

7.3.6 Environmental Application 220

7.4 Conclusions 223

Acknowledgments 224

References 224

8 Microbial Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs): From Synthetic Biology to Industrialization 231
Yuki Miyahara, Ayaka Hiroe, Shunsuke Sato, Takeharu Tsuge, and Seiichi Taguchi

8.1 Introduction 231

8.2 Synthetic Biology for Production of Kaneka PHBH 233

8.2.1 Isolation of Bacterium Producing Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) 233

8.2.2 Material Properties of PHBH 234

8.2.3 Industrial PHBH Production Process 235

8.2.4 Molecular Breeding of PHBH-Producing Bacteria 236

8.2.5 Precise Control of 3HHx Fraction by Genetic Modification of Ralstonia eutropha 238

8.2.6 Business Plan for Kaneka PHBH Industrialization 239

8.3 Synthetic Biology for Production of Medium-Chain-Length PHAs with Homogeneous Side-Chain Lengths (Homo-PHAs) 240

8.3.1 Copolymers Based on Medium-Chain-Length PHA Monomeric Constituents 240

8.3.2 Pathway Engineering for Homo-PHA Production 242

8.3.3 Improved Microbial Production of Homo-PHAs 243

8.3.4 Material Properties of Homo-PHAs 245

8.3.5 Integrated Production Process of Homo-PHAs from Renewable Feedstock 246

8.4 Synthetic Biology for Production of Lactate-Based Polymers 247

8.4.1 Creation of Lactate-Polymerizing Enzyme (LPE) 247

8.4.2 Biosynthesis of Lactate-Based Polymers 249

8.4.3 Integrated Production Process of Lactate-Based Polymers from Renewable Feedstock 251

8.4.4 Biosynthesized Lactate-Based Polymer Shows Superior Properties 253

8.5 Outlook 254

References 255

9 Natural and Synthetic Biopolymers in Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering 265
John D. Schneible, Michael A. Daniele, and Stefano Menegatti

9.1 Introduction 265

9.2 Synthetic and Natural Substrates 267

9.3 Applications of Natural and Synthetic Polypeptides 267

9.3.1 Drug Delivery Vehicles 267

9.3.2 Targeting Agents 273

9.3.3 Cell-Permeating Peptides 274

9.3.4 Peptides in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 276

9.4 Applications of Polysaccharides 280

9.4.1 Drug Delivery 280

9.4.2 Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 284

9.5 Conclusions and Future Outlook 290

References 290

10 Biopolymers in Regenerative Medicine: Overview, Current Advances, and Future Trends 357
Michael R. Behrens and Warren C. Ruder

10.1 Introduction 357

10.2 Biopolymer Scaffold Assembly 358

10.2.1 Hydrogel Biopolymer Scaffolds 358

10.2.2 Electrospinning of Biopolymer Scaffolds 360

10.2.3 Three-Dimensional Printing of Biopolymer Scaffolds 362

10.3 Organ System Specific Biopolymer Scaffolds 367

10.3.1 Biopolymers for Musculoskeletal System Regeneration 368

10.3.1.1 Biopolymers for Bone Regeneration 368

10.3.1.2 Biopolymers for Cartilage Regeneration 370

10.3.1.3 Biopolymers for Ligament and Tendon Regeneration 371

10.3.2 Biopolymers for Cardiovascular System Regeneration 372

10.3.2.1 Biopolymers for Vascular Regeneration 373

10.3.2.2 Biopolymers for Cardiac Regeneration 374

10.4 Summary and Outlook 376

References 377

Index 381

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M. Fata Moradali University of Louisville, USA. Bernd H. A. Rehm Griffith University, Australia.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown